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IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 1106-1116, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587072


Table2Text systems generate textual output based on structured data utilizing machine learning. These systems are essential for fluent natural language interfaces in tools such as virtual assistants; however, left to generate freely these ML systems often produce misleading or unexpected outputs. GenNI (Generation Negotiation Interface) is an interactive visual system for high-level human-AI collaboration in producing descriptive text. The tool utilizes a deep learning model designed with explicit control states. These controls allow users to globally constrain model generations, without sacrificing the representation power of the deep learning models. The visual interface makes it possible for users to interact with AI systems following a Refine-Forecast paradigm to ensure that the generation system acts in a manner human users find suitable. We report multiple use cases on two experiments that improve over uncontrolled generation approaches, while at the same time providing fine-grained control. A demo and source code are available at

J Chem Inf Model ; 60(7): 3457-3462, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574067


Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials offer intriguing possibilities for novel physics and applications. Before any attempt at exploring the materials space in a systematic fashion, or combining insights from theory, computation, and experiment, a formal description of information about an assembly of arbitrary composition is required. Here, we introduce a domain-generic notation that is used to describe the space of 2D layered materials from monolayers to twisted assemblies of arbitrary composition, existent or not yet fabricated. The notation corresponds to a theoretical materials concept of stepwise assembly of layered structures using a sequence of rotation, vertical stacking, and other operations on individual 2D layers. Its scope is demonstrated with a number of example structures using common single-layer materials as building blocks. This work overall aims to contribute to the systematic codification, capture, and transfer of materials knowledge in the area of 2D layered materials.

Redes Locais , Nanotecnologia
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 884-894, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425116


Automation of tasks can have critical consequences when humans lose agency over decision processes. Deep learning models are particularly susceptible since current black-box approaches lack explainable reasoning. We argue that both the visual interface and model structure of deep learning systems need to take into account interaction design. We propose a framework of collaborative semantic inference (CSI) for the co-design of interactions and models to enable visual collaboration between humans and algorithms. The approach exposes the intermediate reasoning process of models which allows semantic interactions with the visual metaphors of a problem, which means that a user can both understand and control parts of the model reasoning process. We demonstrate the feasibility of CSI with a co-designed case study of a document summarization system.

Gráficos por Computador , Aprendizado Profundo , Semântica , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Redação
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334796


Neural sequence-to-sequence models have proven to be accurate and robust for many sequence prediction tasks, and have become the standard approach for automatic translation of text. The models work with a five-stage blackbox pipeline that begins with encoding a source sequence to a vector space and then decoding out to a new target sequence. This process is now standard, but like many deep learning methods remains quite difficult to understand or debug. In this work, we present a visual analysis tool that allows interaction and "what if"-style exploration of trained sequence-to-sequence models through each stage of the translation process. The aim is to identify which patterns have been learned, to detect model errors, and to probe the model with counterfactual scenario. We demonstrate the utility of our tool through several real-world sequence-to-sequence use cases on large-scale models.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 667-676, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866526


Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVis, a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics. The tool allows users to select a hypothesis input range to focus on local state changes, to match these states changes to similar patterns in a large data set, and to align these results with structural annotations from their domain. We show several use cases of the tool for analyzing specific hidden state properties on dataset containing nesting, phrase structure, and chord progressions, and demonstrate how the tool can be used to isolate patterns for further statistical analysis. We characterize the domain, the different stakeholders, and their goals and tasks. Long-term usage data after putting the tool online revealed great interest in the machine learning community.

Gráficos por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina