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1.
Cancer Cell ; 39(1): 83-95.e4, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434514

RESUMO

GenomePaint (https://genomepaint.stjude.cloud/) is an interactive visualization platform for whole-genome, whole-exome, transcriptome, and epigenomic data of tumor samples. Its design captures the inter-relatedness between DNA variations and RNA expression, supporting in-depth exploration of both individual cancer genomes and full cohorts. Regulatory non-coding variants can be inspected and analyzed along with coding variants, and their functional impact further explored by examining 3D genome data from cancer cell lines. Further, GenomePaint correlates mutation and expression patterns with patient outcomes, and supports custom data upload. We used GenomePaint to unveil aberrant splicing that disrupts the RING domain of CREBBP, discover cis activation of the MYC oncogene by duplication of the NOTCH1-MYC enhancer in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and explore the inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity at EGFR in adult glioblastomas. These examples demonstrate that deep multi-omics exploration of individual cancer genomes enabled by GenomePaint can lead to biological insights for follow-up validation.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5183, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056981

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric malignancy with heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To better understand neuroblastoma pathogenesis, here we analyze whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome data from 702 neuroblastoma samples. Forty percent of samples harbor at least one recurrent driver gene alteration and most aberrations, including MYCN, ATRX, and TERT alterations, differ in frequency by age. MYCN alterations occur at median 2.3 years of age, TERT at 3.8 years, and ATRX at 5.6 years. COSMIC mutational signature 18, previously associated with reactive oxygen species, is the most common cause of driver point mutations in neuroblastoma, including most ALK and Ras-activating variants. Signature 18 appears early and is continuous throughout disease evolution. Signature 18 is enriched in neuroblastomas with MYCN amplification, 17q gain, and increased expression of mitochondrial ribosome and electron transport-associated genes. Recurrent FGFR1 variants in six patients, and ALK N-terminal structural alterations in five samples, identify additional patients potentially amenable to precision therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neuroblastoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ribossomos Mitocondriais , Mutação , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
3.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 1(1): 96-111, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793890

RESUMO

Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a leading cause of childhood death. Prior studies have shown clonal mutations at relapse often arise from relapse-fated subclones that exist at diagnosis. However, the genomic landscape, evolutionary trajectories and mutational mechanisms driving relapse are incompletely understood. In an analysis of 92 cases of relapsed childhood ALL, incorporating multimodal DNA and RNA sequencing, deep digital mutational tracking and xenografting to formally define clonal structure, we identify 50 significant targets of mutation with distinct patterns of mutational acquisition or enrichment. CREBBP, NOTCH1, and Ras signaling mutations rose from diagnosis subclones, whereas variants in NCOR2, USH2A and NT5C2 were exclusively observed at relapse. Evolutionary modeling and xenografting demonstrated that relapse-fated clones were minor (50%), major (27%) or multiclonal (18%) at diagnosis. Putative second leukemias, including those with lineage shift, were shown to most commonly represent relapse from an ancestral clone rather than a truly independent second primary leukemia. A subset of leukemias prone to repeated relapse exhibited hypermutation driven by at least three distinct mutational processes, resulting in heightened neoepitope burden and potential vulnerability to immunotherapy. Finally, relapse-driving sequence mutations were detected prior to relapse using deep digital PCR at levels comparable to orthogonal approaches to monitor levels of measurable residual disease. These results provide a genomic framework to anticipate and circumvent relapse by earlier detection and targeting of relapse-fated clones.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(8): 811-818, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632335

RESUMO

We developed cis-X, a computational method for discovering regulatory noncoding variants in cancer by integrating whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing data from a single cancer sample. cis-X first finds aberrantly cis-activated genes that exhibit allele-specific expression accompanied by an elevated outlier expression. It then searches for causal noncoding variants that may introduce aberrant transcription factor binding motifs or enhancer hijacking by structural variations. Analysis of 13 T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias identified a recurrent intronic variant predicted to cis-activate the TAL1 oncogene, a finding validated in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing of a patient-derived xenograft. Candidate oncogenes include the prolactin receptor PRLR activated by a focal deletion that removes a CTCF-insulated neighborhood boundary. cis-X may be applied to pediatric and adult solid tumors that are aneuploid and heterogeneous. In contrast to existing approaches, which require large sample cohorts, cis-X enables the discovery of regulatory noncoding variants in individual cancer genomes.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Oncogenes/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(24): 2728-2740, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate cancer treatment plus pathogenic germline mutations (PGMs) in DNA repair genes (DRGs) for identification of childhood cancer survivors at increased risk of subsequent neoplasms (SNs). METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on blood-derived DNA from survivors in the St Jude Lifetime Cohort. PGMs were evaluated in 127 genes from 6 major DNA repair pathways. Cumulative doses of chemotherapy and body region-specific radiotherapy (RT) were abstracted from medical records. Relative rates (RRs) and 95% CIs of SNs by mutation status were estimated using multivariable piecewise exponential models. RESULTS: Of 4,402 survivors, 495 (11.2%) developed 1,269 SNs. We identified 538 PGMs in 98 DRGs (POLG, MUTYH, ERCC2, and BRCA2, among others) in 508 (11.5%) survivors. Mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes were significantly associated with an increased rate of subsequent female breast cancer (RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.8 to 7.7), especially among survivors with chest RT ≥ 20 Gy (RR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 12.4), or with a cumulative dose of anthracyclines in the second or third tertile (RR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7 to 11.4). Mutations in HR genes were also associated with an increased rate of subsequent sarcoma among those who received alkylating agent doses in the third tertile (RR, 14.9; 95% CI, 4.0 to 38.0). Mutations in nucleotide excision repair genes were associated with subsequent thyroid cancer for those treated with neck RT ≥ 30 Gy (RR, 12.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 46.6) with marginal statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Our study provides novel insights regarding the contribution of genetics, in combination with known treatment-related risks, for the development of SNs. These findings have the potential to facilitate identification of high-risk survivors who may benefit from genetic counseling and/or testing of DRGs, which may further inform personalized cancer surveillance and prevention strategies.

7.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 126, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466770

RESUMO

To discover driver fusions beyond canonical exon-to-exon chimeric transcripts, we develop CICERO, a local assembly-based algorithm that integrates RNA-seq read support with extensive annotation for candidate ranking. CICERO outperforms commonly used methods, achieving a 95% detection rate for 184 independently validated driver fusions including internal tandem duplications and other non-canonical events in 170 pediatric cancer transcriptomes. Re-analysis of TCGA glioblastoma RNA-seq unveils previously unreported kinase fusions (KLHL7-BRAF) and a 13% prevalence of EGFR C-terminal truncation. Accessible via standard or cloud-based implementation, CICERO enhances driver fusion detection for research and precision oncology. The CICERO source code is available at https://github.com/stjude/Cicero.

8.
Nature ; 580(7803): 396-401, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296180

RESUMO

Cancer genomics has revealed many genes and core molecular processes that contribute to human malignancies, but the genetic and molecular bases of many rare cancers remains unclear. Genetic predisposition accounts for 5 to 10% of cancer diagnoses in children1,2, and genetic events that cooperate with known somatic driver events are poorly understood. Pathogenic germline variants in established cancer predisposition genes have been recently identified in 5% of patients with the malignant brain tumour medulloblastoma3. Here, by analysing all protein-coding genes, we identify and replicate rare germline loss-of-function variants across ELP1 in 14% of paediatric patients with the medulloblastoma subgroup Sonic Hedgehog (MBSHH). ELP1 was the most common medulloblastoma predisposition gene and increased the prevalence of genetic predisposition to 40% among paediatric patients with MBSHH. Parent-offspring and pedigree analyses identified two families with a history of paediatric medulloblastoma. ELP1-associated medulloblastomas were restricted to the molecular SHHα subtype4 and characterized by universal biallelic inactivation of ELP1 owing to somatic loss of chromosome arm 9q. Most ELP1-associated medulloblastomas also exhibited somatic alterations in PTCH1, which suggests that germline ELP1 loss-of-function variants predispose individuals to tumour development in combination with constitutive activation of SHH signalling. ELP1 is the largest subunit of the evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which catalyses translational elongation through tRNA modifications at the wobble (U34) position5,6. Tumours from patients with ELP1-associated MBSHH were characterized by a destabilized Elongator complex, loss of Elongator-dependent tRNA modifications, codon-dependent translational reprogramming, and induction of the unfolded protein response, consistent with loss of protein homeostasis due to Elongator deficiency in model systems7-9. Thus, genetic predisposition to proteome instability may be a determinant in the pathogenesis of paediatric brain cancers. These results support investigation of the role of protein homeostasis in other cancer types and potential for therapeutic interference.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/genética , Linhagem , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética
9.
Cancer Discov ; 10(4): 568-587, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086311

RESUMO

Disease recurrence causes significant mortality in B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Genomic analysis of matched diagnosis and relapse samples shows relapse often arising from minor diagnosis subclones. However, why therapy eradicates some subclones while others survive and progress to relapse remains obscure. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying these differing fates requires functional analysis of isolated subclones. Here, large-scale limiting dilution xenografting of diagnosis and relapse samples, combined with targeted sequencing, identified and isolated minor diagnosis subclones that initiate an evolutionary trajectory toward relapse [termed diagnosis Relapse Initiating clones (dRI)]. Compared with other diagnosis subclones, dRIs were drug-tolerant with distinct engraftment and metabolic properties. Transcriptionally, dRIs displayed enrichment for chromatin remodeling, mitochondrial metabolism, proteostasis programs, and an increase in stemness pathways. The isolation and characterization of dRI subclones reveals new avenues for eradicating dRI cells by targeting their distinct metabolic and transcriptional pathways before further evolution renders them fully therapy-resistant. SIGNIFICANCE: Isolation and characterization of subclones from diagnosis samples of patients with B-ALL who relapsed showed that relapse-fated subclones had increased drug tolerance and distinct metabolic and survival transcriptional programs compared with other diagnosis subclones. This study provides strategies to identify and target clinically relevant subclones before further evolution toward relapse.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(10): 2362-2371, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze and compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and age-dependent LTL attrition between childhood cancer survivors and noncancer controls, and to evaluate the associations of LTL with treatment exposures, chronic health conditions (CHC), and health behaviors among survivors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We included 2,427 survivors and 293 noncancer controls of European ancestry, drawn from the participants in St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE), a retrospective hospital-based study with prospective follow-up (2007-2016). Common nonneoplastic CHCs (59 types) and subsequent malignant neoplasms (5 types) were clinically assessed. LTL was measured with whole-genome sequencing data. RESULTS: After adjusting for age at DNA sampling, gender, genetic risk score based on 9 SNPs known to be associated with telomere length, and eigenvectors, LTL among survivors was significantly shorter both overall [adjusted mean (AM) = 6.20 kb; SE = 0.03 kb] and across diagnoses than controls (AM = 6.69 kb; SE = 0.07 kb). Among survivors, specific treatment exposures associated with shorter LTL included chest or abdominal irradiation, glucocorticoid, and vincristine chemotherapies. Significant negative associations of LTL with 14 different CHCs, and a positive association with subsequent thyroid cancer occurring out of irradiation field were identified. Health behaviors were significantly associated with LTL among survivors aged 18 to 35 years (P trend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: LTL is significantly shorter among childhood cancer survivors than noncancer controls, and is associated with CHCs and health behaviors, suggesting LTL as an aging biomarker may be a potential mechanistic target for future intervention studies designed to prevent or delay onset of CHCs in childhood cancer survivors.See related commentary by Walsh, p. 2281.

11.
Blood ; 135(1): 41-55, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697823

RESUMO

To study the mechanisms of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 103 diagnosis-relapse-germline trios and ultra-deep sequencing of 208 serial samples in 16 patients. Relapse-specific somatic alterations were enriched in 12 genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, TP53, NT5C2, FPGS, CREBBP, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, WHSC1, PRPS1, and PRPS2) involved in drug response. Their prevalence was 17% in very early relapse (<9 months from diagnosis), 65% in early relapse (9-36 months), and 32% in late relapse (>36 months) groups. Convergent evolution, in which multiple subclones harbor mutations in the same drug resistance gene, was observed in 6 relapses and confirmed by single-cell sequencing in 1 case. Mathematical modeling and mutational signature analysis indicated that early relapse resistance acquisition was frequently a 2-step process in which a persistent clone survived initial therapy and later acquired bona fide resistance mutations during therapy. In contrast, very early relapses arose from preexisting resistant clone(s). Two novel relapse-specific mutational signatures, one of which was caused by thiopurine treatment based on in vitro drug exposure experiments, were identified in early and late relapses but were absent from 2540 pan-cancer diagnosis samples and 129 non-ALL relapses. The novel signatures were detected in 27% of relapsed ALLs and were responsible for 46% of acquired resistance mutations in NT5C2, PRPS1, NR3C1, and TP53. These results suggest that chemotherapy-induced drug resistance mutations facilitate a subset of pediatric ALL relapses.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(2): e28047, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the absolute number of adult survivors of childhood cancer in the U.S. population who carry a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in a cancer predisposition gene. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we estimated the number of childhood cancer survivors on December 31, 2016 for each childhood cancer diagnosis, multiplied this by the proportion of carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (SJLIFE) study, and projected the resulting number onto the U.S. RESULTS: Based on genome sequence data, 11.8% of 2450 SJLIFE participants carry a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in one of 156 cancer predisposition genes. Given this information, we estimate that 21 800 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the United States carry a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in one of these genes. The highest estimated absolute number of variant carriers are among survivors of central nervous system tumors (n = 4300), particularly astrocytoma (n = 1800) and other gliomas (n = 1700), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4300), and retinoblastoma (n = 3500). The most frequently mutated genes are RB1 (n = 3000), NF1 (n = 2300), and BRCA2 (n = 800). CONCLUSION: Given the increasing number of childhood cancer survivors in the United States, clinicians should counsel survivors regarding their potential genetic risk, consider referral for genetic counseling and testing, and, as appropriate, implement syndrome-specific cancer surveillance or risk-reducing measures.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Bioinformatics ; 36(5): 1382-1390, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593214

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Reliable identification of expressed somatic insertions/deletions (indels) is an unmet need due to artifacts generated in PCR-based RNA-Seq library preparation and the lack of normal RNA-Seq data, presenting analytical challenges for discovery of somatic indels in tumor transcriptome. RESULTS: We present RNAIndel, a tool for predicting somatic, germline and artifact indels from tumor RNA-Seq data. RNAIndel leverages features derived from indel sequence context and biological effect in a machine-learning framework. Except for tumor samples with microsatellite instability, RNAIndel robustly predicts 88-100% of somatic indels in five diverse test datasets of pediatric and adult cancers, even recovering subclonal (VAF range 0.01-0.15) driver indels missed by targeted deep-sequencing, outperforming the current best-practice for RNA-Seq variant calling which had 57% sensitivity but with 14 times more false positives. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: RNAIndel is freely available at https://github.com/stjude/RNAIndel. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , RNA-Seq , Criança , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(7): 756-764, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to systematically evaluate telomere dynamics across a spectrum of pediatric cancers, search for underlying molecular mechanisms, and assess potential prognostic value. METHODS: The fraction of telomeric reads was determined from whole-genome sequencing data for paired tumor and normal samples from 653 patients with 23 cancer types from the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project. Telomere dynamics were characterized as the ratio of telomere fractions between tumor and normal samples. Somatic mutations were gathered, RNA sequencing data for 330 patients were analyzed for gene expression, and Cox regression was used to assess the telomere dynamics on patient survival. RESULTS: Telomere lengthening was observed in 28.7% of solid tumors, 10.5% of brain tumors, and 4.3% of hematological cancers. Among 81 samples with telomere lengthening, 26 had somatic mutations in alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene, corroborated by a low level of the gene expression in the subset of tumors with RNA sequencing. Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene amplification and/or activation was observed in 10 tumors with telomere lengthening, including two leukemias of the E2A-PBX1 subtype. Among hematological cancers, pathway analysis for genes with expressions most negatively correlated with telomere fractions suggests the implication of a gene ontology process of antigen presentation by Major histocompatibility complex class II. A higher ratio of telomere fractions was statistically significantly associated with poorer survival for patients with brain tumors (hazard ratio = 2.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.37 to 3.46). CONCLUSION: Because telomerase inhibitors are currently being explored as potential agents to treat pediatric cancer, these data are valuable because they identify a subpopulation of patients with reactivation of telomerase who are most likely to benefit from this novel therapeutic option.

15.
Genome Res ; 29(9): 1555-1565, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439692

RESUMO

Variant interpretation in the era of massively parallel sequencing is challenging. Although many resources and guidelines are available to assist with this task, few integrated end-to-end tools exist. Here, we present the Pediatric Cancer Variant Pathogenicity Information Exchange (PeCanPIE), a web- and cloud-based platform for annotation, identification, and classification of variations in known or putative disease genes. Starting from a set of variants in variant call format (VCF), variants are annotated, ranked by putative pathogenicity, and presented for formal classification using a decision-support interface based on published guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). The system can accept files containing millions of variants and handle single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), simple insertions/deletions (indels), multiple-nucleotide variants (MNVs), and complex substitutions. PeCanPIE has been applied to classify variant pathogenicity in cancer predisposition genes in two large-scale investigations involving >4000 pediatric cancer patients and serves as a repository for the expert-reviewed results. PeCanPIE was originally developed for pediatric cancer but can be easily extended for use for nonpediatric cancers and noncancer genetic diseases. Although PeCanPIE's web-based interface was designed to be accessible to non-bioinformaticians, its back-end pipelines may also be run independently on the cloud, facilitating direct integration and broader adoption. PeCanPIE is publicly available and free for research use.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Criança , Computação em Nuvem , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Interface Usuário-Computador
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 694-704, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926971

RESUMO

Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a high-risk leukemia of poorly understood genetic basis, with controversy regarding diagnosis in the spectrum of myelodysplasia and myeloid leukemia. We compared genomic features of 159 childhood and adult AEL cases with non-AEL myeloid disorders and defined five age-related subgroups with distinct transcriptional profiles: adult, TP53 mutated; NPM1 mutated; KMT2A mutated/rearranged; adult, DDX41 mutated; and pediatric, NUP98 rearranged. Genomic features influenced outcome, with NPM1 mutations and HOXB9 overexpression being associated with a favorable prognosis and TP53, FLT3 or RB1 alterations associated with poor survival. Targetable signaling mutations were present in 45% of cases and included recurrent mutations of ALK and NTRK1, the latter of which drives erythroid leukemogenesis sensitive to TRK inhibition. This genomic landscape of AEL provides the framework for accurate diagnosis and risk stratification of this disease, and the rationale for testing targeted therapies in this high-risk leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
18.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(4): 637-655, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770999

RESUMO

Histone H3 K27M mutation is the defining molecular feature of the devastating pediatric brain tumor, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The prevalence of histone H3 K27M mutations indicates a critical role in DIPGs, but the contribution of the mutation to disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We show that knockdown of this mutation in DIPG xenografts restores K27M-dependent loss of H3K27me3 and delays tumor growth. Comparisons of matched DIPG xenografts with and without K27M knockdown allowed identification of mutation-specific effects on the transcriptome and epigenome. The resulting transcriptional changes recapitulate expression signatures from K27M primary DIPG tumors and are strongly enriched for genes associated with nervous system development. Integrated analysis of ChIP-seq and expression data showed that genes upregulated by the mutation are overrepresented in apparently bivalent promoters. Many of these targets are associated with more immature differentiation states. Expression profiles indicate K27M knockdown decreases proliferation and increases differentiation within lineages represented in DIPG. These data suggest that K27M-mediated loss of H3K27me3 directly regulates a subset of genes by releasing poised promoters, and contributes to tumor phenotype and growth by limiting differentiation. The delayed tumor growth associated with knockdown of H3 K27M provides evidence that this highly recurrent mutation is a relevant therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/genética , Histonas/genética , Mutação , Animais , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos
19.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(4): 895-906, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651371

RESUMO

To investigate the genomic evolution of metastatic pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome and targeted deep sequencing on 14 osteosarcoma metastases and two primary tumors from four patients (two to eight samples per patient). All four patients harbored ancestral (truncal) somatic variants resulting in TP53 inactivation and cell-cycle aberrations, followed by divergence into relapse-specific lineages exhibiting a cisplatin-induced mutation signature. In three of the four patients, the cisplatin signature accounted for >40% of mutations detected in the metastatic samples. Mutations potentially acquired during cisplatin treatment included NF1 missense mutations of uncertain significance in two patients and a KIT G565R activating mutation in one patient. Three of four patients demonstrated widespread ploidy differences between samples from the sample patient. Single-cell seeding of metastasis was detected in most metastatic samples. Cross-seeding between metastatic sites was observed in one patient, whereas in another patient a minor clone from the primary tumor seeded both metastases analyzed. These results reveal extensive clonal heterogeneity in metastatic osteosarcoma, much of which is likely cisplatin-induced. IMPLICATIONS: The extent and consequences of chemotherapy-induced damage in pediatric cancers is unknown. We found that cisplatin treatment can potentially double the mutational burden in osteosarcoma, which has implications for optimizing therapy for recurrent, chemotherapy-resistant disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Evolução Clonal/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Metástase Neoplásica , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(1): 123-137, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267146

RESUMO

Double minute chromosomes are extrachromosomal circular DNA fragments frequently found in brain tumors. To understand their evolution, we characterized the double minutes in paired diagnosis and relapse tumors from a pediatric high-grade glioma and four adult glioblastoma patients. We determined the full structures of the major double minutes using a novel approach combining multiple types of supporting genomic evidence. Among the double minutes identified in the pediatric patient, only one carrying EGFR was maintained at high abundance in both samples, whereas two others were present in only trace amounts at diagnosis but abundant at relapse, and the rest were found either in the relapse sample only or in the diagnosis sample only. For the EGFR-carrying double minutes, we found a secondary somatic deletion in all copies at relapse, after erlotinib treatment. However, the somatic mutation was present at very low frequency at diagnosis, suggesting potential resistance to the EGFR inhibitor. This mutation caused an in-frame RNA transcript to skip exon 16, a novel transcript isoform absent in EST database, as well as about 700 RNA-seq of normal brains that we reviewed. We observed similar patterns involving longitudinal copy number shift of double minutes in another four pairs (diagnosis/relapse) of adult glioblastoma. Overall, in three of five paired tumor samples, we found that although the same oncogenes were amplified at diagnosis and relapse, they were amplified on different double minutes. Our results suggest that double minutes readily evolve, increasing tumor heterogeneity rapidly. Understanding patterns of double minute evolution can shed light on future therapeutic solutions to brain tumors carrying such variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/patologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Genômica , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva
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