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1.
Aging Cell ; 19(1): e13063, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730262

RESUMO

Composition of the gut microbiota changes during ageing, but questions remain about whether age is also associated with deficits in microbiome function and whether these changes occur sharply or progressively. The ability to define these deficits in populations of different ages may help determine a chronological age threshold at which deficits occur and subsequently identify innovative dietary strategies for active and healthy ageing. Here, active gut microbiota and associated metabolic functions were evaluated using shotgun proteomics in three well-defined age groups consisting of 30 healthy volunteers, namely, ten infants, ten adults and ten elderly individuals. Samples from each volunteer at intervals of up to 6 months (n = 83 samples) were used for validation. Ageing gradually increases the diversity of gut bacteria that actively synthesize proteins, that is by 1.4-fold from infants to elderly individuals. An analysis of functional deficits consistently identifies a relationship between tryptophan and indole metabolism and ageing (p < 2.8e-8 ). Indeed, the synthesis of proteins involved in tryptophan and indole production and the faecal concentrations of these metabolites are directly correlated (r2  > .987) and progressively decrease with age (r2  > .948). An age threshold for a 50% decrease is observed ca. 11-31 years old, and a greater than 90% reduction is observed from the ages of 34-54 years. Based on recent investigations linking tryptophan with abundance of indole and other "healthy" longevity molecules and on the results from this small cohort study, dietary interventions aimed at manipulating tryptophan deficits since a relatively "young" age of 34 and, particularly, in the elderly are recommended.

2.
PeerJ ; 7: e7928, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637144

RESUMO

Background: Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is a highly infectious tobamovirus that causes severe disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops. In Italy, the first ToBRFV outbreak occurred in 2018 in several provinces of the Sicily region. ToBRFV outbreak represents a serious threat for tomato crops in Italy and the Mediterranean Basin. Methods: Molecular and biological characterisation of the Sicilian ToBRFV ToB-SIC01/19 isolate was performed, and a sensitive and specific Real-time RT-PCR TaqMan minor groove binder probe method was developed to detect ToBRFV in infected plants and seeds. Moreover, four different sample preparation procedures (immunocapture, total RNA extraction, direct crude extract and leaf-disk crude extract) were evaluated. Results: The Sicilian isolate ToB-SIC01/19 (6,391 nt) showed a strong sequence identity with the isolates TBRFV-P12-3H and TBRFV-P12-3G from Germany, Tom1-Jo from Jordan and TBRFV-IL from Israel. The ToB-SIC01/19 isolate was successfully transmitted by mechanical inoculations in S. lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L., but no transmission occurred in S. melongena L. The developed real-time RT-PCR, based on the use of a primer set designed on conserved sequences in the open reading frames3, enabled a reliable quantitative detection. This method allowed clear discrimination of ToBRFV from other viruses belonging to the genus Tobamovirus, minimising false-negative results. Using immunocapture and total RNA extraction procedures, the real-time RT-PCR and end-point RT-PCR gave the same comparable results. Using direct crude extracts and leaf-disk crude extracts, the end-point RT-PCR was unable to provide a reliable result. This developed highly specific and sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay will be a particularly valuable tool for early ToBRFV diagnosis, optimising procedures in terms of costs and time.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(10): 1333-1347, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Large variability among Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases might impact genetic discoveries and complicate dissection of underlying biological pathways. METHODS: Genome Research at Fundacio ACE (GR@ACE) is a genome-wide study of dementia and its clinical endophenotypes, defined based on AD's clinical certainty and vascular burden. We assessed the impact of known AD loci across endophenotypes to generate loci categories. We incorporated gene coexpression data and conducted pathway analysis per category. Finally, to evaluate the effect of heterogeneity in genetic studies, GR@ACE series were meta-analyzed with additional genome-wide association study data sets. RESULTS: We classified known AD loci into three categories, which might reflect the disease clinical heterogeneity. Vascular processes were only detected as a causal mechanism in probable AD. The meta-analysis strategy revealed the ANKRD31-rs4704171 and NDUFAF6-rs10098778 and confirmed SCIMP-rs7225151 and CD33-rs3865444. DISCUSSION: The regulation of vasculature is a prominent causal component of probable AD. GR@ACE meta-analysis revealed novel AD genetic signals, strongly driven by the presence of clinical heterogeneity in the AD series.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis causes the most prevalent bacterial Sexual Transmitted Infection. In pregnant women, untreated chlamydial infections are associated with abortions, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum endometritis, low birth weight and transmission to the newborn. In Córdoba, Argentina, there is little knowledge about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, so, the aim of this study was to evaluate Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and genotypes present in Cordovan pregnant women with different age and socioeconomic status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Design: prospective study. Settings: Women population from Cordoba city, Argentina. Population: Pregnant women having 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. Methods: Five hundred and nine cervical swabs were collected. Each sample was subjected to DNA extraction and PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis using primers NRO/NLO and CTP1/CTP2. Positives samples were sequenced to determine genotype. Main outcome measures: Demographic data of the patients were collected to detect a population at risk for this infection. RESULTS: A prevalence of 6.9% (35/509) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection was detected, with 32/295 and 3/214 from pregnant women with low or better economic resources respectively (p = 0,0001). Results showed a significantly increased rate of 11.6% (30/258) in women under 25 years compared with 2% (5/251) in patients over that age (p = 0,00003). Genotype E was the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: With these results, we can say that pregnant women under 25 years old and low economic resources are one of the populations in which the screening programs of Chlamydia trachomatis should focus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2015: 195-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222705

RESUMO

To dissect the host RNA silencing response incited by citrus tristeza virus (CTV, genus Closterovirus), a (+) ssRNA of ~19300 nt, and the counter reaction deployed by the virus via its three RNA silencing suppressors (RSS), the small RNAs (sRNAs) of three virus-host combinations were deep sequenced. The subsequent analysis indicated that CTV sRNAs (1) constitute more than half of the total sRNAs in the susceptible Mexican lime and sweet orange, while only 3.5% in the restrictive sour orange; (2) are mostly of 21-22 nt, with those of (+) sense predominating slightly; and (3) derive from all the CTV genome, as evidenced by its entire recomposition from viral sRNA contigs but adopt an asymmetric pattern with a hotspot mapping at the 3'-terminal ~2500 nt. The citrus homologues of Arabidopsis Dicer-like (DCL) 4 and 2 most likely generate the 21 and 22 nt CTV sRNAs, respectively, by dicing the gRNA and the 3' co-terminal sgRNAs and, particularly, their double-stranded forms accumulating in infected cells. The plant sRNA profile, very similar and dominated by the 24 nt sRNAs in the three mock-inoculated controls, displayed a major reduction of the 24 nt sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange, but not in sour orange. CTV infection also influences the levels of certain microRNAs.The high accumulation of CTV sRNAs in two of the citrus hosts examined suggests that it is not their synthesis, but their function, the target of the RSS encoded by CTV: p25 (intercellular), p23 (intracellular) and p20 (both). The two latter might block the loading of CTV sRNAs into the RNA silencing complex or interfere with it through alternative mechanisms. Of the three CTV RSS, p23 is the one that has been more thoroughly studied. It is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein with a putative Zn finger domain and basic motifs that (1) has no homologues in other closteroviruses, (2) accumulates in the nucleolus and plasmodesmata, (3) regulates the asymmetric balance of CTV (+) and (-) RNA strands, and (4) induces CTV syndromes and stimulates systemic infection in certain citrus species when expressed as a transgene ectopically or in phloem-associated cells.

6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 340, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425636

RESUMO

The role of genetic risk markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in mediating the neurocognitive endophenotypes (NEs) of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between well-known AD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and individual NEs routinely evaluated during diagnosis of MCI, AD, and other dementias. The Fundació ACE (ACE) dataset, comprising information from 1245 patients with MCI, was analyzed, including the total sample, amnestic MCI (aMCI) (n = 811), and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) (n = 434). As probable-MCI (Pr-MCI) patients with memory impairment have a higher risk of AD, which could influence the statistical power to detect genetic associations, the MCI phenotype was also stratified into four related conditions: Pr-aMCI (n = 262), Pr-naMCI (n = 76), possible (Pss)-aMCI (n = 549), and Pss-naMCI (n = 358). Validation analyses were performed using data from the German study on Aging, Cognition, and Dementia in primary care patients (AgeCoDe), and the German Dementia Competence Network (DCN). SNP associations with NEs were calculated in PLINK using multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and education. In the total MCI sample, APOE-ε4 was significantly associated with the memory function NEs "delayed recall (DR)" (ß = -0.76, p = 4.1 × 10-10), "learning" (ß = -1.35, p = 2.91 × 10-6), and "recognition memory" (ß = -0.58, p = 9.67 × 10-5); and with "DR" in the aMCI group (ß = -0.36, p = 2.96 × 10-5). These results were confirmed by validation in the AgeCoDe (n = 503) and DCN (n = 583) datasets. APOE-ε4 was also significantly associated with the NE "learning" in individuals classified as having Pss-aMCI (ß = -1.37, p = 5.82 × 10-5). Moreover, there was a near study-wide significant association between the HS3ST1 locus (rs6448799) and the "backward digits" working memory NE (ß = 0.52, p = 7.57 × 10-5) among individuals with Pr-aMCI, while the AP2A2 locus (rs10751667) was significantly associated with the language NE "repetition" (ß = -0.19, p = 5.34 × 10-6). Overall, our findings support specific associations of established AD-associated SNPs with MCI NEs.

7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 98(4-5): 363-373, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392159

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Citrus tristeza virus encodes a unique protein, p23, with multiple functional roles that include co-option of the cytoplasmic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase to facilitate the viral infectious cycle. The genome of citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus family Closteroviridae, is a single-stranded (+) RNA potentially encoding at least 17 proteins. One (p23), an RNA-binding protein of 209 amino acids with a putative Zn-finger and some basic motifs, displays singular features: (i) it has no homologues in other closteroviruses, (ii) it accumulates mainly in the nucleolus and Cajal bodies, and in plasmodesmata, and (iii) it mediates asymmetric accumulation of CTV RNA strands, intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, induction of some CTV syndromes and enhancement of systemic infection when expressed as a transgene ectopically or in phloem-associated cells in several Citrus spp. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screening of an expression library of Nicotiana benthamiana (a symptomatic experimental host for CTV), identified a transducin/WD40 domain protein and the cytosolic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as potential host interactors with p23. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation corroborated the p23-GAPDH interaction in planta and showed that p23 interacts with itself in the nucleolus, Cajal bodies and plasmodesmata, and with GAPDH in the cytoplasm (forming aggregates) and in plasmodesmata. The latter interaction was preserved in a p23 deletion mutant affecting the C-terminal domain, but not in two others affecting the Zn-finger and one internal basic motif. Virus-induced gene silencing of GAPDH mRNA resulted in a decrease of CTV titer as revealed by real-time RT-quantitative PCR and RNA gel-blot hybridization. Thus, like other viruses, CTV seems to co-opt GAPDH, via interaction with p23, to facilitate its infectious cycle.


Assuntos
Citrus/virologia , Closterovirus/enzimologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Closterovirus/genética , Closterovirus/fisiologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microscopia Confocal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plasmodesmos/virologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Tabaco/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia
8.
Oncotarget ; 9(37): 24590-24600, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872490

RESUMO

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on chromosome 19q13.32, was the first, and remains the strongest, genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional signals associated with AD have been located in chromosome 19, including ABCA7 (19p13.3) and CD33 (19q13.41). The ABCA7 gene has been replicated in most populations. However, the contribution to AD of other signals close to APOE gene remains controversial. Possible explanations for inconsistency between reports include long range linkage disequilibrium (LRLD). We analysed the contribution of ABCA7 and CD33 loci to AD risk and explore LRLD patterns across APOE region. To evaluate AD risk conferred by ABCA7 rs4147929:G>A and CD33 rs3865444:C>A, we used a large Spanish population (1796 AD cases, 2642 controls). The ABCA7 rs4147929:G>A SNP effect was nominally replicated in the Spanish cohort and reached genome-wide significance after meta-analysis (odds ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.12-1.19; P = 1.60 x 10-19). CD33 rs3865444:C>A was not associated with AD in the dataset. The meta-analysis was also negative (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.93-1.04; P=0.48). After exploring LRLD patterns between APOE and CD33 in several datasets, we found significant LD (D' >0.20; P <0.030) between APOE-Ɛ2 and CD33 rs3865444C>A in two of five datasets, suggesting the presence of a non-universal long range interaction between these loci affecting to some populations. In conclusion, we provide here evidence of genetic association of the ABCA7 locus in the Spanish population and also propose a plausible explanation for the controversy on the contribution of CD33 to AD susceptibility.

9.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(6): 1596-1606, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893833

RESUMO

Pneumocystis species are ascomycete fungi adapted to live inside the lungs of mammals. These ascomycetes show extensive stenoxenism, meaning that each species of Pneumocystis infects a single species of host. Here, we study the effect exerted by natural selection on gene evolution in the genomes of three Pneumocystis species. We show that genes involved in host interaction evolve under positive selection. In the first place, we found strong evidence of episodic diversifying selection in Major surface glycoproteins (Msg). These proteins are located on the surface of Pneumocystis and are used for host attachment and probably for immune system evasion. Consistent with their function as antigens, most sites under diversifying selection in Msg code for residues with large relative surface accessibility areas. We also found evidence of positive selection in part of the cell machinery used to export Msg to the cell surface. Specifically, we found that genes participating in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis show an increased rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) versus synonymous substitutions (dS). GPI is a molecule synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum that is used to anchor proteins to membranes. We interpret the aforementioned findings as evidence of selective pressure exerted by the host immune system on Pneumocystis species, shaping the evolution of Msg and several proteins involved in GPI biosynthesis. We suggest that genome evolution in Pneumocystis is well described by the Red-Queen hypothesis whereby genes relevant for biotic interactions show accelerated rates of evolution.


Assuntos
Biota/genética , Pneumocystis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Seleção Genética/genética
11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(5): 634-643, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has been proposed as a potential preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, the genetic and biomarker profiles of SCD individuals remain mostly unexplored. METHODS: We evaluated apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4's effect in the risk of presenting SCD, using the Fundacio ACE Healthy Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) SCD cohort and Spanish controls, and performed a meta-analysis addressing the same question. We assessed the relationship between APOE dosage and brain amyloid burden in the FACEHBI SCD and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohorts. RESULTS: Analysis of the FACEHBI cohort and the meta-analysis demonstrated SCD individuals presented higher allelic frequencies of APOE ε4 with respect to controls. APOE dosage explained 9% (FACEHBI cohort) and 11% (FACEHBI and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohorts) of the variance of cerebral amyloid levels. DISCUSSION: The FACEHBI sample presents APOE ε4 enrichment, suggesting that a pool of AD patients is nested in our sample. Cerebral amyloid levels are partially explained by the APOE allele dosage, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic factors are involved in this AD endophenotype.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Amiloide/sangue , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Alelos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
12.
Index enferm ; 26(1/2): 91-95, ene.-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167074

RESUMO

El propósito de la educación en Enfermería es formar profesionales con actitudes, habilidades y conocimientos necesarios para llevar a cabo sus funciones de manera eficiente. Cada vez hay mayor demanda de profesionales de enfermería más competentes para el manejo de información, uso de nuevas tecnologías y aplicación de intervenciones complejas en el cuidado de las personas en diferentes entornos de cuidado. Para dar respuesta a esta demanda, desde la Escuela Superior de Ciencias de la Salud Tecnocampus, se apuesta por modelo de Practicum avanzado más integrador y acorde a la formación teórica y práctica, que permita al estudiante una visión holística, ya no tanto de las patologías concretas, sino de los procesos asistenciales en forma de itinerarios. El trabajo que aquí se presenta tiene el objetivo de dar a conocer este modelo y las herramientas evaluadoras del estudiante utilizadas durante el mismo


The purpose of the Nursing Education is to train nurses with skills, attitudes, aptitudes and knowledge to enable them to develop their function in an efficient manner. An increasing demand of nurses more competent to a data-management system, to use new technologies and application of complex interventions on different places of nursing care, is requested. To respond to this demand, the Escuela Superior de Ciencias de la Salud Tecnocampus (ESCST), has been emphasized for an advanced and integrative Practicum Model in accordance with the theoretical and practical training, that it enables students to have an holistic view. Not just of specific pathologies, but also the assistance processes by means of form of itinerary. The work that is presented has the aim to make know this model and which are evaluation tools that are used during the development for the assessment of student's practical training


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Enfermagem/tendências , Aprendizagem , Competência Profissional , Estágio Clínico/tendências , Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/educação , Avaliação Educacional , Modelos Educacionais
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 44(1): 63-66, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447244

RESUMO

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare disorder associated with increased risk for thrombosis and reduced life expectancy. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a frequent cause of vision loss but its relationship with PNH has not been studied systematically. Patients followed up for RVO in our ophthalmology department were screened for the presence of a PNH clone in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. The presence of other well-documented risk factors for RVO was also analyzed. In a series of 110 patients (54 males, median age of 67) we found no evidence of PNH. Most patients (97/110) had cardiovascular risk factors and/or hyperhomocysteinemia (67/110). Inherited thrombophilias were rare (three confirmed cases). Therefore, PNH does not appear to play a role in the development of RVO. However, this finding does not necessarily apply to young patients and/or those with no conventional risk factors for RVO, due to the low number of patients in these subgroups in our population.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/sangue , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/complicações , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/terapia , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/sangue , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/sangue , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/etiologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/terapia , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 57(2): 447-459, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269787

RESUMO

The probable-amnestic (Pr-a) mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-storage subtype is a phenotype with 8.5 times more risk of conversion to dementia, mainly Alzheimer's disease (AD), than the possible non-amnestic (Pss-na) MCI. The aim of this study was to find the optimized cognitive composites (CCs) domain scores most related to neuroimaging biomarkers within Pr-aMCI-storage subtype patients. The Fundació ACE (ACE) study with 20 Pr-aMCI-storage subtype subjects (MCI) were analyzed. All subjects underwent a neuropsychological assessment, a structural MRI, FDG-PET, and PIB-PET. The adjusted hippocampal volume (aHV) on MRI, the standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) on FDG-PET and PIB-PET SUVR measures were analyzed. The construction of the CCs domain scores, and the aHV on MRI and FDG-PET SUVR measures, were replicated in the parental AB255 study database (n = 133 MCI). Partial correlations adjusted by age, gender, and education were calculated with the associated p-value among every CC domain score and the neuroimaging biomarkers. The results were replicated in the "MCI due to AD" with memory storage impairments from ADNI. Delayed Recall CC domain score was significantly correlated with PIB-PET SUVR (ß= -0.61, p = 0.003) in the ACE study and also with aHV on MRI (ß= 0.27, p = 0.01) and FDG-PET SUVR (ß= 0.27, p = 0.01) in the AB255 study. After a median survival time of 20.6 months, 85% from the ACE MCI converted to AD. The replication of our results in the ADNI dataset also confirmed our findings. Delayed Recall is the CC domain score best correlated with neuroimaging biomarkers associated with prodromal AD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Compostos de Anilina , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Neuroimagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tiazóis
15.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 32(1): 27-35, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28084078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of variants in CLU, CR1, PICALM, BIN1, ABCA7, and CD33 genes with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) was evaluated and confirmed through genome-wide association study. However, it is unknown whether these associations can be replicated in admixed populations. METHODS: The association of 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in those genes was evaluated in 280 LOAD cases and 357 controls from the Colombian population. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis using age, gender, APOE∊4 status, and admixture covariates, significant associations were obtained ( P < .05) for variants in BIN1 (rs744373, odds ratio [OR]: 1.42), CLU (rs11136000, OR: 0.66), PICALM (rs541458, OR: 0.69), ABCA7 (rs3764650, OR: 1.7), and CD33 (rs3865444, OR: 1.12). Likewise, a significant interaction effect was observed between CLU and CR1 variants with APOE. CONCLUSION: This study replicated the associations previously reported in populations of European ancestry and shows that APOE variants have a regulatory role on the effect that variants in other loci have on LOAD, reflecting the importance of gene-gene interactions in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 18(9): 1253-1266, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588892

RESUMO

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) induces in the field the decline and death of citrus varieties grafted on sour orange (SO) rootstock, which has forced the use of alternative decline-tolerant rootstocks in affected countries, despite the highly desirable agronomic features of the SO rootstock. Declining citrus plants display phloem necrosis below the bud union. In addition, SO is minimally susceptible to CTV compared with other citrus varieties, suggesting partial resistance of SO to CTV. Here, by silencing different citrus genes with a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector, we have examined the implication of the RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA) defence pathways in the resistance of SO to CTV. Silencing of the genes RDR1, NPR1 and DCL2/DCL4, associated with these defence pathways, enhanced virus spread and accumulation in SO plants in comparison with non-silenced controls, whereas silencing of the genes NPR3/NPR4, associated with the hypersensitive response, produced a slight decrease in CTV accumulation and reduced stunting of SO grafted on CTV-infected rough lemon plants. We also found that the CTV RNA silencing suppressors p20 and p23 also suppress the SA signalling defence, with the suppressor activity being higher in the most virulent isolates.


Assuntos
Closterovirus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Interferência de RNA
17.
Vaccine ; 34(50): 6148-6157, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27840016

RESUMO

The cell wall glucosaminidase LytB of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a surface exposed protein involved in daughter cell separation, biofilm formation and contributes to different aspects of the pathogenesis process. In this study we have characterized the antibody responses after immunization of mice with LytB in the presence of alhydrogel as an adjuvant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays measuring different subclasses of immunoglobulin G, demonstrated that the antibody responses to LytB were predominantly IgG1 and IgG2b, followed by IgG3 and IgG2a subclasses. Complement-mediated immunity against two different pneumococcal serotypes was investigated using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with LytB increased the recognition of S. pneumoniae by complement components C1q and C3b demonstrating that anti-LytB antibodies trigger activation of the classical pathway. Phagocytosis assays showed that serum containing antibodies to LytB stimulates neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis against S. pneumoniae. Animal models of infection including invasive pneumonia and sepsis were performed with two different clinical isolates. Vaccination with LytB increased bacterial clearance and induced protection demonstrating that LytB might be a good candidate to be considered in a future protein-based vaccine against S. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/imunologia , Fagocitose , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/administração & dosagem , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 44(11): e205-e209, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in the recontamination of stethoscope membranes after cleaning with chlorhexidine, triclosan, or alcohol. METHODS: Experimental, controlled, blinded trial to determine differences in the bacterial load on stethoscope membranes. Membranes were cultured by direct imprint after disinfection with 70% isopropyl alcohol, 1% triclosan, or 1% chlorhexidine and normal use for 4 hours. As a baseline and an immediate effect control, bacterial load of membranes without disinfection and after 1 minute of disinfection with isopropyl alcohol was determined as well. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy cultures of in-use stethoscopes were taken, 74 from each arm. In the baseline arm the median growth was 10 CFU (interquartile range [IQR], 32-42 CFU); meanwhile, in the isopropyl alcohol immediate-effect arm it was 0 CFU (IQR, 0-0 CFU). In the arms cultured after 4 hours, a median growth of 8 CFU (IQR, 1-28 CFU) in the isopropyl alcohol arm, 4 CFU (IQR, 0-17 CFU) in the triclosan arm, and 0 CFU (IQR, 0-1 CFU) in the chlorhexidine arm were seen. No significant differences were observed between the bacterial load of the chlorhexidine arm (after 4 hours of use) and that of the isopropyl alcohol arm (after 1 minute without use) (Z= 2.41; P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine can inhibit recontamination of stethoscope membranes and its use could help avoid cross-infection.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fômites/microbiologia , Membranas/microbiologia , Estetoscópios/microbiologia , Álcoois/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Humanos , Triclosan/farmacologia
19.
Educ. med. super ; 29(2)abr.-jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-62904

RESUMO

Introducción: la atención primaria de salud, estrategia del sistema de salud cubano, ha sido acompañada de intervenciones para acercar la información científica y técnica a sus profesionales y técnicos. Este trabajo profundiza en un estudio sobre el uso de esta información por médicos del nivel primario en La Habana (2008-2012) y explicita el algoritmo seguido en el análisis y síntesis de la información recabada con técnicas cualitativas mediante preguntas abiertas en sus instrumentos. Objetivos: describir el procedimiento empleado para el procesamiento de las respuestas a preguntas abiertas incluidas en instrumentos de este estudio y el efecto de este procesamiento en el estudio. Métodos: se identificaron los pasos seguidos con el fin de obtener la información necesaria para el procesamiento de los datos primarios de carácter cualitativo y las aplicaciones informáticas empleadas en este procesamiento. Se explicitó el ciclo que inicia con información cualitativa obtenida y termina con su comparación con las variables del estudio como herramienta para verificar su consistencia. Resultados: se explicó el procedimiento empleado para el procesamiento de la información cualitativa conjuntamente con las herramientas informáticas utilizadas en cada paso para facilitar el trabajo. Los resultados del procesamiento de esta información tuvieron un efecto en el curso de la investigación pues evidenciaron la necesidad de revisar el tratamiento de dimensiones estudiadas y sugirieron la pertinencia de hacer algunos cambios en la estructura y contenido de las variables, específicamente en las relacionadas con los servicios de información y la capacitación...


Introduction: the primary health care, which is Cuban health system's strategy, comprises interventions that bring scientific and technical information closer to its professionals and technicians. This paper delves into a study on the use of this information by primary health care physicians in Havana from 2008 to 2012 and explains the algorithm adopted in the analysis and summary of information collected with qualitative techniques through open-question instruments. Objective: to describe the procedure for the processing of responses to open questions included in instruments of this study and the effect of this processing in the study. Methods: the steps were identified to collect necessary information for the processing of primary qualitative data and the informatic applications used in this processing. The cycle that starts with the collected qualitative information and finishes with their comparison with the study variables as a tool to verify consistency was explained. Results: the procedure used for processing of qualitative information together with the informatics tools in each step to facilitate the work was fully explained. The results of the processing of this information had an impact on the course of research, since they evidenced the need of reviewing the treatment of the studied dimensions and suggested that it was convenient to make some changes in the structure and contents of the variables, mainly in those related to information and training services...


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Acesso à Informação , Serviços de Informação , Software
20.
Educ. med. super ; 29(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-759124

RESUMO

Introducción: la atención primaria de salud, estrategia del sistema de salud cubano, ha sido acompañada de intervenciones para acercar la información científica y técnica a sus profesionales y técnicos. Este trabajo profundiza en un estudio sobre el uso de esta información por médicos del nivel primario en La Habana (2008-2012) y explicita el algoritmo seguido en el análisis y síntesis de la información recabada con técnicas cualitativas mediante preguntas abiertas en sus instrumentos. Objetivos: describir el procedimiento empleado para el procesamiento de las respuestas a preguntas abiertas incluidas en instrumentos de este estudio y el efecto de este procesamiento en el estudio. Métodos: se identificaron los pasos seguidos con el fin de obtener la información necesaria para el procesamiento de los datos primarios de carácter cualitativo y las aplicaciones informáticas empleadas en este procesamiento. Se explicitó el ciclo que inicia con información cualitativa obtenida y termina con su comparación con las variables del estudio como herramienta para verificar su consistencia. Resultados: se explicó el procedimiento empleado para el procesamiento de la información cualitativa conjuntamente con las herramientas informáticas utilizadas en cada paso para facilitar el trabajo. Los resultados del procesamiento de esta información tuvieron un efecto en el curso de la investigación pues evidenciaron la necesidad de revisar el tratamiento de dimensiones estudiadas y sugirieron la pertinencia de hacer algunos cambios en la estructura y contenido de las variables, específicamente en las relacionadas con los servicios de información y la capacitación...


Introduction: the primary health care, which is Cuban health system's strategy, comprises interventions that bring scientific and technical information closer to its professionals and technicians. This paper delves into a study on the use of this information by primary health care physicians in Havana from 2008 to 2012 and explains the algorithm adopted in the analysis and summary of information collected with qualitative techniques through open-question instruments. Objective: to describe the procedure for the processing of responses to open questions included in instruments of this study and the effect of this processing in the study. Methods: the steps were identified to collect necessary information for the processing of primary qualitative data and the informatic applications used in this processing. The cycle that starts with the collected qualitative information and finishes with their comparison with the study variables as a tool to verify consistency was explained. Results: the procedure used for processing of qualitative information together with the informatics tools in each step to facilitate the work was fully explained. The results of the processing of this information had an impact on the course of research, since they evidenced the need of reviewing the treatment of the studied dimensions and suggested that it was convenient to make some changes in the structure and contents of the variables, mainly in those related to information and training services...


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Serviços de Informação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Software
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