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1.
J Pediatr ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcome trends of neonates born very preterm in 11 high-income countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of neonates. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, we included 154 233 neonates admitted to 529 neonatal units between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 240/7 to 316/7 weeks of gestational age and birth weight <1500 g. Composite outcomes were in-hospital mortality or any of severe neurologic injury, treated retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); and same composite outcome excluding BPD. Secondary outcomes were mortality and individual morbidities. For each country, annual outcome trends and adjusted relative risks comparing epoch 2 (2012-2015) to epoch 1 (2007-2011) were analyzed. RESULTS: For composite outcome including BPD, the trend decreased in Canada and Israel but increased in Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. For composite outcome excluding BPD, the trend decreased in all countries except Spain, Sweden, Tuscany, and the United Kingdom. The risk of composite outcome was lower in epoch 2 than epoch 1 in Canada (adjusted relative risks 0.78; 95% CI 0.74-0.82) only. The risk of composite outcome excluding BPD was significantly lower in epoch 2 compared with epoch 1 in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Japan, and Switzerland. Mortality rates reduced in most countries in epoch 2. BPD rates increased significantly in all countries except Canada, Israel, Finland, and Tuscany. CONCLUSIONS: In most countries, mortality decreased whereas BPD increased for neonates born very preterm.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheezing and infections are common during infancy, and the role of early-life exposures in their development is still under investigation. We examined associations between maternal mental health in pregnancy and after delivery and subsequent offspring wheezing and infections. METHODS: We studied 2314 mother-child pairs recruited in the Piccolipiù birth cohort (Italy) from 2011 to 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed in pregnancy and 12 months after delivery via the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). GHQ-12 Likert scores were collapsed into low (below the upper tercile) and high (above). Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between each combination of scores-during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery-and outcomes were computed by log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: High scores both in pregnancy and after delivery, compared with low scores in both periods, were associated with wheezing (RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.69), recurrent (≥2 episodes) wheezing (1.35; 0.99, 1.83), any and recurrent (≥4 episodes) upper respiratory infections (1.20; 1.04, 1.41, and 1.45; 1.07, 1.97, respectively), lower respiratory infections (1.31; 1.08, 1.61), and diarrhea (1.49; 1.23, 1.80). High scores either during pregnancy or 1 year after delivery only were less consistently associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mental health problems extending from pregnancy to the first year after delivery are associated with development of both wheezing and infections. As wheezing is mostly triggered by infections, increased infection susceptibility could represent a possible common biologic mechanism. This study confirms the importance of early-life exposures on childhood health.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909566

RESUMO

To determine the acute effects on respiratory function of children exposed to sulphur dioxide (SO2), we conducted two population-based longitudinal investigations near a major oil refinery. We enrolled 233 children, age 8⁻14, in Sarroch (Italy). The first study entailed five monthly spirometric visits (Panel 5). In a subgroup, children positive for history of respiratory symptoms were tested weekly (20 times) with spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement (Panel 20). Baseline questionnaires and daily diaries were recorded. SO2, NO2, PM10 and O3 were measured by monitoring stations. Multiple regression models were fitted. Using a multipollutant model, we found that a 10 µg/m³ SO2 increase at lag0⁻2 days determined a percent variation (PV) of -3.37 (90% confidence interval, CI: -5.39; -1.30) for forced expiratory volume after one second (FEV1) in Panel 5 and a PV = -3.51 (90% CI: -4.77; -2.23) in Panel 20. We found a strong dose-response relation: 1-h SO2 peaks >200 µg/m³ at lag2 days = FEV1 PV -2.49. For FeNO, we found a PV = 38.12 (90% CI: 12.88; 69.01) for each 10 µg/m³ SO2 increase at 8-h time lag and a strong dose-response relation. Exposure to SO2 is strongly associated with reduction of lung function and an increase in airway inflammation. This new evidence of harmful effects of SO2 peaks should induce regulatory intervention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/fisiopatologia , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria
5.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(3): 305-314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetics may play a role in wheezing and asthma development. We aimed to examine infant saliva DNA methylation in association with early childhood wheezing. METHODS: A case-control study was nested within the NINFEA birth cohort with 68 cases matched to 68 controls by sex, age (between 6 and 18 months, median: 10.3 months) and season at saliva sampling. Using a bumphunting region-based approach, we examined associations between saliva methylome measured using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450k array and wheezing between 6 and 18 months of age. We tested our main findings in independent publicly available data sets of childhood respiratory allergy and atopic asthma, with DNA methylation measured in different tissues and at different ages. RESULTS: We identified one wheezing-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) spanning ten sequential CpG sites in the promoter-regulatory region of PM20D1 gene (family-wise error rate < 0.05). The observed associations were enhanced in children born to atopic mothers. In the publicly available data sets, hypermethylation in the same region of PM20D1 was consistently found at different ages and in all analysed tissues (cord blood, blood, saliva and nasal epithelia) of children with respiratory allergy/atopic asthma compared with controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that PM20D1 hypermethylation is associated with early childhood wheezing. Directionally consistent epigenetic alteration observed in cord blood and other tissues at older ages in children with respiratory allergy and atopic asthma provides suggestive evidence that a long-term epigenetic modification, likely operating from birth, may be involved in childhood atopic phenotypes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino
6.
Pediatrics ; 142(6)2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the neonatal outcomes of very preterm triplets with those of matched singletons using a large international cohort. METHODS: A retrospective matched-cohort study of preterm triplets and singletons born between 2007 and 2013 in the International Network for Evaluation of Outcomes in neonates database countries and matched by gestational age, sex, and country of birth was conducted. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or severe neonatal morbidity (severe neurologic injury, treated retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for model 1 (maternal hypertension and birth weight z score) and model 2 (variables in model 1, antenatal steroids, and mode of birth). Models were fitted with generalizing estimating equations and random effects modeling to account for clustering. RESULTS: A total of 6079 triplets of 24 to 32 weeks' gestation or 500 to 1499 g birth weight and 18 232 matched singletons were included. There was no difference in the primary outcome between triplets and singletons (23.4% vs 24.0%, adjusted odds ratio: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-1.01 for model 1 and 1.00, 95% CI: 0.90-1.11 for model 2). Rates of severe neonatal morbidities did not differ significantly between triplets and singletons. The results were also similar for a subsample of the cohort (1648 triplets and 4944 matched singletons) born at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were identified in mortality or major neonatal morbidities between triplets who were very low birth weight or very preterm and matched singletons.

7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 53(12): 1633-1639, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed lung function and respiratory health in an area-based prospective cohort of preschool children born very preterm. DESIGN: Lung function was measured by interrupter respiratory resistance (Rint) and forced oscillation technique (FOT) (respiratory resistance (Rrs8), reactance (Xrs8), and area under the reactance curve (AX)) at a median age of 5.2 years in a cohort of 194 children born at 22-31 weeks of gestational age (GA) in Tuscany, Italy. Respiratory symptoms and hospitalizations were also assessed. RESULTS: Mean (SD) lung function Z-scores were impaired in preterm children for Rint (0.72 (1.13)), Xrs8 (-0.28 (1.34)), and AX (0.29 (1.41)). However, only a relatively small proportion of children (14.5-17.4%) had values beyond the 95th centile or below the 5th. Children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (n = 24) had slightly but not significantly impaired lung function indices in comparison with those without BPD (n = 170). In a multivariable analysis, lower GA was associated with worse lung function indices. Fifty-five percent of children had a history of wheezing ever and 21% had been hospitalized in their lifetime because of lower respiratory infections; 31% had wheezing in the last 12 months and this was associated with increased Rrs8 (P = 0.04) and AX (P = 0.08), and with decreased Xrs8 (P = 0.04) Z-scores. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespectively of BPD preschool children born very preterm had impaired lung function indices, as measured by Rint and FOT, and a slightly higher burden of respiratory problems than the general population. GA seems to be crucial for lung development.

9.
JAMA Pediatr ; 172(9): 867-875, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971428

RESUMO

Importance: Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with a 2-times to 3-times higher rate of very preterm birth than in women without diabetes. Very preterm infants are at high risk of death and severe morbidity. The association of maternal diabetes with these risks is unclear. Objective: To determine the associations between maternal diabetes and in-hospital mortality, as well as neonatal morbidity in very preterm infants with a birth weight of less than 1500 g. Design, Setting, Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at 7 national networks in high-income countries that are part of the International Neonatal Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates and used prospectively collected data on 76 360 very preterm, singleton infants without malformations born between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 24 to 31 weeks' gestation with birth weights of less than 1500 g, 3280 (4.3%) of whom were born to diabetic mothers. Exposures: Any type of diabetes during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were severe neonatal morbidities, including intraventricular hemorrhages of grade 3 to 4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity needing treatment and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and other morbidities, including respiratory distress, treated patent ductus arteriosus, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified by gestational age (GA), sex, and network. Results: The mean (SD) birth weight of offspring born to mothers with diabetes was significantly higher at 1081 (262) g than in offspring born to mothers without diabetes (mean [SD] birth weight, 1027 [270] g). Mothers with diabetes were older and had more hypertensive disorders, antenatal steroid treatments, and deliveries by cesarean delivery than mothers without diabetes. Infants of mothers with diabetes were born at a later GA than infants of mothers without diabetes. In-hospital mortality (6.6% vs 8.3%) and the composite of mortality and severe morbidity (31.6% vs 40.6%) were lower in infants of mothers with diabetes. However, in adjusted analyses, no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.97-1.39) or the composite of mortality and severe morbidity (adjusted OR, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.88-1.10) were observed. With few exceptions, outcomes of infants born to mothers with and without diabetes were similar regardless of infant sex, GA, or country of birth. Conclusions and Relevance: In high-resource settings, maternal diabetes is not associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity in very preterm infants with a birth weight of fewer than 1500 g.

10.
Breathe (Sheff) ; 14(2): 93-98, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875828

RESUMO

The development of new asthma biologics and receptor blockers for the treatment of paediatric severe asthma raises challenges. It is unclear whether there are sufficient children in Europe to recruit into randomised placebo-controlled trials to establish efficacy and safety in this age group. In February 2016, the European Respiratory Society funded a clinical research collaboration entitled "Severe Paediatric Asthma Collaborative in Europe" (SPACE). We now report the SPACE protocol for a prospective pan-European observational study of paediatric severe asthma. Inclusion criteria are: 1) age 6-17 years, 2) severe asthma managed at a specialised centre for ≥6 months, 3)clinical and spirometry evidence of asthma, and 4) reaching a pre-defined treatment threshold. The exclusion criterion is the presence of conditions which mimic asthma symptoms. Eligible children will be prospectively recruited into a registry, recording demographics, comorbidities, quality of life, family history, neonatal history, smoking history, asthma background, investigations, and treatment. Follow-up will provide longitudinal data on asthma control and treatment changes. The SPACE registry, by identifying well-phenotyped children eligible for clinical trials, and the amount of overlap in eligibility criteria, will inform the design of European trials in paediatric severe asthma, and facilitate observational research where data from single centres are limited.

11.
Int J Eat Disord ; 51(8): 842-851, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates associations of maternal eating disorders (bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and purging behaviors) with infant wheezing and examines the effects of eating disorders on several wheezing determinants. METHOD: We studied 5,150 singletons from the NINFEA birth cohort. Maternal bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa diagnoses were ascertained from the questionnaires completed in pregnancy and 6 months after delivery, and were analyzed as: ever diagnosis, only before pregnancy, and during pregnancy. Purging behaviors were assessed for 12 months before or during pregnancy. The associations with wheezing between 6 and 18 months of age were assessed in models adjusted for a priori selected confounders. RESULTS: Children born to mothers with lifetime eating disorders were at an increased risk of developing wheezing (adjusted OR 1.68; [95% CI: 1.08, 2.60]), and this risk further increased when the disorders were active during pregnancy (2.52 [1.23, 5.19]). Increased risk of offspring wheezing was observed also for purging behaviors without history of eating disorder diagnosis (1.50 [1.10, 2.04]). The observed associations were not explained by comorbid depression and/or anxiety. Bulimia nervosa and/or anorexia nervosa during pregnancy were also associated with several risk factors for wheezing, including maternal smoking, adverse pregnancy outcomes, shorter breastfeeding duration, and day-care attendance. DISCUSSION: The associations of maternal eating disorders with offspring wheezing suggest long-term adverse respiratory outcomes in children of mothers with eating disorders. A better understanding of mechanisms implicated is necessary to help reduce the respiratory disease burden in these children.

12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(2): 121-126, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774708

RESUMO

"In March 2016, the website of the NINFEA project (an Internet-based cohort set up to investigate the effects of exposures acting early in life) was enriched with the section «Data¼, which reports aggregated data for selected variables of the cohort. This article discusses the rationale for this new section, available data and their possible uses are described, and some results are compared with figures accessible from surveillance studies. The Italian birth cohort NINFEA includes 7,500 pregnant women, recruited through the Internet from 2005 to June 2016, and of their children, followed up with repeated questionnaires. Thus, the «Data¼ section is based on a selected population. Currently, this new section includes information on maternal lifestyles/characteristics in pregnancy (e.g., alcohol, smoking, use of medications), child health (e.g., obesity, asthma symptoms, growth) and behaviours (e.g., sleeping patterns, being breastfed). Up to December 18th, 2017, its pages were visited 12,620 times. Prevalences for selected variables (e.g., prepregnancy body mass index, breast feeding, infant sleeping position) are similar to those reported by surveillance studies. Aggregated exposure and outcome data from large cohorts can be systematically made publicly available. These data may be of interest to the participants, to population subgroups whose characteristics are similar to the study participants, and to researchers and policy makers, whenever similar data are not available from population-based surveillance systems."

13.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(1): 88-89, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506370
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(5): 580-588, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064265
15.
Pediatrics ; 140(6)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare survival rates and age at death among very preterm infants in 10 national and regional neonatal networks. METHODS: A cohort study of very preterm infants, born between 24 and 29 weeks' gestation and weighing <1500 g, admitted to participating neonatal units between 2007 and 2013 in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of Neonates. Survival was compared by using standardized ratios (SRs) comparing survival in each network to the survival estimate of the whole population. RESULTS: Network populations differed with respect to rates of cesarean birth, exposure to antenatal steroids and birth in nontertiary hospitals. Network SRs for survival were highest in Japan (SR: 1.10; 99% confidence interval: 1.08-1.13) and lowest in Spain (SR: 0.88; 99% confidence interval: 0.85-0.90). The overall survival differed from 78% to 93% among networks, the difference being highest at 24 weeks' gestation (range 35%-84%). Survival rates increased and differences between networks diminished with increasing gestational age (GA) (range 92%-98% at 29 weeks' gestation); yet, relative differences in survival followed a similar pattern at all GAs. The median age at death varied from 4 days to 13 days across networks. CONCLUSIONS: The network ranking of survival rates for very preterm infants remained largely unchanged as GA increased; however, survival rates showed marked variations at lower GAs. The median age at death also varied among networks. These findings warrant further assessment of the representativeness of the study populations, organization of perinatal services, national guidelines, philosophy of care at extreme GAs, and resources used for decision-making.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(9): 751-764, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027084

RESUMO

Women who drink light-to-moderately during pregnancy have been observed to have lower risk of unfavourable pregnancy outcomes than abstainers. This has been suggested to be a result of bias. In a pooled sample, including 193 747 live-born singletons from nine European cohorts, we examined the associations between light-to-moderate drinking and preterm birth, birth weight, and small-for-gestational age in term born children (term SGA). To address potential sources of bias, we compared the associations from the total sample with a sub-sample restricted to first-time pregnant women who conceived within six months of trying, and examined whether the associations varied across calendar time. In the total sample, drinking up to around six drinks per week as compared to abstaining was associated with lower risk of preterm birth, whereas no significant associations were found for birth weight or term SGA. Drinking six or more drinks per week was associated with lower birth weight and higher risk of term SGA, but no increased risk of preterm birth. The analyses restricted to women without reproductive experience revealed similar results. Before 2000 approximately half of pregnant women drank alcohol. This decreased to 39% in 2000-2004, and 14% in 2005-2011. Before 2000, every additional drink was associated with reduced mean birth weight, whereas in 2005-2011, the mean birth weight increased with increasing intake. The period-specific associations between low-to-moderate drinking and birth weight, which also were observed for term SGA, are indicative of bias. It is impossible to distinguish if the bias is attributable to unmeasured confounding, which change over time or cohort heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 176(8): 1061-1065, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612175

RESUMO

Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis with an acute and self-limited course. The incidence of the disease differs widely among ethnic groups and is higher in the Asian populations. In Italy, no recent data are available. We studied the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in the years 2008-2013 in children 0-14 years old in Italy using hospital ICD-9 discharge codes with a thorough data cleaning for duplicates in order to select the first hospital admission for the disease. The disease peaked in the first 2 years of life, with 85.5% of cases under 5 years. Male/female ratio was 1.4:1. The incidence rate was 5.7 per 100,000 children 0-14 years old and 14.7 for children younger than 5 years. The incidence rose slightly during the study period and had a seasonal distribution, with higher incidence in spring. A coronary artery aneurysm was recorded in 2.2% of the patients younger than 5 years of age. CONCLUSION: This is the first epidemiologic study on Kawasaki disease incidence in the country of Italy. Figures are in line but slightly higher than those reported for other European countries. What is known: • Kawasaki disease is more common in Asian populations. • European incidence data are scarce. What is new: • Epidemiological data in Italy show similar incidence, albeit slightly higher, than in other European countries. • Incidence data slightly rose in the recent past.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(6): 465-473, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399567

RESUMO

Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted risk ratios for asthma at ages 5-9 years were calculated using Poisson regression models and pooled. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in children born at term to reduce confounding due to perinatal factors. The study included 67,613 participants. Cohort-specific rates of cesarean delivery varied from 9.4% to 37.5%. Cesarean delivery, as opposed to vaginal delivery, was associated with an increased risk of asthma (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.46). Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75) for elective cesarean delivery, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.22) for emergency cesarean delivery, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.12) for operative vaginal delivery. In children born at term, the associations were strengthened only for elective cesarean delivery (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.97). The large sample size allowed analysis of the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma at school age. The increased risk of asthma associated with elective cesarean delivery, especially among children born at term, is relevant in counteracting the increasing use of this procedure, which is often performed without a clear medical indication.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Asma/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Nascimento a Termo
19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 101(10): 1399-1404, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and treatment of ROP by laser or intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor among preterm neonates from high-income countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes (iNeo) of neonates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on extremely preterm infants weighing <1500 g at 240 to 276 weeks' gestation who were admitted to neonatal units in Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tuscany (Italy) and the UK between 2007 and 2013. Pairwise comparisons of ROP treatment in survivors between countries were evaluated by Poisson and multivariable logistic regression analyses after adjustment for confounders. A composite outcome of death or ROP treatment was compared between countries using logistic regression and standardised ratios. RESULTS: Of 48 087 infants included in the analysis, 81.8% survived to 32 weeks postmenstrual age, and 95% of survivors were screened for ROP. Rates of any ROP ranged from 25.2% to 91.0% in Switzerland and Japan, respectively, among those examined. The overall rate of those receiving treatment was 24.9%, which varied from 4.3% to 30.4%. Adjusted risk ratios for ROP treatment were lower for Switzerland in all pairwise comparisons, whereas Japan displayed significantly higher ratios. Comparisons of the composite outcome between countries revealed similar, but less marked differences. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of any ROP and ROP treatment varied significantly between iNeo members, while an overall decline in ROP treatment was observed during the study period. It is unclear whether these variations represent differences in care practices, diagnosis and/or treatment thresholds.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia/tendências , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Terapia a Laser/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia a Laser/tendências , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/tendências , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 22: 66-71, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743958

RESUMO

Obesity represents one of the major public health problems worldwide, with an increased prevalence also among women of reproductive age. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are important risk factors for a number of maternal and foetal/neonatal complications. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent evidence regarding the associations between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood. Potential mechanisms, mediators and confounding factors involved in these associations are also discussed. Despite the relatively large body of studies examining these associations and taking into account main confounders and potential mediators, the causal relationship between maternal obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood is still uncertain. This uncertainty is not trivial, as any prevention strategy aimed at reducing the burden of these conditions would necessarily imply better understanding of the factors that are in the causal chain.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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