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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424123

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The CLOSE protocol combines ablation index (AI) and ≤6 mm interlesion distance using standard power settings for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of a conventional CLOSE and a higher power shorter duration (HPSD)-CLOSE pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) strategy. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive patients referred for PVI were included after informed consent was obtained from them. Group 1 was treated with a standard CLOSE protocol and group 2 with a HPSD-CLOSE protocol (45 W anterior and 35 W posterior). Procedural parameters and 6-month follow-up were analyzed. In total, 174 patients (group 1: n = 94 [paroxysmal: n = 74]; group 2: n = 80 [paroxysmal: n = 65], similar baseline characteristics) were included. PVI was reached in all, but procedure duration (82 ± 18 minutes vs 100 ± 22 minutes; P < .0001) and radiofrequency (RF) time (23 ± 5 minutes vs 36 ± 11 minutes; P < .0001) was shorter in group 2. First pass isolation was similar in groups 2 and 1 (left veins: 94% vs 90%; P = .42 and right veins: 83% vs 84%; P = .79, respectively). Six-month off- antiarrhythmic drugs freedom of AF/AT was similar in groups 2 and 1 (82% [paroxysmal: 86%] vs 83% [paroxysmal: 88%]; P = .93, respectively). Major complications were similar (group 2: 1% vs group 1: 3%; P = .39). CONCLUSION: A higher-power short duration approach can shorten a CLOSE procedure and reduce ablation time without having a negative impact on safety or efficiency.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410955

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare characteristics of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients receiving a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) with a defibrillator component (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillation, CIED-D) vs. those without one, and to assess whether carrying such a device contiguously with an LVAD is associated with outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 448 patients were analysed (mean age 52 ± 13 years, 82% male) in the multicentre European PCHF-VAD registry. To account for all active CIED-Ds during ongoing LVAD treatment, outcome analyses were performed by a time-varying analysis with active CIED-D status post-LVAD as the time-varying covariate. At the time of LVAD implantation, 235 patients (52%) had an active CIED-D. Median time on LVAD support was 1.1 years (interquartile range 0.5-2.0 years). A reduction of 36% in the risk of all-cause mortality was observed in patients with an active CIED-D [hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.91; P = 0.012), increasing to 41% after adjustment for baseline covariates (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87; P = 0.008) and 39% after propensity score adjustment (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.94; P = 0.027). Other than CIED-D, age, LVAD implant as redo surgery, number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and use of vasopressors pre-LVAD were remaining significant risk factors of all-cause mortality. Incident ventricular arrhythmias post-LVAD portended a 2.4-fold and 2.6-fold increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively; carrying an active CIED-D remained associated with a 47% and 43% reduction in these events, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis accounting for all active CIED-Ds, including those implanted during LVAD support, carrying such a device was associated with significantly better survival during LVAD support.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 988-997, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271256

RESUMO

AIMS: Dynamic retinal vessel analysis is a novel, non-invasive method to assess microvascular function. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether retinal microcirculation is impaired in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients with heart failure due to CAD (ischaemic heart failure, IHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 150 adults were enrolled to prospectively assess micro- and macrovasculature. The pre-defined primary outcome was flicker-induced arterial dilatation (FIDa) in patients with CAD [n = 40; median age 63 years, interquartile range (IQR) 53-70] and IHF (n = 40; median age 63 years, IQR 59-71) compared to healthy controls (HC, n = 70; median age 57 years, IQR 41-69). Secondary outcomes included arterial stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation, biomarkers, and ergospirometry parameters. Patients with CAD demonstrated impairment in FIDa that was even more pronounced in patients with IHF (CAD: 1.93 ± 0.28% vs. IHF: 0.41 ± 0.28%, P < 0.001; FIDa in HC: 3.69 ± 0.21%, both P < 0.001) adjusting for age, sex, concomitant medication, and co-morbidities. While pulse wave velocity was increased and flow-mediated dilatation reduced in CAD and IHF patients (both P < 0.001 compared to HC), neither differed between CAD and IHF patients. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (r = -0.49, P < 0.001,) and high-sensitivity troponin T (r = -0.28, P = 0.003) correlated with FIDa. Intriguingly, mean metabolic equivalents (5.3 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/h, n = 39) showed a positive correlation with FIDa (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a decline of retinal arterial function in CAD patients that is significantly more pronounced in the presence of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, suggesting a continuum of microvascular damage.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

6.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(6): 401-409, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039710

RESUMO

Therapeutic Strategies in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The Role of Coronary Revascularization Abstract. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Prevention and optimal treatment of patients with coronary artery disease is therefore crucial. Lifestyle changes, optimal medical therapy and aggressive risk factor control represent key elements in the management of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Coronary revascularization of flow-limiting coronary artery stenoses is indicated to reduce myocardial ischemia and related symptoms. This review summarizes treatment strategies of patients with stable coronary artery disease, focusing on the 2018 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines of myocardial revascularization.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Revascularização Miocárdica , Fatores de Risco
7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127678

RESUMO

AIMS: Classification of acute heart failure (AHF) patients into four clinical profiles defined by evidence of congestion and perfusion is advocated by the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)guidelines. Based on the ESC-EORP-HFA Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, we compared differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes among congestion/perfusion profiles using this classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 7865 AHF patients classified at admission as: 'dry-warm' (9.9%), 'wet-warm' (69.9%), 'wet-cold' (19.8%) and 'dry-cold' (0.4%). These groups differed significantly in terms of baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes. In-hospital mortality was 2.0% in 'dry-warm', 3.8% in 'wet-warm', 9.1% in 'dry-cold' and 12.1% in 'wet-cold' patients. Based on clinical classification at admission, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.78 (1.43-2.21) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 1.33 (1.19-1.48). For profiles resulting from discharge classification, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.46 (1.31-1.63) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 2.20 (1.89-2.56). Among patients discharged alive, 30.9% had residual congestion, and these patients had higher 1-year mortality compared to patients discharged without congestion (28.0 vs. 18.5%). Tricuspid regurgitation, diabetes, anaemia and high New York Heart Association class were independently associated with higher risk of congestion at discharge, while beta-blockers at admission, de novo heart failure, or any cardiovascular procedure during hospitalization were associated with lower risk of residual congestion. CONCLUSION: Classification based on congestion/perfusion status provides clinically relevant information at hospital admission and discharge. A better understanding of the clinical course of the two entities could play an important role towards the implementation of targeted strategies that may improve outcomes.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132222

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the proportion of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who are eligible for sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) based on the European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration (EMA/FDA) label, the PARADIGM-HF trial and the 2016 ESC guidelines, and the association between eligibility and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA Long-Term Heart Failure (HF-LT) Registry between March 2011 and November 2013 were considered. Criteria for LCZ696 based on EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and ESC guidelines were applied. Of 5443 patients, 2197 and 2373 had complete information for trial and guideline eligibility assessment, and 84%, 12% and 12% met EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria, respectively. Absent PARADIGM-HF criteria were low natriuretic peptides (21%), hyperkalemia (4%), hypotension (7%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (74%); absent Guidelines criteria were LVEF>35% (23%), insufficient NP levels (30%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (82%); absent label criteria were absence of symptoms (New York Heart Association class I). When a daily requirement of ACEi/ARB ≥ 10 mg enalapril (instead of ≥ 20 mg) was used, eligibility rose from 12% to 28% based on both PARADIGM-HF and guidelines. One-year heart failure hospitalization was higher (12% and 17% vs. 12%) and all-cause mortality lower (5.3% and 6.5% vs. 7.7%) in registry eligible patients compared to the enalapril arm of PARADIGM-HF. CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA HF-LT Registry, 84% met label criteria, while only 12% and 28% met PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria for LCZ696 if requiring ≥ 20 mg and ≥ 10 mg enalapril, respectively. Registry patients eligible for LCZ696 had greater heart failure hospitalization but lower mortality rates than the PARADIGM-HF enalapril group.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20054, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995683

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: An extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system (ECMO), as a bridge to either recovery, a ventricular assist device (VAD), or heart or lung transplantation, may be the only lifesaving option for critically ill patients suffering from refractory cardiac, respiratory or combined cardiopulmonary failure. As peripheral hospitals may not offer ECMO treatment, tertiary care centres provide specialised ECMO teams for on-site implantation and subsequent patient transfer on ECMO to the tertiary hospital. This study reports the results of the largest ECMO transportation programme in Switzerland and describes its feasibility and safety. METHODS: Patients transported on ECMO by our mobile ECMO team to our tertiary centre between 1 September 2009 and 31 December, 2016 underwent retrospective analysis. Implantation was performed by our specialised ECMO team (primary transport) or by the medical staff of the referring hospital (secondary transport) with subsequent transfer to our institution. Type of ECMO, transport data, patient baseline characteristics, operative variables and postoperative outcomes including complications and mortality were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were included (three patients excluded: one repatriation, two with incomplete medical records). Thirty-five patients (60%) received veno-venous, 22 (38%) veno-arterial and one patient (2%) veno-venoarterial ECMO. Forty-nine (84%) patients underwent primary and nine (16%) secondary transport. Thirty-five (60%) patients were transferred by helicopter and 23 (40%) by ambulance, with median distances of 38.1 (13–225) km and 21 (3-71) km respectively. No clinical or technical complications occurred during transportation. During hospitalisation, three patients had ECMO-associated complications (two compartment syndrome of lower limb, one haemothorax after central ECMO upgrade). Median days on ECMO was 8 (<1–49) and median days in hospital was 17 (<1–122). ECMO weaning was successful in 41 patients (71%), on-transport survival was 100%, 40 patients survived to discharge (69%), and overall survival was 67% (39 patients) at a median follow-up of 58 days (<1–1441). Cumulative survival was significantly affected by cardiogenic shock vs. ARDS (p = 0.001), veno-arterial and veno-venoarterial vs. veno-venous ECMO (p = 0.001) and after secondary vs. primary transport (p <0.001). The ECMO weaning rate was significantly lower after secondary transfer (22%, two patients, both vaECMO) vs. primary transfer (80%, p = 0.002, 39 patients of which 35 (71%) had vvECMO). CONCLUSIONS: The first results of our ECMO transportation programme show its feasibility, safety and efficacy without on-site implant or on-transport complications or mortality. The favourable early survival may justify the large effort with respect to logistics, costs and manpower. With rising awareness, referring centres may increasingly consider this lifesaving option at an early stage, which may further improve outcomes.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(4): 402-424, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859669

RESUMO

Ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) plays a major role in the physiology of cardiac and aortic mechanics, as well as in the pathophysiology of cardiac disease. VAC assessment possesses independent diagnostic and prognostic value and may be used to refine riskstratification and monitor therapeutic interventions. Traditionally, VAC is assessed by the non-invasive measurement of the ratio of arterial (Ea) to ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees). With disease progression, both Ea and Ees may become abnormal and the Ea/Ees ratio may approximate its normal values. Therefore, the measurement of each component of this ratio or of novel more sensitive markers of myocardial (e.g. global longitudinal strain) and arterial function (e.g. pulse wave velocity) may better characterize VAC. In valvular heart disease, systemic arterial compliance and valvulo-arterial impedance have an established diagnostic and prognostic value and may monitor the effects of valve replacement on vascular and cardiac function. Treatment guided to improve VAC through improvement of both or each one of its components may delay incidence of heart failure and possibly improve prognosis in heart failure. In this consensus document, we describe the pathophysiology, the methods of assessment as well as the clinical implications of VAC in cardiac diseases and heart failure. Finally, we focus on interventions that may improve VAC and thus modify prognosis.

15.
Physiol Rep ; 7(5): e14021, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821129

RESUMO

Despite growing research interest in the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), it remains unknown whether central hemodynamic alterations inherently present in this condition do affect blood pressure and blood volume (BV) regulation. The present study sought to determine hemodynamic and endocrine responses to prolonged orthostatic stress in HFpEF patients. Central venous pressure (CVP) assessed via the internal jugular vein (IJV) aspect ratio with ultrasonography, arterial pressure and heart rate were determined at supine rest and during 2 hours of moderate (25-30°) head-up tilt (HUT) in 18 stable HFpEF patients (71.2 ± 7.3 years), 14 elderly (EC), and 10 young (YC) healthy controls. Parallel endocrine measurements comprised main BV-regulating hormones: pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, copeptin, aldosterone, and erythropoietin (EPO). At supine rest, the IJV aspect ratio was higher (>30%) in HFpEF patients compared with EC and YC, while mean arterial pressure was elevated in HFpEF patients (98.0 ± 13.1 mm Hg) and EC (95.6 ± 8.3 mm Hg) versus YC (87.3 ± 5.0 mm Hg) (P < 0.05). HUT increased heart rate (+10%) and reduced the IJV aspect ratio (-52%), with similar hemodynamic effects in all groups (P for interaction ≥ 0.322). The analysis of endocrine responses to HUT revealed a group×time interaction for circulating EPO, which was increased in YC (+10%) but remained unaltered in HFpEF patients and EC. The EPO response to a given reduction in CVP is similarly impaired in HFpEF patients and elderly controls, suggesting an age-dependent dissociation of EPO production from hemodynamic regulation in the HFpEF condition.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 29-35, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is involved in inflammation and associated with cardiovascular risk factors. It is not known whether EAT affects outcome of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: 503 consecutive patients undergoing TAVR at our institution between May 2008 and November 2015 were enrolled in a prospective registry. Multi-detector computed tomography (CT) was used for EAT quantification. Outcome was assessed by 1-, 2-, and 3-year mortality and the early safety endpoint at 30 days according to the VARC-2 criteria. RESULTS: EAT volume was larger in males than females (p = 0.003), while EAT volume indexed to BSA was similar in both genders (p = 0.348). There was a weak correlation of EAT volume with body mass index (BMI; r = 0.24; p < 0.001) and body surface area (BSA; r = 0.26; p < 0.001). Patients with larger EAT volume had an increased all-cause 1-, 2-, and 3-year mortality after TAVR in Kaplan-Meier analyses using different binary cut-off values of 100 mm3 (log-rank p = 0.002; HR: 1.94, 95%CI: 1.15-3.26), 125 mm3 (log-rank p = 0.001; HR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.06-2.68), and 130 mm3 (log-rank p = 0.001; HR: 1.69, 95%CI: 1.10-2.60). Similarly, a larger EAT volume indicated an increased risk to reach the early safety endpoint for cut-off values of 125 mm3 (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.06-3.11; p = 0.029), and 130 mm3 (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.13-3.23; p = 0.016). Indexing EAT volume did not strengthen correlation of EAT with outcome. CONCLUSION: EAT volume is independently associated with all-cause 1-, 2-, and 3-year mortality as well as the early safety endpoint in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(2): 137-155, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600580

RESUMO

The vast majority of acute heart failure episodes are characterized by increasing symptoms and signs of congestion with volume overload. The goal of therapy in those patients is the relief of congestion through achieving a state of euvolaemia, mainly through the use of diuretic therapy. The appropriate use of diuretics however remains challenging, especially when worsening renal function, diuretic resistance and electrolyte disturbances occur. This position paper focuses on the use of diuretics in heart failure with congestion. The manuscript addresses frequently encountered challenges, such as (i) evaluation of congestion and clinical euvolaemia, (ii) assessment of diuretic response/resistance in the treatment of acute heart failure, (iii) an approach towards stepped pharmacologic diuretic strategies, based upon diuretic response, and (iv) management of common electrolyte disturbances. Recommendations are made in line with available guidelines, evidence and expert opinion.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Consenso , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos
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