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1.
Rev Neurol ; 71(6): 213-220, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutritional problems are common in children with neurological diseases, especially if they have significant motor impairment. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is very prevalent in these patients, and can contribute to worsening nutritional status and produce pulmonary aspirations. AIM: Longitudinal assessment of the nutritional status of a sample of pediatric patients with moderate-severe neurological disease and establish the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in that sample. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational multicenter prospective study was conducted. We included children under 16 years of age with moderate-to-severe neurological impairment from four hospitals, with clinical and anthropometric monitoring for one year. Questions were asked to conduct oropharyngeal dysphagia screening. RESULTS: Sixty-eight children were included, the main diagnosis obtained was cerebral palsy. In the anthropometric assessment, 42 patients (62%) showed weight z scores below -2, and 29 (43%) height z scores below -2, while body mass index, mid upper arm circumference and triceps and subscapular skinfolds remained less affected. We found an oropharyngeal dysphagia prevalence of 73.5% in our sample, increasing with greater motor impairment. CONCLUSIONS: These patients showed lower weight and height than children without neurological impairment. However, with a correct follow-up they remain stable with an adequate body composition. It is important to proactively investigate the presence of oropharyngeal dysphagia, especially in those with greater motor impairment, as it occurs very frequently and an adequate diagnosis can improve clinical evolution and prevent complications.

2.
Rev Neurol ; 71(2): 43-53, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: University students tend to suffer from problems of sleep regularity, quantity and quality, which can affect their academic performance. These problems are related to changes typical of the phase of the life cycle in which they find themselves due to maturational, psychosocial development (associated with the processes of individuation and socialisation) and academic factors. The study of the relationship between sleep and academic performance in university students is an area of research of growing interest, which has started to be studied over the last two decades. AIM: To conduct a systematic review of the existing literature on the relationship between sleep and academic performance in university students. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The articles included in the PubMed database were selected, following the PRISMA guidelines. Studies evaluating samples of subjects with an average age between 18 and 26 years, published in English or Spanish during the period 2000-2019 were included. Subsequently, the quality of the selected articles was evaluated according to the STROBE standard. RESULTS: Thirty studies were identified, which were grouped according to different aspects of sleep: drowsiness, duration, experience of total sleep deprivation, sleep quality, chronotype, regularity and sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: The results of these studies suggest that inadequate sleep has a negative effect on the academic performance of university students.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Worldwide, measures are being implemented to eradicate hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, which can be transmitted from the mother during childbirth. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV in pregnant women in Spain, focusing on country of origin, epidemiological factors and risk of vertical transmission (VT). METHODOLOGY: Multicentre open-cohort study performed during 2015. HBV prevalence was determined in 21870 pregnant women and HCV prevalence in 7659 pregnant women. Epidemiological and risk factors for VT were analysed in positive women and differences between HBV and HCV cases were studied. RESULTS: HBV prevalence was 0.42% (91/21870) and HCV prevalence was 0.26% (20/7659). Of the women with HBV, 65.7% (44/67) were migrants. The HBV transmission route to the mother was unknown in 40.3% of cases (27/67) and VT in 31.3% (21/67). Among risk factors for VT, 67.7% (42/62) of the women had viraemia and 14.5% (9/62) tested HBeAg-positive. All of the neonates born to HBV-positive mothers received immunoprophylaxis, and none contracted infection by VT. In 80% (16/20) of the women with HCV, the transmission route was parenteral, and nine were intravenous drug users. Viraemia was present in 40% (8/20) of the women and 10% (2/20) were HIV-coinfected. No children were infected. Women with HCV were less likely than women with HBV to breastfeed their child (65% vs. 86%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences obtained in our study of pregnant women are lower than those previously documented for the general population. Among the women with HBV, the majority were migrants and had a maternal family history of infection, while among those with HCV, the most common factor was intravenous drug use. Despite the risk factors observed for VT, none of the children were infected. Proper immunoprophylaxis is essential to prevent VT in children born to HBV-positive women.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha
4.
Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol ; 63(1): 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical results and radiographic findings after superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) of postero-superior symptomatic irreparable rotator cuff tears (PSIRCT) using a new SCR technique using autologous hamstring graft MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2014 to 2016, 8 shoulders of 8 patients (mean age 59.6 years) with PSIRCT underwent SCR using autologous hamstring graft. Physical examination, X-ray and MRI were performed before the surgery and 12 months after it. A descriptive analysis was performed of the variables, and the non-parametric test of signs comparing the measurements taken before the operation and 12 months after it. RESULTS: We found an improvement in the Constant test from 49 before the SCR to 77.25 one year after the operation. The mean active flexion significantly increased from 99.3° to 142.5°. The mean preoperative AH distance increased from 5.25 (range from 3 to 7) before surgery to 8.18 (range from 6 to 10.5) after the SCR. There were no tears of the graft during follow-up. CONCLUSION: SCR with a hamstring graft improves the function of the shoulder in PSIRCT, and is an alternative technique for treating these injuries without closing the door to other types of surgery.


Assuntos
Tendões dos Músculos Isquiotibiais/transplante , Cápsula Articular/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Articulação do Ombro/lesões , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323038

RESUMO

Although the Sensititre Yeast-One (SYO) and Etest methods are widely utilized, interpretive criteria are not available for triazole susceptibility testing of Candida or Aspergillus species. We collected fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole SYO and Etest MICs from 39 laboratories representing all continents for (method/agent-dependent) 11,171 Candida albicans, 215 C. dubliniensis, 4,418 C. glabrata species complex, 157 C. guilliermondii (Meyerozyma guilliermondii), 676 C. krusei (Pichia kudriavzevii), 298 C. lusitaniae (Clavispora lusitaniae), 911 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 3,691 C. parapsilosis species complex, 36 C. metapsilosis, 110 C. orthopsilosis, 1,854 C. tropicalis, 244 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1,409 Aspergillus fumigatus, 389 A. flavus, 130 A. nidulans, 233 A. niger, and 302 A. terreus complex isolates. SYO/Etest MICs for 282 confirmed non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates were included: ERG11 (C. albicans), ERG11 and MRR1 (C. parapsilosis), cyp51A (A. fumigatus), and CDR2 and CDR1 overexpression (C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively). Interlaboratory modal agreement was superior by SYO for yeast species and by the Etest for Aspergillus spp. Distributions fulfilling CLSI criteria for epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) definition were pooled, and we proposed SYO ECVs for S. cerevisiae and 9 yeast and 3 Aspergillus species and Etest ECVs for 5 yeast and 4 Aspergillus species. The posaconazole SYO ECV of 0.06 µg/ml for C. albicans and the Etest itraconazole ECV of 2 µg/ml for A. fumigatus were the best predictors of non-WT isolates. These findings support the need for method-dependent ECVs, as, overall, the SYO appears to perform better for susceptibility testing of yeast species and the Etest appears to perform better for susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. Further evaluations should be conducted with more Candida mutants.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus/classificação , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
6.
Am J Infect Control ; 45(12): 1356-1362, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report describes a double outbreak of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effectiveness of measures implemented, including decontamination with vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP). METHODS: Affected patients were isolated in a confined area and cared for by dedicated personnel. Four percent chlorhexidine soap was used for patient daily hygiene. All patients are subjected to contact precautions. An in-depth cleaning of the ICU was performed with a chlorine solution, followed by decontamination with VHP. Environmental samples were taken before and after the decontamination. RESULTS: From July-October 2015, 13 patients were colonized or infected by OXA-48-PE and 18 by MRAB in the ICU. The cumulative incidence of OXA-48-PE and MRAB was 3.48% and 4.81%, respectively. In the period after the intervention, they were 0.8% and 0%, respectively (P < .001). Before the VHP biodecontamination, 4.5% of environmental samples were positive for OXA-48-PE and none for MRAB. After biodecontamination, 1.4% of samples were positive for OXA-48-PE. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the importance of environmental hygiene in the control of outbreaks caused by microorganisms of high environmental impact. The rapid effect after the VHP treatment suggests an influence of this measure in eradication.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Acinetobacter/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volatilização
7.
Talanta ; 158: 6-13, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343571

RESUMO

A new automatic bioanalyzer for L-malic acid using an integrated amperometric biosensor as detector is reported for the first time in this work. The biosensor is constructed by gold film sputtering deposition on a stainless steel disk electrode and co-immobilization of the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and diaphorase (DP) together with the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) by means of dialysis membrane. The analytical performance of the biosensor was evaluated when it was used as amperometric detector in three different analytical methodologies: stirred solutions, semiautomatic FIA system and automatic bioanalyzer. The bienzyme biosensor exhibited great analytical performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility of the measurements and its usefulness was demonstrated by analyzing wine reference materials with certified content of L-malic acid. The attractive analytical and operational characteristics demonstrated by the automatic bioanalyzer make it a promising simple, rapid and field-based tool for routine wine and fruit control.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Malatos/análise , Vinho/análise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Malato Desidrogenase/química , Malatos/química , NADH Desidrogenase/química
8.
Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol ; 35(6): 351-357, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132216

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the value of 99mTc-MIBI double-phase scintigraphy (DPS) and early SPECT/CT in the pre-surgical assessment of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Also, to calculate the correlation between uptake and some biological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with PHPT were included: 37 solitary adenomas, 1 hyperplasia, and 2 double adenomas. Fifteen patients had ectopic glands. DPS and early SPECT/CT were acquired in all patients. Ultrasound was performed in 31/40. All patients underwent surgery, intra-operative iPTH measurements, and histopathological examinations. Qualitative DPS uptake was assessed and correlated to pre-surgical calcium, iPTH levels, gland weight, and maximum diameter. RESULTS: In the planar study, there were 23 positive cases, 8 doubtful, and 9 negatives. With the SPECT/CT, 8/9 negatives cases were located. All doubtful cases were confirmed as positives. Gland location improved in 16 cases (12 ectopic). DPS+SPECT/CT failed to detect a solitary adenoma and at least one gland in three cases of multiglandular disease (MGD). The sensitivity by patient was: DPS 72.5%, DPS+SPECT/CT 90%, and ultrasound 42%. Ultrasound and scintigraphy (DPS+SPECT/CT) were concordant in 16/31 patients. For the rest of them, scintigraphy proved correct in 14/15, and both techniques failed in one case. There was a significant correlation between level of uptake and iPTH level, gland weight, and maximum diameter. CONCLUSION: Early SPECT/CT improves sensitivity and the locating of parathyroid pathological glands and increases diagnostic confidence. iPTH level, glandular size, and weight are related to the qualitative assessment of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in early DPS.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi/farmacocinética
9.
Oecologia ; 181(4): 1055-67, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27106851

RESUMO

Air pollution represents a threat to biodiversity throughout the world and particularly in the Mediterranean area, where high tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are frequently recorded. Mediterranean annual pastures are among the most important ecosystems in southern Europe due to their high biodiversity and extension. Aiming to study the responses of these communities to the main atmospheric pollutants in the Mediterranean region, an experimental study was performed in an open-top chamber (OTC) facility. A mixture of six species representative of annual pastures was grown under field conditions inside the OTC. Plants were exposed for 39 days to four O3 treatments and three doses of N. The species responded heterogeneously to both factors. Legumes did not react to N but were very sensitive to O3: Trifolium species responded negatively, while Ornithopus responded positively, taking advantage of the greater sensitivity of clovers to O3. The grasses and the herb were more tolerant of O3 and grasses were the most responsive to N. Significant interactions between factors indicated a loss of effectiveness of N in O3-polluted atmospheres and an ability of O3 to counterbalance the damage induced by N input, but both effects were dependent on O3 and N levels. The inclusion of plant competition in the experimental design was necessary to reveal results that would otherwise be missed, such as the positive growth responses under elevated O3 levels. Surprisingly, competition within the legume family played the most important role in the overall response of the annual community to O3. Both tropospheric O3 and N deposition should be considered important drivers of the structure and biodiversity of Mediterranean annual pastures.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Ozônio/farmacologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera , Ecossistema , Plantas
10.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol ; 91(8): 385-90, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27012183

RESUMO

OBJETIVE: To determine whether vitrectomised eyes have a higher lens optical density, when measured with a Scheimpflug camera, compared to non-vitrectomised eyes. METHOD: The peak and linear Scheimpflug optical density (DOS), and area of both eyes were measured in a sample size of 81 vitrectomised phakic patients. A comparison was made between the DOS of the vitrectomised eye lens and the contralateral non-vitrectomised eye using the Student-t test. RESULTS: A significantly higher linear DOS and area was obtained in the 81 vitrectomised phakic eyes when compared to the non-vitrectomised eyes (P<.001). The peak DOS is not significantly increased in respect to non-vitrectomised eyes (P=.59). CONCLUSIONS: The lens DOS in vitrectomised eyes is higher than in non-vitrectomised eyes. The importance of the vitreous in the maintenance of lens transparency is emphasised.


Assuntos
Cristalino , Refratometria , Vitrectomia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/etiologia , Extração de Catarata , Estudos Transversais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Corpo Vítreo/fisiologia
11.
Talanta ; 152: 147-54, 2016 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992505

RESUMO

An integrated amperometric d-lactic acid biosensor involving a gold film deposited by sputtering on a stainless steel disk electrode where the enzymes D-lactic acid dehydrogenase (DLDH) and diaphorase (DP) as well as the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) are coimmobilized by using a dialysis membrane, is reported in this work. Amperometry in stirred solutions at a detection potential of +0.15 V (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) provided a linear calibration plot for D-lactic acid over the 1.0×10(-4) to 3.8×10(-3) g L(-1) concentration range, with a limit of detection of 3.1×10(-5) g L(-1). The usefulness of the biosensor was demonstrated by determining D-lactic acid in beer samples with good results. Additionally, the biosensor was implemented together with a commercial L-lactic amperometric biosensor in a semiautomatic flow-injection analysis (FIA) system able to perform a rapid and simple stereo-specific determination of D- and D-lactic without a previous separation step. The operational characteristics of the biosensors under flow conditions were evaluated and its applicability was demonstrated through the simultaneous determination of both enantiomers in beer samples.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Análise de Injeção de Fluxo/métodos , Ácido Láctico/química , Automação , Di-Hidrolipoamida Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Eletroquímica , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/análise , Limite de Detecção , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 914: 53-61, 2016 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965327

RESUMO

A non-destructive, rapid and simple to use sensing method for direct determination of glucose in non-processed fruits is described. The strategy involved on-line microdialysis sampling coupled with a continuous flow system with amperometric detection at an enzymatic biosensor. Apart from direct determination of glucose in fruit juices and blended fruits, this work describes for the first time the successful application of an enzymatic biosensor-based electrochemical approach to the non-invasive determination of glucose in raw fruits. The methodology correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from glucose in non-processed fruits with its content in % (w/w). The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed approach in different fruits with those provided by other method involving the same commercial biosensor as amperometric detector in stirred solutions pointed out that there were no significant differences. Moreover, in comparison with other available methodologies, this microdialysis-coupled continuous flow system amperometric biosensor-based procedure features straightforward sample preparation, low cost, reduced assay time (sampling rate of 7 h(-1)) and ease of automation.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Enzimas/química , Frutas/química , Glucose/análise , Microdiálise
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 68: 521-528, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25636025

RESUMO

In this work, we report the modification of a gold electrode with undoped diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) and its applicability to the fabrication of electrochemical biosensing platforms. DNPs were immobilized onto a gold electrode by direct adsorption and the electrochemical behavior of the resulting DNPs/Au platform was studied. Four well-defined peaks were observed corresponding to the DNPs oxidation/reduction at the underlying gold electrode, which demonstrate that, although undoped DNPs have an insulating character, they show electrochemical activity as a consequence of the presence of different functionalities with unsaturated bonding on their surface. In order to develop a DNPs-based biosensing platform, we have selected glucose oxidase (GOx), as a model enzyme. We have performed an exhaustive study of the different steps involved in the biosensing platform preparation (DNPs/Au and GOx/DNPs/Au systems) by atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The glucose biosensor shows a good electrocatalytic response in the presence of (hydroxymethyl)ferrocene as redox mediator. Once the suitability of the prototype system to determine glucose was verified, in a second step, we prepared a similar biosensor, but employing the enzyme lactate oxidase (LOx/DNPs/Au). As far as we know, this is the first electrochemical biosensor for lactate determination that includes DNPs as nanomaterial. A linear concentration range from 0.05 mM to 0.7 mM, a sensitivity of 4.0 µA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 15 µM were obtained.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glucose/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Láctico/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Glucose/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Ouro/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
15.
Drug Deliv ; 22(6): 869-76, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24670096

RESUMO

Tricyclic antidepressants, as doxepin hydrochloride (DH), may have analgesic local effect due to its biochemical mechanism of action. Delivery of DH directly to the oral cavity could be an interesting alternative for toothache due to its analgesic local effect. One problem associated with the mucosal administration routes is the short residence time of the dosage form on the mucosal membranes. In this sense, we have developed new doxepin mucoadhesive films able of reducing pain and increasing the effectiveness of treatment. For this purpose, we tested three different polymers: chitosan, sodium hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) in film elaboration. The results obtained show that all films are hydrophilic matrices that absorb water when placed in an aqueous media. All the films hydrated very quickly, reaching high percentage of swelling after just few minutes (5 min for SCMC, 2 min for HPMC and 30 min for chitosan). Moreover, the SCMC and HPMC films were dissolved whereas chitosan was not dissolved. Dissolution also leads to viscous liquids with a higher retention time over mucosal surfaces what may lead to adhesive interactions. In vitro permeation studies showed that for all the formulations studied, SCMC (19.91%), HPMC (69.5%) and chitosan (24.17%), the percentage of drug permeated increased compared to the drug solution (8.26%). Specifically the HPMC film presents greater amounts of doxepin permeated (49.27 ± 4.47 µg/cm(2)).


Assuntos
Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/administração & dosagem , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Quitosana/química , Doxepina/administração & dosagem , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Odontalgia/tratamento farmacológico , Adesividade , Administração Bucal , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Química Farmacêutica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(4): 10510-7, 2014 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25511034

RESUMO

The genus Lupinus is widely distributed. Its seeds are used for animal and human food, and Lupinus possesses pharmacological potential because of its high content of quinolizidine alkaloids and flavonoids; however, there is little available information about its genotoxicity. We used the comet assay and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (clone 4430) to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity of 4 concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) of alkaloid extracts of Lupinus mexicanus and Lupinus montanus, flavonoids of L. mexicanus, and commercial sparteine; nitrosodiethylamine was used as a positive control and untreated nuclei were used as a negative control. All concentrations of L. mexicanus and L. montanus showed significant genotoxic activity (P ≤ 0.05). A similar behavior was observed for flavonoid extracts of L. montanus except the 1.0 mM concentration. Sparteine showed genotoxic activity only at 0.5 mM. The order of genotoxicity of the compounds studied was as follows: L. mexicanus > L. montanus > flavonoids of L. montanus > sparteine. There is evident genotoxic activity in the compounds that were studied, particularly at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 mM). Given the limited information about the genotoxicity of the compounds of L. mexicanus and L. montanus, further studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Lupinus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esparteína/farmacologia , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/genética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Quinolizidinas/química , Sementes/química , Esparteína/efeitos adversos , Esparteína/química , Tradescantia/genética
18.
Int J Pharm ; 467(1-2): 84-9, 2014 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24699354

RESUMO

Fast dissolving disintegrating tablets (FDDTs) containing different dosages of melatonin have been manufactured for administration to a specific target population: pediatric patients, having potential difficulties taking other oral forms. The lower dosages (3 and 5mg) are intended for epileptic children, migraine prevention, neurodevelopmental disability, sleep disorders and blindness. Dosages of 10 and 60 mg are intended for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Two FDDT groups have been designed, one which has excipients for direct compression and others having direct compression and effervescent excipients. Tablets have been produced having disintegration times of less than 25s and with friability and hardness values that require no special storage or packaging conditions.


Assuntos
Melatonina/química , Química Farmacêutica , Excipientes/química , Dureza , Testes de Dureza , Cinética , Solubilidade , Comprimidos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos
19.
J Exp Biol ; 217(Pt 3): 395-401, 2014 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24477612

RESUMO

The wolf spider Lycosa tarantula homes using path integration. The angular component of the displacement is measured using a polarized-light compass associated with the functioning of the anterior median eyes. However, how L. tarantula estimates the linear component of the displacement was not known prior to this investigation. The ability of L. tarantula to gauge the distance walked after being displaced from its burrow was investigated using experimental channels placed in an indoor setup. Firstly, we manipulated the perception of visual stimuli by covering all the spider's eyes. Secondly, we changed the optic flow supplied by a black-and-white grating (λ=2 cm) perceived either in the lateral or in the ventral field of view. Finally, the period of the lateral or ventral grating was changed from λ=2 cm to λ=1 cm. Our results indicate that visual information contributes to distance estimation because when the spider's eyes were covered, the spiders tended to search for the burrow at very variable distances. This visual information is created by the motion of the image as the spider walks, the motion in the lateral field of view being the most important. The preference of a lateral optic flow over the ventral flow can be explained by the difference in the resolution capacity of the posterior lateral eyes and the anterior lateral eyes.


Assuntos
Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fluxo Óptico , Orientação , Visão Ocular
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