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Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802


Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

Bioinformatics ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263866


SUMMARY: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) belong to the group of rare diseases. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) operates an international research database application for continuous long-term documentation of patient data. The system is a web application which runs in a standard browser. Therefore, the system is easy to access from any location. Technically, the system is based on Gails backed by MariaDB with high standard security features to comply with the demands of a modern research platform. AVAILABILITY: The ESID Online Database is accessible via the official website: demo system is available via: with user demouser and password Demo-2019.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1763-1770, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776527


Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on more than 25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). The prerequisite of a patient to be included into the ESID registry is an IEI either defined by a defect in a gene included in the disease classification of the international union of immunological societies, or verified by applying clinical criteria. Because a relevant number of patients, including those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), representing the largest group of patients in the registry, remain without a genetic diagnosis, consensus on classification of these patients is mandatory. Here, we present clinical criteria for a large number of IEI that were designed in expert panels with an external review. They were implemented for novel entries and verification of existing data sets from 2014, yielding a substantial refinement. For instance, 8% of adults and 27% of children with CVID (176 of 1704 patients) were reclassified to 22 different immunodeficiencies, illustrating progress in genetics, but also the previous lack of standardized disease definitions. Importantly, apart from registry purposes, the clinical criteria are also helpful to support treatment decisions in the absence of a genetic diagnosis or in patients with variants of unknown significance.

Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784


Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(4): 1427-1438, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782633


BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most frequent primary immunodeficiencies in human subjects. The genetic causes of PADs are largely unknown. Sec61 translocon alpha 1 subunit (SEC61A1) is the major subunit of the Sec61 complex, which is the main polypeptide-conducting channel in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. SEC61A1 is a target gene of spliced X-box binding protein 1 and strongly induced during plasma cell (PC) differentiation. OBJECTIVE: We identified a novel genetic defect and studied its pathologic mechanism in 11 patients from 2 unrelated families with PADs. METHODS: Whole-exome and targeted sequencing were conducted to identify novel genetic mutations. Functional studies were carried out ex vivo in primary cells of patients and in vitro in different cell lines to assess the effect of SEC61A1 mutations on B-cell differentiation and survival. RESULTS: We investigated 2 families with patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, severe recurrent respiratory tract infections, and normal peripheral B- and T-cell subpopulations. On in vitro stimulation, B cells showed an intrinsic deficiency to develop into PCs. Genetic analysis and targeted sequencing identified novel heterozygous missense (c.254T>A, p.V85D) and nonsense (c.1325G>T, p.E381*) mutations in SEC61A1, segregating with the disease phenotype. SEC61A1-V85D was deficient in cotranslational protein translocation, and it disturbed the cellular calcium homeostasis in HeLa cells. Moreover, SEC61A1-V85D triggered the terminal unfolded protein response in multiple myeloma cell lines. CONCLUSION: We describe a monogenic defect leading to a specific PC deficiency in human subjects, expanding our knowledge about the pathogenesis of antibody deficiencies.

Clin Infect Dis ; 62(7): 871-878, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26703862


BACKGROUND: Recent population-based cohort studies have questioned the role of pneumococci as the most frequent pathogen causing severe infection in patients after splenectomy. The aim of the study was to define the causative pathogens and clinical presentation of patients with overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI). METHODS: In a prospective cohort study in 173 German intensive care units, we searched for patients with and without asplenia and community-acquired severe sepsis/septic shock. Clinical and laboratory variables and survival of patients were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients with severe sepsis or septic shock with asplenia and 52 without asplenia were included. OPSI patients more often had a history of malignancy (38% vs 17%; P = .016) and had a lower body mass index (24 kg/m(2) vs 28 kg/m(2); P = .004). Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected more frequently in OPSI patients (42% vs 12% without asplenia; P < .001) and more frequently manifested as bloodstream infection (31% vs 6%; P = .002). Gram-negative infection was similar in both groups (12% vs 19%; P = .157). Pneumococcal vaccine coverage of OPSI patients was low overall (42% vs 8% among patients without asplenia; P < .001). Purpura fulminans was a frequent complication, developing in 19% of OPSI patients vs 5% of patients without asplenia (P = .038). The interval between splenectomy and OPSI was 6 years (range, 1 month-50 years). On multivariable Poisson regression, asplenia was the only predictive variable independently associated with pneumococcal sepsis (adjusted relative risk, 2.53 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-6.08]). CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal infections remain the most important cause of severe sepsis and septic shock following splenectomy.

Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos