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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333702

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with impulse control disorders (ICD) frequently report hypersensitivity to rewards. However, a few studies have explored the effectiveness of modulation techniques on symptoms experienced by these patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of anodal tDCS over the DLPFC on reward responsiveness and valuation in PD patients with ICD. 43 participants (15 PD patients with ICD, 13 PD without ICD, and 15 healthy matched controls) were asked to perform a reward-craving test employing both explicit (self-ratings of liking and wanting) and implicit (heart rate and skin conductance response) measures, as well as two temporal discounting tasks with food and money rewards. Each participant performed the experimental tasks during active anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1), and sham tDCS. Results showed increased wanting and a steeper temporal discounting of rewards in PD with ICD compared to the other groups. Moreover, we found that PD without ICD exhibit reduced liking for rewards. tDCS results capable to modulate the altered intensity of PD patients' liking, but not wanting and temporal discounting of rewards in PD patients with ICD. These findings confirm that alterations in reward responsiveness and valuation are characteristics of impulse control disorders in patients with PD but suggest that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC is not capable to influence these processes. At the same time, they provide new insight into affective experience of rewards in PD.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0234219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852575

RESUMO

Category-specific impairments witnessed in patients with semantic deficits have broadly dissociated into natural and artificial kinds. However, how the category of food (more specifically, fruits and vegetables) fits into this distinction has been difficult to interpret, given a pattern of deficit that has inconsistently mapped onto either kind, despite its intuitive membership to the natural domain. The present study explores the effects of a manipulation of a visual sensory (i.e., color) or functional (i.e., orientation) feature on the consequential semantic processing of fruits and vegetables (and tools, by comparison), first at the behavioral and then at the neural level. The categorization of natural (i.e., fruits/vegetables) and artificial (i.e., utensils) entities was investigated via cross-modal priming. Reaction time analysis indicated a reduction in priming for color-modified natural entities and orientation-modified artificial entities. Standard event-related potentials (ERP) analysis was performed, in addition to linear classification. For natural entities, a N400 effect at central channel sites was observed for the color-modified condition compared relative to normal and orientation conditions, with this difference confirmed by classification analysis. Conversely, there was no significant difference between conditions for the artificial category in either analysis. These findings provide strong evidence that color is an integral property to the categorization of fruits/vegetables, thus substantiating the claim that feature-based processing guides as a function of semantic category.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Semântica , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cor , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Neuroimage ; 235: 118049, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848626

RESUMO

Personality traits reflect key aspects of individual variability in different psychological domains. Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to these differences requires an exhaustive investigation of the behaviors associated with such traits, and their underlying neural sources. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying agreeableness, one of the five major dimensions of personality, which has been linked mainly to socio-cognitive functions. In particular, we examined whether individual differences in the neural representations of social information are related to differences in agreeableness of individuals. To this end, we adopted a multivariate representational similarity approach that captured within single individuals the activation pattern similarity of social and non-social content, and tested its relation to the agreeableness trait in a hypothesis-driven manner. The main result confirmed our prediction: processing social and non-social content led to similar patterns of activation in individuals with low agreeableness, while in more agreeable individuals these patterns were more dissimilar. Critically, this association between agreeableness and encoding similarity of social and random content was significant only in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a brain region consistently involved during attributions of mental states. The present finding reveals the link between neural mechanisms underlying social information processing and agreeableness, a personality trait highly related to socio-cognitive abilities, thereby providing a step forward in characterizing its neural determinants. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantage of multivariate pattern analysis approaches in capturing and understanding the neural sources of individual variations.

4.
Behav Brain Res ; 406: 113228, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684426

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is an affective disorder characterized by rapid fluctuations in mood ranging from episodes of depression to mania, as well as by increased impulsivity. Previous studies investigated the neural substrates of bipolar disorder mainly using univariate methods, with a particular focus on the neural circuitry underlying emotion regulation difficulties. In the present study, capitalizing on an innovative whole-brain multivariate method to structural analysis known as Source-based Morphometry, we investigated the neural substrates of bipolar disorder and their relation with impulsivity, assessed with both self-report measures and performance-based tasks. Structural images from 46 patients with diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 60 healthy controls were analysed. Compared to healthy controls, patients showed decreased gray matter concentration in a parietal-occipital-cerebellar network. Notably, the lower the gray matter concentration in this circuit, the higher the self-reported impulsivity. In conclusion, we provided new evidence of an altered brain network in bipolar disorder patients related to their abnormal impulsivity. Taken together, these findings extend our understanding of the neural and symptomatic characterization of bipolar disorder.

5.
Neuropsychologia ; 151: 107720, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309676

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that imitation of finger and hand/arm gestures could be differentially impaired after brain damage. However, so far, the interaction between gesture meaning and body part in imitation deficits has not been fully assessed. In the present study, we aimed at filling this gap by testing 36 unilateral left brain-damaged patients with and without apraxia (20 apraxics), and 29 healthy controls on an imitation task of either finger or hand/arm meaningful (MF) gestures and meaningless (ML) movements, using a large sample of stimuli and controlling for the composition of the experimental list. Left-brain damaged patients imitated ML finger worse than hand/arm movements, whereas they did not show the same difference in MF gesture imitation. In addition, apraxic patients imitated finger movements worse than hand/arm movements. Furthermore, apraxic patients' imitation performance was equally affected irrespective of the action meaning, whereas non-apraxic patients showed better imitation performance on MF gestures. Results suggest that MF gestures are processed as a whole, as imitation of these gestures relies on the stored motor programs in long-term memory, independently of the body part involved. In contrast, ML movements seem to be processed through direct visuo-motor transformations, with left-brain damage specifically disrupting imitation performance of the more cognitive demanding finger movements.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Apraxias/etiologia , Gestos , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Desempenho Psicomotor , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
6.
Nature ; 574(7779): 486, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641266
7.
Eur J Neurosci ; 50(8): 3389-3401, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228866

RESUMO

Among all of the stimuli surrounding us, food is arguably the most rewarding for the essential role it plays in our survival. In previous visual recognition research, it has already been demonstrated that the brain not only differentiates edible stimuli from non-edible stimuli but also is endowed with the ability to detect foods' idiosyncratic properties such as energy content. Given the contribution of the cooked diet to human evolution, in the present study we investigated whether the brain is sensitive to the level of processing food underwent, based solely on its visual appearance. We thus recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from normal-weight healthy volunteers who viewed color images of unprocessed and processed foods equated in caloric content. Results showed that VEPs and underlying neural sources differed as early as 130 ms post-image onset when participants viewed unprocessed versus processed foods, suggesting a within-category early discrimination of food stimuli. Responses to unprocessed foods engaged the inferior frontal and temporal regions and the premotor cortices. In contrast, viewing processed foods led to the recruitment of occipito-temporal cortices bilaterally, consistently with other motivationally relevant stimuli. This is the first evidence of diverging brain responses to food as a function of the transformation undergone during its preparation that provides insights on the spatiotemporal dynamics of food recognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimentos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7439, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092880

RESUMO

Food constitutes a fuel of life for human beings. It is therefore of chief importance that their recognition system readily identifies the most relevant properties of food by drawing on semantic memory. One of the most relevant properties to be considered is the level of processing impressed by humans on food. We hypothesized that recognition of raw food capitalizes on sensory properties and that of transformed food on functional properties, consistently with the hypothesis of a sensory-functional organization of semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, patients with Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and healthy controls performed lexical-semantic tasks with food (raw and transformed) and non-food (living and nonliving) stimuli. Correlations between task performance and local grey matter concentration (VBM) and white matter fractional anisotropy (TBSS) led to two main findings. First, recognition of raw food and living things implicated occipital cortices, typically involved in processing sensory information and, second, recognition of processed food and nonliving things implicated the middle temporal gyrus and surrounding white matter tracts, regions that have been associated with functional properties. In conclusion, the present study confirms and extends the hypothesis of a sensory and a functional organization of semantic knowledge.


Assuntos
Alimentos/classificação , Memória/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Anisotropia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
9.
Cogn Neurosci ; 10(4): 186-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913979

RESUMO

We investigated the contribution of the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFGop) in representing knowledge about social groups. We asked healthy individuals to categorize words preceded by semantically congruent or incongruent primes while stimulating the LIFGop. Previous studies showing an involvement of the LIFGop both in processing social stimuli and negative valence words led us to predict that its stimulation would affect responses to negative social category words. Compared to the Vertex as control site, the stimulation of the LIFGop increased the speed of categorization of negative social groups, and disrupted the semantic priming effect for negative words overall. Within the framework of recent theories of semantic memory, we argue that the present results provide initial evidence of the representation of social groups being characterized by affective properties, whose processing is supported by the LIFGop.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Vocabulário , Adulto , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(5): 637-647, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A complex interplay of factors including cognitive, sensory and affective aspects has been associated in a controversial way with anthropometric measures related to body weight. METHODS: Here we propose two studies to investigate whether and how cognitive, olfactory and affective variables resulted associated with body weight during healthy aging. In Study 1, we investigated the cognitive status, the odor identification skills, and the BMI of 209 individuals (50-96 yo). In Study 2 an extensive evaluation of cognitive functions (in particular executive functions and memory), odor threshold, discrimination and identification and affective skills (i.e., depression and anxiety) was performed in a group of 35 healthy, free-living aging individuals (58-85 yo). RESULTS: In Study 1, greater BMI was not associated with performance on the odor identification task but was significantly associated with better cognitive skills. In Study 2, we observed that executive functions seemed to favor a successful managing of body weight, and individuals with greater BMI and waist circumference showed significantly better odor discrimination skills. Finally, lower waist circumference (but not BMI) was found significantly associated with greater levels of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that cognitive, olfactory and affective factors may influence body weight during healthy aging.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
11.
Cortex ; 107: 13-20, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843896

RESUMO

It has been proposed that the conceptual knowledge of food and its putative subdivision into natural (i.e., fruit/vegetables) and transformed (i.e., food that underwent thermic or non-thermic processing) may follow the living/non-living distinction. In the present study, we investigated whether the advantage for living things compared to non-living things observed in episodic memory (the so-called animacy effect) extends to natural foods and transformed foods respectively. We pursued this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured episodic memory for natural and transformed foods in young participants. In Experiment 2, we enrolled dementia-free centenarians, patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT), Progressive primary aphasia (PPA), and healthy controls whose episodic memory was also tested for living/non-living things. Results showed that young participants had better recognition memory for transformed foods compared to natural foods. This difference disappeared in centenarians and patients. However, centenarians and PPA exhibited enhanced levels of false alarms (FA) with natural food, and DAT patients with both natural and transformed food. As far as the living/non-living distinction is concerned, the episodic memory for the living category appears more resilient to the decline compared to the non-living category in patients, particularly those with PPA. In conclusion, our study shows that transformed food is better remembered than natural food, suggesting that it is more salient and possibly relevant from an evolutionary perspective. The natural/transformed distinction appears susceptible to erosion only in the presence of a high degree of episodic memory impairment. These results offer novel insight on episodic memory of food, and also extend the current knowledge on the animacy effect in episodic memory.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6468, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691443

RESUMO

In order to make sense of the objects we encounter in everyday life we largely rely on previous knowledge stored in our semantic memory. Semantic memory is considered dependent on lifelong experience and cultural knowledge. So far, a few studies have investigated the role of expertise on the organization of semantic memory, whereas life-long experience has largely been overlooked. In this study, we investigated this issue using food concepts. In particular, we administered different semantic tasks using food (natural and transformed) and non-food (living and non-living things) as stimuli to participants belonging to three different age cohorts (56-74, 75-91, 100-108), who were also asked to report on the dietary habits held throughout their life. In addition, we investigated to what extent psycholinguistic variables influence the semantic performance of different age cohorts. Results showed that Centenarians recognized natural food better than transformed food, while the other two groups showed the opposite pattern. According to our analyses, experience is responsible for this effect in Centenarians, as their dietary habits seem to suggest. Moreover, significant correlations between picture naming and age of acquisition, familiarity and frequency were observed. This study indicates that lifelong experience can shape conceptual knowledge of food concepts, and that semantic memory is less resilient to aging than initially thought.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Memória/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicolinguística , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Semântica
13.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 51: 79-84, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting. Participants first rated the degree of liking and wanting for different foods using explicit self-report measures. They then performed an affective priming task that measured participants' affective reactions towards foods (liking), and a grip-force task that assessed their motivation for food rewards (wanting). All participants also completed several questionnaires assessing impulsivity, reward sensitivity, anxiety and depression, and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. RESULTS: Patients with BE displayed an altered liking for sweet foods compared to controls but not to patients without BE. Furthermore, this difference emerged only when implicit measures were used. Importantly, an increased wanting was not associated with binge eating even if wanting, but not liking scores significantly correlated with LED levodopa, confirming the hypothesis of a distinction between the two components of rewards. Lastly, binge eating was associated with depression and lower working memory scores. CONCLUSIONS: Take together these results suggest that binge eating in PD is associated with cognitive abnormalities, and to lesser extent affective abnormalities, but not with an increased incentive salience.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Dopaminérgicos/efeitos adversos , Emoções/fisiologia , Alimentos , Motivação/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Idoso , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Brain Cogn ; 123: 103-109, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550505

RESUMO

Impulsivity, conceptualized as impulsive personality trait, poor inhibitory control and enhanced reward sensitivity, has been strongly linked to obesity. In particular, a disequilibrium between cognitive control and reward sensitivity has been observed in obese individuals in both behavioural and imaging studies. While this issue has been widely investigated in children and adults, it has received little attention in older adults. Here, obese and non-obese participants aged between 40 and 70 years completed the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (assessing motor, non-planning and attentional impulsiveness), a Go/no-go task with foods and non-foods (assessing inhibitory control) and a reward sensitivity battery with high and low caloric foods (assessing liking, wanting, tastiness and frequency of consumption). We observed that participants with higher BMI reported increased wanting for high calorie foods, but did not show poorer inhibitory control. Interestingly, participants who scored lower on the MMSE reported to consume high calorie more than low calorie foods. Finally, those who presented low scores on non-planning and motor impulsiveness subscales reported higher tastiness ratings for low calorie foods. These results show that increased reward sensitivity but not reduced inhibitory control may characterize higher BMI during aging. Importantly, they also highlight new findings concerning food preferences among older adults.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
15.
Cortex ; 92: 150-161, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494345

RESUMO

Weight gain has been reported after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS), a widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). This nucleus has been repeatedly found to be linked both to reward and to inhibitory control, two key aspects in the control of food intake. In this study, we assessed whether weight gain experienced by patients with PD after STN-DBS, might be due to an alteration of reward and inhibitory functions. Eighteen patients with PD were compared to eighteen healthy controls and tested three times: before surgery, in ON medication and after surgery, respectively five days after the implantation in ON medication/OFF stimulation and at least three months after surgery in ON medication/ON stimulation. All participants were assessed for depression (Beck Depression Inventory), anhedonia (Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale) and impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale). They performed a battery of tests assessing food reward sensitivity (Liking, Wanting and Preference) and a food go/no-go task. Results showed that body weight significantly increased after STN-DBS. A few days after surgery, patients were slower and more impulsive in the go/no-go task, showed a higher preference for high calorie (HC) foods and rated foods as less tasty. Months after subthalamic stimulation, the performance on the go/no-go task improved while no differences were observed in reward sensitivity. Interestingly, weight gain resulted greater in patients with higher levels of attentional impulsiveness pre-surgery, higher wanting for low calorie (LC) foods and impulsivity in the go/no-go task in ON medication/ON stimulation. However, only wanting and attentional impulsivity significantly predicted weight change. Furthermore, weight gain resulted associated with the reduction of l-Dopa after surgery and disease's duration. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with the view that weight gain in PD after STN-DBS has a multifactorial nature, which reflects the complex functional organization of the STN.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Recompensa , Núcleo Subtalâmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Front Psychol ; 8: 394, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386240

RESUMO

Language and emotions are closely linked. However, previous research suggests that this link is stronger in a native language (L1) than in a second language (L2) that had been learned later in life. The present study investigates whether such reduced emotionality in L2 is reflected in changes in emotional memory and embodied responses to L2 in comparison to L1. Late Spanish/English bilinguals performed a memory task involving an encoding and a surprise retrieval phase. Facial motor resonance and skin conductance (SC) responses were recorded during encoding. The results give first indications that the enhanced memory for emotional vs. neutral content (EEM effect) is stronger in L1 and less present in L2. Furthermore, the results give partial support for decreased facial motor resonance and SC responses to emotional words in L2 as compared to L1. These findings suggest that embodied knowledge involved in emotional memory is associated to increased affective encoding and retrieval of L1 compared to L2.

17.
Brain Cogn ; 110: 1-3, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810040

RESUMO

Food is essential to our survival. It is also one of the greatest pleasures of life. Over the last decade, our understanding about how the brain responds to food cues and guides food search and intake has greatly increased. This special issue brings together various perspectives and research approaches on food cognitive neuroscience, encompassing a wide variety of techniques and methods. As these studies will add substantially to the ever-growing research on food cognitive neuroscience, we hope that they will also inspire new and useful ideas to fill the gaps that remain in this critical area of inquiry. By providing nutrients to generate energy and sustain life, food is an essential fuel for our survival and a pervasive element of our daily environment. Food also represents one of the greatest pleasures that we experience in life. More recently, numerous cognitive neuroscientific studies about how the brain responds to food cues and guides food search and consumption have been published. Evidence points to several and closely interrelated neural circuits underlying the homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms that regulate food intake.


Assuntos
Cérebro/fisiologia , Neurociência Cognitiva , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Alimentos , Humanos
18.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 11(6): 917-928, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27784749

RESUMO

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a "smile"), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a "pout"). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the "smile" and "pout" conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -0.11 to 0.16.


Assuntos
Afeto , Expressão Facial , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Modelos Psicológicos , Humanos , Boca
19.
Brain Cogn ; 110: 120-130, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651170

RESUMO

The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized. However, the category of food, that contains both living-natural items, such as an apple, and nonliving-manufactured items as in the case of a hamburger, has never been systematically investigated. As such, food category could turn out to be very useful to test whether the brain organizes the knowledge about food in sensory/functional subsystems, in a specific domain, or whether both approaches might need to be integrated. In the present study we tested the ability of patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) and with Primary Progressive Aphasias (PPA) as well as healthy controls to perform a confrontation naming task, a categorization task, and a comprehension of edible (natural and manufactured food) and non edible items (tools and non-edible natural things) task (Tasks 1-3). The same photographs of natural and manufactured food were presented together with a description of food's sensory or functional property that could be either congruent or incongruent with that particular food (Task 4). Patients were overall less accurate than healthy individuals, and PPA patients were generally more impaired than AD patients, especially on the naming task. Food tended to be processed better than non-food in two out of three tasks (categorization and comprehension tasks). Patient groups showed no difference in naming food and non-food items, while controls were more accurate with non-food than food (controlling for the linguistic variables and calorie content). AD patients named manufactured food more accurately than natural food (with PPA and controls showing no difference). Recognition of food and, to some extent, of manufactured food seems to be more resilient to brain damage, possibly by virtue of its survival relevance. Furthermore, on Task 4 patients showed an advantage for the sensory-natural pairs over sensory-manufactured combination. Overall, findings do not fit an existing model of semantic memory and suggest that properties intrinsic to the food items (such as the level of transformation and the calorie content) or even to the participants like the Body Mass Index (as shown in another study reviewed here) should be considered.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Alimentos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Semântica
20.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 23(4): 1043-54, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294421

RESUMO

Despite the essential role of food in our lives, we have little understanding of the way our knowledge about food is organized in the brain. At birth, human infants exhibit very few food preferences, and do not yet know much about what is edible and what is not. A multisensory learning development will eventually turn young infants into omnivore adults, for whom deciding what to eat becomes an effortful task. Recognizing food constitutes an essential step in this decisional process. In this paper we examine how concepts about food are represented in the human brain. More specifically, we first analyze how brain-damaged patients recognize natural and manufactured food, and then examine these patterns in the light of the sensory-functional hypothesis and the domain-specific hypothesis. Secondly, we discuss how concepts of food are represented depending on whether we embrace the embodied view or the disembodied view. We conclude that research on food recognition and on the organization of knowledge about food must also take into account some aspects specific to food category, the relevance of which has not been sufficiently recognized and investigated to date.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Formação de Conceito , Alimentos , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Compreensão , Comportamento Alimentar , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Demência Frontotemporal/psicologia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Odorantes , Percepção Olfatória , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo
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