Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 66
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Biol Lett ; 15(9): 20190182, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506037

RESUMO

Understanding biological diversity is crucial for ecological and evolutionary studies. Even though a great part of animal diversity has already been documented, both morphological surveys and metabarcoding analyses have previously shown that some animal groups, such as Platyhelminthes, may harbour hidden diversity. To better understand the molecular diversity of Platyhelminthes, one of the most diverse and biomedically important animal phyla, we here combined data from six marine and two freshwater metabarcoding expeditions that cover a broad variety of aquatic habitats and analysed the data by phylogenetic placement. Our results show that a great part of the hidden diversity is located in early-branching clades such as Catenulida and Macrostomorpha, as well as in late-diverging clades such as Proseriata and Rhabdocoela. We also report the first freshwater record of Gnosonesimida, a group previously thought to be exclusively marine. Finally, we identified two putative novel freshwater Platyhelminthes clades that branch between well-defined orders of the phylum. Thus, our analyses of several environmental datasets confirm that a large part of the diversity of Platyhelminthes remains undiscovered, point to groups with more potential novel species and identify freshwater environments as potential reservoirs for novel species of flatworms.

2.
PLoS Genet ; 15(2): e1007986, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789903

RESUMO

Genes and genomes can evolve through interchanging genetic material, this leading to reticular evolutionary patterns. However, the importance of reticulate evolution in eukaryotes, and in particular of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), remains controversial. Given that metabolic pathways with taxonomically-patchy distributions can be indicative of HGT events, the eukaryotic nitrate assimilation pathway is an ideal object of investigation, as previous results revealed a patchy distribution and suggested that the nitrate assimilation cluster of dikaryotic fungi (Opisthokonta) could have been originated and transferred from a lineage leading to Oomycota (Stramenopiles). We studied the origin and evolution of this pathway through both multi-scale bioinformatic and experimental approaches. Our taxon-rich genomic screening shows that nitrate assimilation is present in more lineages than previously reported, although being restricted to autotrophs and osmotrophs. The phylogenies indicate a pervasive role of HGT, with three bacterial transfers contributing to the pathway origin, and at least seven well-supported transfers between eukaryotes. In particular, we propose a distinct and more complex HGT path between Opisthokonta and Stramenopiles than the one previously suggested, involving at least two transfers of a nitrate assimilation gene cluster. We also found that gene fusion played an essential role in this evolutionary history, underlying the origin of the canonical eukaryotic nitrate reductase, and of a chimeric nitrate reductase in Ichthyosporea (Opisthokonta). We show that the ichthyosporean pathway, including this novel nitrate reductase, is physiologically active and transcriptionally co-regulated, responding to different nitrogen sources; similarly to distant eukaryotes with independent HGT-acquisitions of the pathway. This indicates that this pattern of transcriptional control evolved convergently in eukaryotes, favoring the proper integration of the pathway in the metabolic landscape. Our results highlight the importance of reticulate evolution in eukaryotes, by showing the crucial contribution of HGT and gene fusion in the evolutionary history of the nitrate assimilation pathway.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oomicetos/genética , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Fungos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Filogenia
3.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(3): 338-344, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778187

RESUMO

Insight into the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) is central to any phylogeny-based reconstruction of early eukaryotic evolution. Increasing amounts of data enable such reconstructions, without necessarily providing further insight into what LECA actually was. We consider four possible concepts of LECA: an abstract phylogenetic state, a single cell, a population, and a consortium of organisms. We argue that the view most realistically underlying work in the field is that of LECA as a population. Drawing on recent findings of genomically heterogeneous populations in eukaryotes ('pangenomes'), we examine the evolutionary implications of a pangenomic LECA population. For instance, how does this concept affect standard expectations about the ecology, geography, fitness, and diversification of LECA? Does it affect evolutionary interpretations of LECA's cellular functions? Finally, we examine whether this novel pangenomic concept of LECA has implications for phylogenetic reconstructions of early eukaryote evolution. Our aim is to add to the conceptual toolkit for developing theories of LECA and interpreting genomic datasets.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Filogenia
4.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(4): 650-662, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590541

RESUMO

The modification of adenosine to inosine at the first position of transfer RNA (tRNA) anticodons (I34) is widespread among bacteria and eukaryotes. In bacteria, the modification is found in tRNAArg and is catalyzed by tRNA adenosine deaminase A, a homodimeric enzyme. In eukaryotes, I34 is introduced in up to eight different tRNAs by the heterodimeric adenosine deaminase acting on tRNA. This substrate expansion significantly influenced the evolution of eukaryotic genomes in terms of codon usage and tRNA gene composition. However, the selective advantages driving this process remain unclear. Here, we have studied the evolution of I34, tRNA adenosine deaminase A, adenosine deaminase acting on tRNA, and their relevant codons in a large set of bacterial and eukaryotic species. We show that a functional expansion of I34 to tRNAs other than tRNAArg also occurred within bacteria, in a process likely initiated by the emergence of unmodified A34-containing tRNAs. In eukaryotes, we report on a large variability in the use of I34 in protists, in contrast to a more uniform presence in fungi, plans, and animals. Our data support that the eukaryotic expansion of I34-tRNAs was driven by the improvement brought by these tRNAs to the synthesis of proteins highly enriched in certain amino acids.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Inosina , RNA de Transferência/genética , Animais , Oenococcus/genética , Filogenia , Proteoma , Tetrahymena thermophila/genética
5.
Dev Growth Differ ; 61(1): 34-42, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585312

RESUMO

The genome sequences of unicellular holozoans, the closest relatives to animals, are shedding light on the evolution of animal multicellularity, shaping the genetic contents of the putative premetazoans. However, the assembly quality of the genomes remains poor compared to the major model organisms such as human and fly. Improving the assembly is critical for precise comparative genomics studies and further molecular biological studies requiring accurate sequence information such as enhancer analysis and genome editing. In this report, we present a new strategy to improve the assembly by fully exploiting the information of Illumina mate-pair reads. By visualizing the distance and orientation of the mapped read pairs, we could highlight the regions where possible assembly errors exist in the genome sequence of Capsaspora, a lineage of unicellular holozoans. Manual modification of these errors repaired 590 assembly problems in total and reassembled 84 supercontigs into 55. Our telomere prediction analysis using the read pairs containing the pan-eukaryotic telomere-like sequence identified at least 13 chromosomes. The resulting new assembly posed us a re-annotation of 112 genes, including 15 putative receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Our strategy thus provides a useful approach for improving assemblies of draft genomes, and the new Capsaspora genome offers us an opportunity to adjust the view on the genome of the unicellular animal ancestor.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/genética , Genoma/genética , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Eucariotos/enzimologia , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética
6.
Curr Biol ; 28(20): 3288-3295.e5, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318349

RESUMO

The emergence of multicellular animals was associated with an increase in phenotypic complexity and with the acquisition of spatial cell differentiation and embryonic development. Paradoxically, this phenotypic transition was not paralleled by major changes in the underlying developmental toolkit and regulatory networks. In fact, most of these systems are ancient, established already in the unicellular ancestors of animals [1-5]. In contrast, the Microprocessor protein machinery, which is essential for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in animals, as well as the miRNA genes themselves produced by this Microprocessor, have not been identified outside of the animal kingdom [6]. Hence, the Microprocessor, with the key proteins Pasha and Drosha, is regarded as an animal innovation [7-9]. Here, we challenge this evolutionary scenario by investigating unicellular sister lineages of animals through genomic and transcriptomic analyses. We identify in Ichthyosporea both Drosha and Pasha (DGCR8 in vertebrates), indicating that the Microprocessor complex evolved long before the last common ancestor of animals, consistent with a pre-metazoan origin of most of the animal developmental gene elements. Through small RNA sequencing, we also discovered expressed bona fide miRNA genes in several species of the ichthyosporeans harboring the Microprocessor. A deep, pre-metazoan origin of the Microprocessor and miRNAs comply with a view that the origin of multicellular animals was not directly linked to the innovation of these key regulatory components.

7.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 135, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing, particularly through intron retention and exon skipping, is a major layer of pre-translational regulation in eukaryotes. While intron retention is believed to be the most prevalent mode across non-animal eukaryotes, animals have unusually high rates of exon skipping. However, when and how this high prevalence of exon skipping evolved is unknown. Since exon skipping can greatly expand proteomes, answering these questions sheds light on the evolution of higher organismal complexity in metazoans. RESULTS: We used RNA-seq data to quantify exon skipping and intron retention frequencies across 65 eukaryotic species, with particular focus on early branching animals and unicellular holozoans. We found that only bilaterians have significantly increased their exon skipping frequencies compared to all other eukaryotic groups. Unlike in other eukaryotes, however, exon skipping in nearly all animals, including non-bilaterians, is strongly enriched for frame-preserving sequences, suggesting that exon skipping involvement in proteome expansion predated the increase in frequency. We also identified architectural features consistently associated with higher exon skipping rates within all studied eukaryotic genomes. Remarkably, these architectures became more prevalent during animal evolution, indicating co-evolution between genome architectures and exon skipping frequencies. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the increase of exon skipping rates in animals followed a two-step process. First, exon skipping in early animals became enriched for frame-preserving events. Second, bilaterian ancestors dramatically increased their exon skipping frequencies, likely driven by the interplay between a shift in their genome architectures towards more exon definition and recruitment of frame-preserving exon skipping events to functionally diversify their cell-specific proteomes.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9106, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904074

RESUMO

Although animals are among the best studied organisms, we still lack a full description of their diversity, especially for microscopic taxa. This is partly due to the time-consuming and costly nature of surveying animal diversity through morphological and molecular studies of individual taxa. A powerful alternative is the use of high-throughput environmental sequencing, providing molecular data from all organisms sampled. We here address the unknown diversity of animal phyla in marine environments using an extensive dataset designed to assess eukaryotic ribosomal diversity among European coastal locations. A multi-phylum assessment of marine animal diversity that includes water column and sediments, oxic and anoxic environments, and both DNA and RNA templates, revealed a high percentage of novel 18S rRNA sequences in most phyla, suggesting that marine environments have not yet been fully sampled at a molecular level. This novelty is especially high among Platyhelminthes, Acoelomorpha, and Nematoda, which are well studied from a morphological perspective and abundant in benthic environments. We also identified, based on molecular data, a potentially novel group of widespread tunicates. Moreover, we recovered a high number of reads for Ctenophora and Cnidaria in the smaller fractions suggesting their gametes might play a greater ecological role than previously suspected.

9.
Curr Biol ; 28(12): 1964-1969.e2, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887314

RESUMO

Coordination of the cell division cycle with the growth of the cell is critical to achieve cell size homeostasis [1]. Mechanisms coupling the cell division cycle with cell growth have been described across diverse eukaryotic taxa [2-4], but little is known about how these processes are coordinated in organisms that undergo more complex life cycles, such as coenocytic growth. Coenocytes (multinucleate cells formed by sequential nuclear divisions without cytokinesis) are commonly found across the eukaryotic kingdom, including in animal and plant tissues and several lineages of unicellular eukaryotes [5]. Among the organisms that form coenocytes are ichthyosporeans, a lineage of unicellular holozoans that are of significant interest due to their phylogenetic placement as one of the closest relatives of animals [6]. Here, we characterize the coenocytic cell division cycle in the ichthyosporean Sphaeroforma arctica. We observe that, in laboratory conditions, S. arctica cells undergo a uniform and easily synchronizable coenocytic cell cycle, reaching up to 128 nuclei per cell before cellularization and release of daughter cells. Cycles of nuclear division occur synchronously within the coenocyte and in regular time intervals (11-12 hr). We find that the growth of cell volume is dependent on concentration of nutrients in the media; in contrast, the rate of nuclear division cycles is constant over a range of nutrient concentrations. Together, the results suggest that nuclear division cycles in the coenocytic growth of S. arctica are driven by a timer, which ensures periodic and synchronous nuclear cycles independent of the cell size and growth.

10.
Development ; 145(10)2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752387

RESUMO

How animals emerged from their unicellular ancestor remains a major evolutionary question. New genome data from the closest unicellular relatives of animals have provided important insights into the evolution of animal multicellularity. We know that the unicellular ancestor of animals had an unexpectedly complex genetic repertoire, including many genes that are key to animal development and multicellularity. Thus, assessing the function of these genes among unicellular relatives of animals is key to understanding how they were co-opted at the onset of the Metazoa. However, such analyses have been hampered by the lack of genetic tools. Progress has been made in choanoflagellates and teretosporeans, two of the three lineages closely related to animals, whereas no tools are yet available for functional analysis in the third lineage: the filastereans. Importantly, filastereans have a striking repertoire of genes involved in transcriptional regulation and other developmental processes. Here, we describe a reliable transfection method for the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki We also provide a set of constructs for visualising subcellular structures in live cells. These tools convert Capsaspora into a unique experimentally tractable organism to use to investigate the origin and evolution of animal multicellularity.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Mesomycetozoea/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética
11.
Lab Invest ; 98(3): 304-314, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400699

RESUMO

Nucleoside diphosphate kinases are enzymes present in all domains of life. In animals, they are called Nme or Nm23 proteins, and are divided into group I and II. Human Nme1 was the first protein identified as a metastasis suppressor. Because of its medical importance, it has been extensively studied. In spite of the large research effort, the exact mechanism of metastasis suppression remains unclear. It is unknown which of the biochemical properties or biological functions are responsible for the antimetastatic role of the mammalian Nme1. Furthermore, it is not clear at which point in the evolution of life group I Nme proteins acquired the potential to suppress metastasis, a process that is usually associated with complex animals. In this study we performed a series of tests and assays on a group I Nme protein from filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of animals. The aim was to compare the protein to the well-known human Nme1 and Nme2 homologs, as well as with the homolog from a simple animal-sponge (Porifera), in order to see how the proteins changed with the transition to multicellularity, and subsequently in the evolution of complex animals. We found that premetazoan-type protein is highly similar to the homologs from sponge and human, in terms of biochemical characteristics and potential biological functions. Like the human Nme1 and Nme2, it is able to diminish the migratory potential of human cancer cells in culture.

12.
RNA Biol ; 15(4-5): 500-507, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880718

RESUMO

The modification of adenosine to inosine at position 34 of tRNA anticodons has a profound impact upon codon-anticodon recognition. In bacteria, I34 is thought to exist only in tRNAArg, while in eukaryotes the modification is present in eight different tRNAs. In eukaryotes, the widespread use of I34 strongly influenced the evolution of genomes in terms of tRNA gene abundance and codon usage. In humans, codon usage indicates that I34 modified tRNAs are preferred for the translation of highly repetitive coding sequences, suggesting that I34 is an important modification for the synthesis of proteins of highly skewed amino acid composition. Here we extend the analysis of distribution of codons that are recognized by I34 containing tRNAs to all phyla known to use this modification. We find that the preference for codons recognized by such tRNAs in genes with highly biased codon compositions is universal among eukaryotes, and we report that, unexpectedly, some bacterial phyla show a similar preference. We demonstrate that the genomes of these bacterial species contain previously undescribed tRNA genes that are potential substrates for deamination at position 34.


Assuntos
Códon/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Firmicutes/genética , Código Genético , Inosina/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência de Arginina/genética , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Anticódon/química , Anticódon/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Códon/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Humanos , Inosina/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência de Arginina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
13.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 65(2): 170-179, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741861

RESUMO

The opisthokonts constitute a eukaryotic supergroup divided into two main clades: the holozoans, which include animals and their unicellular relatives, and the holomycotans, which include fungi, opisthosporidians, and nucleariids. Nucleariids are phagotrophic filose amoebae that phenotypically resemble more their distant holozoan cousins than their holomycotan phylogenetic relatives. Despite their evolutionary interest, the diversity and internal phylogenetic relationships within the nucleariids remain poorly studied. Here, we formally describe and characterize by molecular phylogeny and microscopy observations Parvularia atlantis gen. et sp. nov. (formerly Nuclearia sp. ATCC 50694), and compare its features with those of other nucleariid genera. Parvularia is an amoebal genus characterized by radiating knobbed and branching filopodia. It exhibits prominent vacuoles observable under light microscopy, a cyst-like stage, and completely lacks cilia. P. atlantis possesses one or two nuclei with a central nucleolus, and mitochondria with flat or discoid cristae. These morphological features, although typical of nucleariids, represent a combination of characters different to those of any other described Nuclearia species. Likewise, 18S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses show that P. atlantis represents a distinct lineage within the nucleariids.

14.
Curr Biol ; 27(17): R829-R830, 2017 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898640

RESUMO

Capsaspora owczarzaki is a unicellular eukaryote that is becoming pivotal to understanding the origin of animal multicellularity.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/citologia , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Genoma , Filogenia
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11025, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887541

RESUMO

Single-cell genomics (SCG) appeared as a powerful technique to get genomic information from uncultured organisms. However, SCG techniques suffer from biases at the whole genome amplification step that can lead to extremely variable numbers of genome recovery (5-100%). Thus, it is unclear how useful can SCG be to address evolutionary questions on uncultured microbial eukaryotes. To provide some insights into this, we here analysed 3 single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, whose genome is known. Our results show that each SAG has a different, independent bias, yielding different levels of genome recovery for each cell (6-36%). Genes often appear fragmented and are split into more genes during annotation. Thus, analyses of gene gain and losses, gene architectures, synteny and other genomic features can not be addressed with a single SAG. However, the recovery of phylogenetically-informative protein domains can be up to 55%. This means SAG data can be used to perform accurate phylogenomic analyses. Finally, we also confirm that the co-assembly of several SAGs improves the general genomic recovery. Overall, our data show that, besides important current limitations, SAGs can still provide interesting and novel insights from poorly-known, uncultured organisms.

16.
Elife ; 62017 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726632

RESUMO

Which genomic innovations underpinned the origin of multicellular animals is still an open debate. Here, we investigate this question by reconstructing the genome architecture and gene family diversity of ancestral premetazoans, aiming to date the emergence of animal-like traits. Our comparative analysis involves genomes from animals and their closest unicellular relatives (the Holozoa), including four new genomes: three Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrium limacisporum. Here, we show that the earliest animals were shaped by dynamic changes in genome architecture before the emergence of multicellularity: an early burst of gene diversity in the ancestor of Holozoa, enriched in transcription factors and cell adhesion machinery, was followed by multiple and differently-timed episodes of synteny disruption, intron gain and genome expansions. Thus, the foundations of animal genome architecture were laid before the origin of complex multicellularity - highlighting the necessity of a unicellular perspective to understand early animal evolution.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Protozoário , Genômica
17.
Nat Rev Genet ; 18(8): 498-512, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479598

RESUMO

The first animals evolved from an unknown single-celled ancestor in the Precambrian period. Recently, the identification and characterization of the genomic and cellular traits of the protists most closely related to animals have shed light on the origin of animals. Comparisons of animals with these unicellular relatives allow us to reconstruct the first evolutionary steps towards animal multicellularity. Here, we review the results of these investigations and discuss their implications for understanding the earliest stages of animal evolution, including the origin of metazoan genes and genome function.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/genética , Animais , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/citologia , Humanos , Filogenia
18.
Dev Cell ; 39(2): 186-197, 2016 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746046

RESUMO

Cell-specific regulation of protein levels and activity is essential for the distribution of functions among multiple cell types in animals. The finding that many genes involved in these regulatory processes have a premetazoan origin raises the intriguing possibility that the mechanisms required for spatially regulated cell differentiation evolved prior to the appearance of animals. Here, we use high-throughput proteomics in Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of animals, to characterize the dynamic proteome and phosphoproteome profiles of three temporally distinct cell types in this premetazoan species. We show that life-cycle transitions are linked to extensive proteome and phosphoproteome remodeling and that they affect key genes involved in animal multicellularity, such as transcription factors and tyrosine kinases. The observation of shared features between Capsaspora and metazoans indicates that elaborate and conserved phosphosignaling and proteome regulation supported temporal cell-type differentiation in the unicellular ancestor of animals.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Eucariotos/citologia , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Biol Lett ; 12(9)2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27677819

RESUMO

Animals with bilateral symmetry comprise the majority of the described species within Metazoa. However, the nature of the first bilaterian animal remains unknown. As most recent molecular phylogenies point to Xenacoelomorpha as the sister group to the rest of Bilateria, understanding their biology, ecology and diversity is key to reconstructing the nature of the last common bilaterian ancestor (Urbilateria). To date, sampling efforts have focused mainly on coastal areas, leaving potential gaps in our understanding of the full diversity of xenacoelomorphs. We therefore analysed 18S rDNA metabarcoding data from three marine projects covering benthic and pelagic habitats worldwide. Our results show that acoels have a greater richness in planktonic environments than previously described. Interestingly, we also identified a putative novel clade of acoels in the deep benthos that branches as sister group to the rest of Acoela, thus representing the earliest-branching acoel clade. Our data highlight deep-sea environments as an ideal habitat to sample acoels with key phylogenetic positions, which might be useful for reconstructing the early evolution of Bilateria.

20.
Open Biol ; 6(7)2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383626

RESUMO

Sterols are essential for several physiological processes in most eukaryotes. Sterols regulate membrane homeostasis and participate in different signalling pathways not only as precursors of steroid hormones and vitamins, but also through its role in the formation of lipid rafts. Two major types of sterols, cholesterol and ergosterol, have been described so far in the opisthokonts, the clade that comprise animals, fungi and their unicellular relatives. Cholesterol predominates in derived bilaterians, whereas ergosterol is what generally defines fungi. We here characterize, by a combination of bioinformatic and biochemical analyses, the sterol metabolism in the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of animals that is becoming a model organism. We found that C. owczarzaki sterol metabolism combines enzymatic activities that are usually considered either characteristic of fungi or exclusive to metazoans. Moreover, we observe a differential transcriptional regulation of this metabolism across its life cycle. Thus, C. owczarzaki alternates between synthesizing 7-dehydrocholesterol de novo, which happens at the cystic stage, and the partial conversion-via a novel pathway-of incorporated cholesterol into ergosterol, the characteristic fungal sterol, in the filopodial and aggregative stages.


Assuntos
Fungos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mesomycetozoea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esteróis/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mesomycetozoea/genética , Mesomycetozoea/metabolismo , Filogenia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA