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1.
Lancet ; 391(10134): 2019-2027, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels. METHODS: We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month. FINDINGS: We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes. FUNDING: Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Lancet ; 388(10046): 761-75, 2016 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. METHODS: We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated, with 99% confidence intervals. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher (OR 2·98, 99% CI 2·72-3·28; PAR 47·9%, 99% CI 45·1-50·6), regular physical activity (0·60, 0·52-0·70; 35·8%, 27·7-44·7), apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio (1·84, 1·65-2·06 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·8%, 22·2-31·9 for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), diet (0·60, 0·53-0·67 for highest vs lowest tertile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index [mAHEI]; 23·2%, 18·2-28·9 for lowest two tertiles vs highest tertile of mAHEI), waist-to-hip ratio (1·44, 1·27-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·6%, 13·3-25·3 for top two tertiles vs lowest), psychosocial factors (2·20, 1·78-2·72; 17·4%, 13·1-22·6), current smoking (1·67, 1·49-1·87; 12·4%, 10·2-14·9), cardiac causes (3·17, 2·68-3·75; 9·1%, 8·0-10·2), alcohol consumption (2·09, 1·64-2·67 for high or heavy episodic intake vs never or former drinker; 5·8%, 3·4-9·7 for current alcohol drinker vs never or former drinker), and diabetes mellitus (1·16, 1·05-1·30; 3·9%, 1·9-7·6) were associated with all stroke. Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 90·7% of the PAR for all stroke worldwide (91·5% for ischaemic stroke, 87·1% for intracerebral haemorrhage), and were consistent across regions (ranging from 82·7% in Africa to 97·4% in southeast Asia), sex (90·6% in men and in women), and age groups (92·2% in patients aged ≤55 years, 90·0% in patients aged >55 years). We observed regional variations in the importance of individual risk factors, which were related to variations in the magnitude of ORs (rather than direction, which we observed for diet) and differences in prevalence of risk factors among regions. Hypertension was more associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke, whereas current smoking, diabetes, apolipoproteins, and cardiac causes were more associated with ischaemic stroke (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Ten potentially modifiable risk factors are collectively associated with about 90% of the PAR of stroke in each major region of the world, among ethnic groups, in men and women, and in all ages. However, we found important regional variations in the relative importance of most individual risk factors for stroke, which could contribute to worldwide variations in frequency and case-mix of stroke. Our findings support developing both global and region-specific programmes to prevent stroke. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Stroke Network, Health Research Board Ireland, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, The Health & Medical Care Committee of the Regional Executive Board, Region Västra Götaland (Sweden), AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada), Pfizer (Canada), MSD, Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland, and The Stroke Association, with support from The UK Stroke Research Network.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Atividade Motora , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
3.
Lancet ; 388(1046): 761-775, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34758

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifi able risk factors for stroke in diff erent regions of the world,and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. Methods We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute fi rst stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke,and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks(PARs) were calculated, with 99% confi dence intervals...(AU)


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Controle , Risco
5.
Lijec Vjesn ; 137(3-4): 129-30, 2015 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26065296
6.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 9(3): 214-20, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25659228

RESUMO

Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Hipertensão , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina
7.
Blood Press ; 24(3): 158-63, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25608582

RESUMO

AIM: White coat hypertension (WCH) is hard to differentiate from sustained hypertension without the use of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). This invaluable procedure is nevertheless cumbersome and expensive. A simple test of deep breathing over 30 s (DBT) was proposed as a method to unveil WCH. METHODS: Two hundred and fourteen outpatients referred for the evaluation of uncontrolled hypertension (blood pressure, BP > 140/90 mmHg despite therapy) were enrolled in a controlled clinical trial. The examinees were randomly divided in two groups: control (n = 108; sequential standard BP measurement only) and intervention (n = 106; the same+DBT), using ABPM as the reference standard. RESULTS: The relative decrease in BP was significantly larger in the intervention group than in the control group, by 15/4 mmHg (p = 0.005). The best detection of WCH was obtained at ≥ 15% systolic BP reduction following DBT, with a positive predictive value of 94.0% (95% CI 72.0-100.0). BP reduction of ≤ 8% may rule WCH out with a negative predictive value of 78.4% (95% CI 64.0 - 85.9). CONCLUSION: DBT is a reliable, inexpensive and fast test for the detection of WCH in primary care.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Respiração , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/diagnóstico , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Lijec Vjesn ; 136(5-6): 173-4, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154191
10.
Lijec Vjesn ; 136(3-4): 110-2, 2014 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24988747
12.
Lijec Vjesn ; 134(1-2): 20-4, 2012 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22519249

RESUMO

Salt intake contributes to the rise in blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension. In this interventional trial on 110 treated hypertensives over three months a permanently elevated sodium excretion was found, averaging 187.9 +/- 81.5 mmol/day (range 103-297), because of inappropriate salt intake. The treated hypertensives, despite opposite claims, consume large amounts of salt, which, in addition to noncompliance, is the leading cause of poor hypertension control. Dietary education is an important part of preventive care in family medicine, and legal measures to enforce salt labeling on alimentary products are mandatory.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 54(1): 266-70, 2012 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21514681

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown a paradoxical increase in early mortality in older patients (>70 years) with acute STEMI treated with fibrinolytic therapy (FT), which has been attributed to the development of free wall rupture (FWR). Our aim was to assess occurrence of FWR in STEMI patients receiving FT. In this 7-year prospective study, data from 1701 consecutive patients were obtained. We analyzed predictors of the in-hospital mortality in patients>70 years old. The independent contribution of several variables to overall mortality and FWR development was assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. The mortality of entire cohort was 18% (306/1701). Diabetes mellitus, anterior infarction, smoking, female gender and hypercholesterolemia were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. FT was given to 18% of all patients (304/1701) of which 13% died (39/304). FWR was 18.4-times more often in patients who received FT. Among patients younger than 70 years who received FT there was no FWR, while in patients ≥ 70 years of age FWR was found in almost half of the deceased (30/68; 44%). Application of FT in STEMI patients is not associated with higher mortality, but significantly increases number of FWR, especially in patients over 70 years of age.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Croácia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruptura Espontânea/epidemiologia , Ruptura Espontânea/etiologia
14.
Coll Antropol ; 35(3): 817-22, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22053561

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have prohypertensive effects and blunt the effects of many antihypertensives. The mechanism of this interaction is still not understood enough. The objective of this investigation was to determine the level of prohypertensive effects of two NSAIDs (ibuprofen, piroxicam) and paracetamol, co-prescribed with two antihypertensive drugs (lisinopril + hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine), and to improve the understanding of this interaction. A prospective clinical trial, conducted in a Croatian family practice, included 110 already treated hypertensive patients, aged 56-85 years; 50 control patients and 60 patients who were also taking NSAIDs for osteoarthritis treatment. The antihypertensive regimens remained the same during this study, while NSAIDs and paracetamol were crossed-over in three monthly periods. Blood pressure, body weight, serum creatinine, potassium, sodium, diuresis and 24 h urinary sodium excretion were followed-up. In the lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide subgroup, both ibuprofen and piroxicam elevated mean arterial pressure by 8.9-9.5% (p < 0.001). Body weight increased significantly in the lisinopril/ hydrochlorothiazide + piroxicam subgroup only, while creatinine, urinary output and electrolyte values did not change appreciably in any of the subgroups. NSAID's prohypertensive effects seem to be mostly due to vasoconstriction and, to a minor degree, to volume expansion, since no marked changes in body weight, urinary output, serum creatinine or serum/urinary electrolyte profile were observed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Acta Med Croatica ; 65(1): 55-62, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21568075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) side effects can impair quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis. Due to its particular mechanism of action, paracetamol might bypass these negative effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine both the role of paracetamol in the treatment of osteoarthritis patients and optimal combination of antihypertensives and antirheumatics for these patients. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial in a family practice included 110 treated hypertensives aged over 55 years: 50 controls and 60 also taking NSAIDs for osteoarthritis. This 3-month study compared two antihypertensives, lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed combination and amlodipine, with two NSAIDs, ibuprofen and piroxicam, and with paracetamol. Following clinical work-up and NSAID discontinuation for at least 3 days (run-in period of only 3-7 days), osteoarthritis subjects were randomized to 1-month periods of ibuprofen (400-600 mg t.i.d.) or piroxicam (10-20 mg o.d.) with one month of paracetamol (1000 mg t.i.d.) in the middle as a "wash-out" interval, continuing the prescribed amlodipine (5-10 mg o.d.) or lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed drug combination (10/6.25-20/12.5 mg o.d.), while control subjects (hypertensives with no osteoarthritis) were just keeping their antihypertensive therapy. Blood pressure was measured with standard mercury sphygmomanometer and with an automatic device, in standing, sitting and supine position. The intensity of arthritic pain (on a visual analogue scale from 1 to 10, where 0 means "no pain" and 10 "the worst pain you may imagine") and the patient's quality of life estimate (on a visual analogue scale from 1 to 10, where 0 means "general condition excellent" and 10 "the worst possible") were recorded. RESULTS: Blood pressure control was unchanged in the amiodipine group across the study periods and impaired in the lisinopril/ hydrochlorothiazide group during either ibuprofen or piroxicam, but not during paracetamol. In the amlodipine +/- ibuprofen subgroup, the reduction of the average pain intensity score throughout the study was significant (chi2 = 8.250; df 3; P = 0.037). In the lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide +/- piroxicam subgroup, the assessed quality of life differed significantly (chi2 = 9.716; df 3; P = 0.018), while in the amlodipine +/- ibuprofen and amlodipine +/- piroxicam subgroups the changes were marginal (chi2 = 6.936; df 3; P = 0.072 and chi2 = 7146; df 3; P = 0.065, respectively).


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/complicações , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Eur Heart J ; 32(5): 581-9, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21177699

RESUMO

AIMS: Summating risk factor burden is a useful approach in the assessment of cardiovascular risk among apparently healthy individuals. We aimed to derive and validate a new score for myocardial infarction (MI) risk using modifiable risk factors, derived from the INTERHEART case-control study (n = 19 470). METHODS AND RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression was used to create the INTERHEART Modifiable Risk Score (IHMRS). Internal validation was performed using split-sample methods. External validation was performed in an international prospective cohort study. A risk model including apolipoproteins, smoking, second-hand smoke exposure, hypertension, and diabetes was developed. Addition of further modifiable risk factors did not improve score discrimination in an external cohort. Split-sample validation studies showed an area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve c-statistic of 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70, 0.72]. The IHMRS was positively associated with incident MI in a large cohort of people at low risk for cardiovascular disease [12% increase in MI risk (95% CI: 8, 16%) with a 1-point increase in score] and showed appropriate discrimination in this cohort (ROC c-statistic 0.69, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.74). Results were consistent across ethnic groups and geographic regions. A non-laboratory-based score is also supplied. CONCLUSIONS: Using multiple modifiable risk factors from the INTERHEART case-control study, we have developed and validated a simple score for MI risk which is applicable to an international population.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Lijec Vjesn ; 133(11-12): 408-10, 2011 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22329298

RESUMO

Diuretics, particularly thiazides and thiazide-like drugs, are antihypertensives of first choice. A prominent role in this group is reserved to chlorthalidone because of several pharmacological (e.g. longer biological half-life) and clinical advantages (e.g. superior reduction in cardiovascular events). Nevertheless, favored is hydrochlorothiazide, especially in fixed drug combinations, revealing a poor policy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico
19.
European Heart Journal ; 32(5): 581-589, 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-29118

RESUMO

Methods and results Multiple logistic regression was used to create the INTERHEART Modifiable Risk Score (IHMRS). Internal validation was performed using split-sample methods. External validation was performed in an international prospective cohort study. A risk model including apolipoproteins, smoking, second-hand smoke exposure, hypertension, and diabetes was developed. Addition of further modifiable risk factors did not improve score discrimination in an external cohort. Split-sample validation studies showed an area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve c-statistic of 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70, 0.72]. The IHMRS was positively associated with incident MI in a large cohort of people at low risk for cardiovascular disease [12% increase in MI risk (95% CI: 8, 16%) with a 1-point increase in score] and showed appropriate discrimination in this cohort (ROC c-statistic 0.69, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.74). Results were consistent across ethnic groups and geographic regions. A non-laboratory-based score is also supplied. Conclusions Using multiple modifiable risk factors from the INTERHEART case–control study, we have developed and validated a simple score for MI risk which is applicable to an international population. (AU)


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Coll Antropol ; 34(4): 1363-8, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21874722

RESUMO

The aim of study was to compare the impact of coronary risk factors on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) between Croatia, Central and Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world. As a part of the large international INTERHEART case-control study of acute MI in 52 countries (15,152 cases and 14,820 controls) we have investigated the relationship between several known risk factors (smoking, history of hypertension or diabetes, waist/hip ratio, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, blood apolipoproteins, and psychosocial factors) and MI among patients without previously known coronary heart disease in Southern Croatia. The main identified MI risk factors in Southern Croatia were heavy smoking (>20 cig/day; OR 3.86; 95% CI 2.31-6.46), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.58-5.23), abnormal ratio of B-100 and A-1 apolipoproteins (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.28-3.89), elevated waist to hip ratio (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.21-3.18), and arterial hypertension (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.15-2.45). Protective was moderate alcohol consumption (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99). The prevalence of major MI risk factors in Croatia is similar to that in the surrounding countries and in the world, accounting for over 90% of the population attributable risk. However, physical activity, dietary and psychosocial factors are seemingly less important in this country, while moderate alcohol consumption is more protective than regionally or globally.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Croácia , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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