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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35625146

RESUMO

Exposure to the stress (HS) negatively affects physiology, performance, reproduction and welfare of buffalo. However, the mechanisms by which HS negatively affects rumen bacteria and its associated metabolism in buffalo are not well known yet. This study aimed to gain insight into the adaption of bacteria and the complexity of the metabolome in the rumen of six buffalo during HS using 16S rDNA and gas chromatography metabolomics analyses. HS increased respiratory rate (p < 0.05) and skin temperature (p < 0.01), and it decreased the content of acetic acid (p < 0.05) and butyric acid (p < 0.05) in the rumen. Omics sequencing revealed that the relative abundances of Lachnospirales, Lachnospiraceae, Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group and Clostridia_UCG-014 were significantly (p < 0.01) higher under HS than non-heat stress conditions. Several bacteria at different levels, such as Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Leuconostocaceae and Leissella, were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in the rumen of the non-heat stress than HS condition. Thirty-two significantly different metabolites closely related to HS were identified (p < 0.05). Metabolic pathway analysis revealed four key pathways: D-Alanine metabolism; Lysine degradation, Tropane; piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis; and Galactose metabolism. In summary, HS may negatively affected rumen fermentation efficiency and changed the composition of rumen community and metabolic function.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573376

RESUMO

The organic anion transporter (OAT) family is the subfamily of the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily, which plays a vital role in regulating essential nutrients in milk. However, little is known about the members' identification, evolutionary basis, and function characteristics of OAT genes associated with milk performance in buffalo. Comparative genomic analyses were performed to identify the potential role of buffalo OAT genes in milk performance in this study. The results showed that a total of 10 and 7 OAT genes were identified in river buffalo and swamp buffalo, respectively. These sequences clustered into three groups based on their phylogenetic relationship and had similar motif patterns and gene structures in the same groups. Moreover, the river-specific expansions and homologous loss of OAT genes occurred in the two buffalo subspecies during the evolutionary process. Notably, the duplicated SLCO3A1 gene specific to river buffalo showed higher expression level in mammary gland tissue than that of swamp buffalo. These findings highlight some promising candidate genes that could be potentially utilized to accelerate the genetic progress in buffalo breeding programs. However, the identified candidate genes require further validation in a larger cohort for use in the genomic selection of buffalo for milk production.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Animais , Búfalos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Feminino , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 791221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35004687

RESUMO

Testis is the primary organ of the male reproductive tract in mammals that plays a substantial role in spermatogenesis. Improvement of our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms in testicular development and spermatogenesis will be reflected in producing spermatozoa of superior fertility. Evidence showed that N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) plays a dynamic role in post-transcription gene expression regulation and is strongly associated with production traits. However, the role of m6A in bovine testis has not been investigated yet. In this study, we conducted MeRIP-Seq analysis to explore the expression profiles of the m6A and its potential mechanism underlying spermatogenesis in nine bovine testes at three developmental stages (prepuberty, puberty and postpuberty). The experimental animals with triplicate in each stage were chosen based on their semen volume and sperm motility except for the prepuberty bulls and used for testes collection. By applying MeRIP-Seq analysis, a total of 8,774 m6A peaks and 6,206 m6A genes among the studied groups were identified. All the detected peaks were found to be mainly enriched in the coding region and 3'- untranslated regions. The cross-analysis of m6A and mRNA expression exhibited 502 genes with concomitant changes in the mRNA expression and m6A modification. Notably, 30 candidate genes were located in the largest network of protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, four key node genes (PLK4, PTEN, EGR1, and PSME4) were associated with the regulation of mammal testis development and spermatogenesis. This study is the first to present a map of RNA m6A modification in bovine testes at distinct ages, and provides new insights into m6A topology and related molecular mechanisms underlying bovine spermatogenesis, and establishes a basis for further studies on spermatogenesis in mammals.

5.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 18(1): 6, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptin (LEP) regulates the glucose homeostasis directly and centrally by the regulation of the insulin levels or indirectly by alternation of the levels of the other glucose metabolism regulator hormones. The present investigation studied the polymorphism in LEP gene which is related to fertility in 81 female Egyptian river buffalo. RESULTS: The PCR-RFLP pattern of the gene using the restriction enzyme Eco91I showed that all the animals had monomorphic pattern in the studied gene which consists of CC. A 511-bp fragment from LEP gene was amplified and sequenced. The homology between the amplified LEP gene fragment in buffalo and cattle, sheep, goat, human, and mouse on the nucleotides sequence level was 99, 97, 97, 87, and 79%, respectively, and on the translated amino acids sequence level was 100, 98, 98, 85, and 82%, respectively. Several SNPs were detected; among them, the T27C SNP disrupted an intronic splicing silencer. The A114G, A310G, G263A, and G379A SNPs disrupt exonic splicing enhancers, and the last two SNPs create new exonic splicing enhancers. The A114G, C163A, A211G, G288A, A310G, A322G, G330C, C348T, T360C, and G379A SNPs cause S71G, T87 N, N103S, E129K, E136G, Y140C, E143Q, R149W, S153P, and R159Q amino acids mutations. N103S, E129K, E136G, Y140C, E143Q, and S153P were classified as deleterious mutations. Y140, E143, N103, and R149 were the most conserved among the mutated amino acids. S71G only increased the stability of the leptin protein while the remaining mutations decreased it. CONCLUSION: Four SNPs were revealed among the tested animals. Twenty-one SNPs were found between the sequenced amplicon and the buffalo records in the Genbank. Some SNPs were predicted to have several effects on different biological processes like mRNA splicing, protein stability, and the gene functions.

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