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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829478

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) may remain clinically silent until they enlarge and patients present with a potentially lethal rupture. This necessitates early detection and elective treatment. The goal of this study was to develop an easy-to-train algorithm which is capable of automated AAA screening in CT scans and can be applied to an intra-hospital environment. Three deep convolutional neural networks (ResNet, VGG-16 and AlexNet) were adapted for 3D classification and applied to a dataset consisting of 187 heterogenous CT scans. The 3D ResNet outperformed both other networks. Across the five folds of the first training dataset it achieved an accuracy of 0.856 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.926. Subsequently, the algorithms performance was verified on a second data set containing 106 scans, where it ran fully automated and resulted in an accuracy of 0.953 and an AUC of 0.971. A layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) made the decision process interpretable and showed that the network correctly focused on the aortic lumen. In conclusion, the deep learning-based screening proved to be robust and showed high performance even on a heterogeneous multi-center data set. Integration into hospital workflow and its effect on aneurysm management would be an exciting topic of future research.

2.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To design and manufacture a pelvis phantom for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate interventions, such as MRGB (MR-guided biopsy) or brachytherapy seed placement. METHODS: The phantom was designed to mimic the human pelvis incorporating bones, bladder, prostate with four lesions, urethra, arteries, veins, and six lymph nodes embedded in ballistic gelatin. A hollow rectum enables transrectal access to the prostate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the phantom for minimal invasive MRI-guided interventions, a targeted inbore MRGB was performed. The needle probe was rectally inserted and guided using an MRI-compatible remote controlled manipulator (RCM). RESULTS: The presented pelvis phantom has realistic imaging properties for MR imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US). In the targeted inbore MRGB, a prostate lesion was successfully hit with an accuracy of 3.5 mm. The experiment demonstrates that the limited size of the rectum represents a realistic impairment for needle placements. CONCLUSION: The phantom provides a valuable platform for evaluating the performance of MRGB systems. Interventionalists can use the phantom to learn how to deal with challenging situations, without risking harm to patients.

3.
Gerontology ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent research suggests that the experience of frailty progression may be heterogeneous, with latent subpopulations of older adults following distinct trajectories of frailty. We aimed to investigate this notion and determine whether certain factors are associated with the membership of these subpopulations. METHODS: Data from 5 data waves collected over 12 years in participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, aged 70 at baseline, were used to derive the frailty index (FI) (NW1 = 1,091, NW5 = 431). These were used in latent class mixed modelling to estimate subpopulations of frailty trajectories. RESULTS: A quadratic latent class mixed model found 3 distinct groupings, which followed a low (61%, n = 632), medium (36%, n = 368), or high (3%, n = 28) FI trajectory. Each grouping had different intercepts and slopes, with the high grouping following the steepest trajectory indicating a rapid increase in frailty. Findings showed that in general, those in the low grouping were younger, had higher education, higher age 11 cognitive ability, and were from a higher social class than those in the medium and high groupings. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate heterogeneity in frailty trajectories over 12 years in individuals aged 70 years at baseline. Membership of higher frailty trajectory groupings was associated with lower social class, less education, and lower childhood cognitive ability, indicating the potential for future interventions to target individuals who are at the greatest risk of belonging to the high frailty trajectory. Future research is required to continue this line of inquiry by exploring other risk and protective factors, and importantly, to assess whether it is possible to realign an individual's membership to a less detrimental grouping of frailty trajectory.

4.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of prescription drugs with anticholinergic properties has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes in older people. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that associated adverse effects may occur even decades after stopping anticholinergic use. Despite the implicated importance of examining longitudinal patterns of anticholinergic prescribing for different age groups, few such data are available. METHODS: We performed an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to study trends in an aggregate measure of anticholinergic burden between the years 1990 and 2015, utilising data from >220 000 UK Biobank participants with linked prescription data from primary care. RESULTS: Anticholinergic burden in the sample increased up to 9-fold over 25 years and was observed for both period and age effects across most classes of drugs. The greatest increase was seen in the prescribing of antidepressants. Female sex, lower education and greater deprivation were associated with greater anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in anticholinergic prescribing is mostly due to an increase in polypharmacy and is attributable to both ageing of participants and period-related changes in prescribing practices. Research is needed to clarify the implications of rising anticholinergic use for public health and to contextualise this rise in light of other relevant prescribing practices.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about effects of COVID-19 lockdown on psychosocial factors, health and lifestyle in older adults, particularly those aged over 80 years, despite the risks posed by COVID-19 to this age group. METHODS: Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 members, residing mostly in Edinburgh and the surrounding Lothians regions in Scotland, mean age 84 years (SD = 0.3), responded to an online questionnaire in May 2020 (n = 190). We examined responses (experience and knowledge of COVID-19; adherence to guidance; impact on day-to-day living; social contact; self-reported physical and mental health; loneliness; and lifestyle) and relationships between previously-measured characteristics and questionnaire outcomes. RESULTS: Four respondents experienced COVID-19; most had good COVID-19 knowledge (94.7%) and found guidance easy to understand (86.3%). There were modest declines in self-reported physical and mental health, and 48.2% did less physical activity. In multivariable regression models, adherence to guidance by leaving the house less often associated with less professional occupational class (OR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.51-0.98) and poorer self-rated general health (OR = 0.62, 95%CI 0.42-0.92). Increased internet use associated with female sex (OR = 2.32, 95%CI 1.12-4.86) and higher general cognitive ability (OR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.03-2.33). Loneliness associated with living alone (OR = 0.15, 95%CI 0.07-0.31) and greater anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 0.45-1.24). COVID-19 related stress associated with lower emotional stability scores (OR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.24-0.62). Decreased physical activity associated with less professional occupational class (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.04-1.96), and lower general cognitive ability (OR = 0.679, 95%CI 0.491-0.931). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics including cognitive function, occupational class, self-rated health, anxiety, and emotional stability, may be related to risk of poorer lockdown-related psychosocial and physical outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/normas , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Escócia
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 282: 114106, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that the residential neighbourhood contributes to the complex aetiology of mental disorders. Although local crime and violence, key neighbourhood stressors, may be linked to mental health through direct and indirect pathways, studies are inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthetize the evidence on the association between neighbourhood crime and individual-level mental health problems. METHOD: We searched 11 electronic databases, grey literature and reference lists to identify relevant studies published before September 14, 2020. Studies were included if they reported confounder-adjusted associations between objective or perceived area-level crime and anxiety, depression, psychosis or psychological distress/internalising symptoms in non-clinical samples. Effect measures were first converted into Fisher's z-s, pooled with three-level random-effects meta-analyses, and then transformed into Pearson's correlation coefficients. Univariate and multivariate mixed-effects models were used to explore between-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: We identified 63 studies reporting associations between neighbourhood crime and residents' mental health. Pooled associations were significant for depression (r = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.06), psychological distress (r = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.06), anxiety (r = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.10), and psychosis (r = 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.07). Moderator analysis for depression and psychological distress identified stronger associations with perceived crime measurement and weaker in studies adjusted for area-level deprivation. Importantly, even after accounting for study characteristics, neighbourhood crime remained significantly linked to depression and psychological distress. Findings on anxiety and psychosis were limited due to low number of included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood crime is an important contextual predictor of mental health with implications for prevention and policy. Area-based crime interventions targeting the determinants of crime, prevention and service allocation to high crime neighbourhoods may have public mental health benefits. Future research should investigate the causal pathways between crime exposure and mental health, identify vulnerably groups and explore policy opportunities for buffering against the detrimental effect of neighbourhood stressors.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Crime , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Características de Residência , Violência
7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(12): 3905-3921, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008899

RESUMO

Multi-scanner MRI studies are reliant on understanding the apparent differences in imaging measures between different scanners. We provide a comprehensive analysis of T1 -weighted and diffusion MRI (dMRI) structural brain measures between a 1.5 T GE Signa Horizon HDx and a 3 T Siemens Magnetom Prisma using 91 community-dwelling older participants (aged 82 years). Although we found considerable differences in absolute measurements (global tissue volumes were measured as ~6-11% higher and fractional anisotropy [FA] was 33% higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T), between-scanner consistency was good to excellent for global volumetric and dMRI measures (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] range: .612-.993) and fair to good for 68 cortical regions (FreeSurfer) and cortical surface measures (mean ICC: .504-.763). Between-scanner consistency was fair for dMRI measures of 12 major white matter tracts (mean ICC: .475-.564), and the general factors of these tracts provided excellent consistency (ICC ≥ .769). Whole-brain structural networks provided good to excellent consistency for global metrics (ICC ≥ .612). Although consistency was poor for individual network connections (mean ICCs: .275-.280), this was driven by a large difference in network sparsity (.599 vs. .334), and consistency was improved when comparing only the connections present in every participant (mean ICCs: .533-.647). Regression-based k-fold cross-validation showed that, particularly for global volumes, between-scanner differences could be largely eliminated (R2 range .615-.991). We conclude that low granularity measures of brain structure can be reliably matched between the scanners tested, but caution is warranted when combining high granularity information from different scanners.

8.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(8): 1277-1285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sparsity of annotated data is a major limitation in medical image processing tasks such as registration. Registered multimodal image data are essential for the diagnosis of medical conditions and the success of interventional medical procedures. To overcome the shortage of data, we present a method that allows the generation of annotated multimodal 4D datasets. METHODS: We use a CycleGAN network architecture to generate multimodal synthetic data from the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and real patient data. Organ masks are provided by the XCAT phantom; therefore, the generated dataset can serve as ground truth for image segmentation and registration. Realistic simulation of respiration and heartbeat is possible within the XCAT framework. To underline the usability as a registration ground truth, a proof of principle registration is performed. RESULTS: Compared to real patient data, the synthetic data showed good agreement regarding the image voxel intensity distribution and the noise characteristics. The generated T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (CT), and cone beam CT images are inherently co-registered. Thus, the synthetic dataset allowed us to optimize registration parameters of a multimodal non-rigid registration, utilizing liver organ masks for evaluation. CONCLUSION: Our proposed framework provides not only annotated but also multimodal synthetic data which can serve as a ground truth for various tasks in medical imaging processing. We demonstrated the applicability of synthetic data for the development of multimodal medical image registration algorithms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Humanos
9.
Brain Commun ; 3(2): fcab082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041477

RESUMO

Modifiable lifestyle factors influence the risk of developing many neurological diseases. These factors have been extensively linked with blood-based genome-wide DNA methylation, but it is unclear if the signatures from blood translate to the target tissue of interest-the brain. To investigate this, we apply blood-derived epigenetic predictors of four lifestyle traits to genome-wide DNA methylation from five post-mortem brain regions and the last blood sample prior to death in 14 individuals in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Using these matched samples, we found that correlations between blood and brain DNA methylation scores for smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol and body mass index were highly variable across brain regions. Smoking scores in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had the strongest correlations with smoking scores in blood (r = 0.5, n = 14, P = 0.07) and smoking behaviour (r = 0.56, n = 9, P = 0.12). This was also the brain region which exhibited the largest correlations for DNA methylation at site cg05575921 - the single strongest correlate of smoking in blood-in relation to blood (r = 0.61, n = 14, P = 0.02) and smoking behaviour (r = -0.65, n = 9, P = 0.06). This suggested a particular vulnerability to smoking-related differential methylation in this region. Our work contributes to understanding how lifestyle factors affect the brain and suggest that lifestyle-related DNA methylation is likely to be both brain region dependent and in many cases poorly proxied for by blood. Though these pilot data provide a rarely-available opportunity for the comparison of methylation patterns across multiple brain regions and the blood, due to the limited sample size available our results must be considered as preliminary and should therefore be used as a basis for further investigation.

10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(3): 1329-1337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic variant rs9923231 (VKORC1) is associated with differences in the coagulation of blood and consequentially with sensitivity to the drug warfarin. Variation in VKORC1 has been linked in a gene-based test to dementia/Alzheimer's disease in the parents of participants, with suggestive evidence for an association for rs9923231 (p = 1.8×10-7), which was included in the genome-wide significant KAT8 locus. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between rs9923231 and dementia persists only for certain dementia sub-types, and if those taking warfarin are at greater risk. METHODS: We used logistic regression and data from 238,195 participants from UK Biobank to examine the relationship between VKORC1, risk of dementia, and the interplay with warfarin use. RESULTS: Parental history of dementia, APOE variant, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia all had strong associations with vascular dementia (p < 4.6×10-6). The T-allele in rs9923231 was linked to a lower warfarin dose (ßperT - allele = -0.29, p < 2×10-16) and risk of vascular dementia (OR = 1.17, p = 0.010), but not other dementia sub-types. However, the risk of vascular dementia was not affected by warfarin use in carriers of the T-allele. CONCLUSION: Our study reports for the first time an association between rs9923231 and vascular dementia, but further research is warranted to explore potential mechanisms and specify the relationship between rs9923231 and features of vascular dementia.


Assuntos
Demência Vascular/genética , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245508, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561127

RESUMO

Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become a vital tool in interventional radiology. Usually, a circular source-detector trajectory is used to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) image. Kinematic constraints due to the patient size or additional medical equipment often cause collisions with the imager while performing a full circular rotation. In a previous study, we developed a framework to design collision-free, patient-specific trajectories for the cases in which circular CBCT is not feasible. Our proposed trajectories included enough information to appropriately reconstruct a particular volume of interest (VOI), but the constraints had to be defined before the intervention. As most collisions are unpredictable, performing an on-the-fly trajectory optimization is desirable. In this study, we propose a search strategy that explores a set of trajectories that cover the whole collision-free area and subsequently performs a search locally in the areas with the highest image quality. Selecting the best trajectories is performed using simulations on a prior diagnostic CT volume which serves as a digital phantom for simulations. In our simulations, the Feature SIMilarity Index (FSIM) is used as the objective function to evaluate the imaging quality provided by different trajectories. We investigated the performance of our methods using three different anatomical targets inside the Alderson-Rando phantom. We used FSIM and Universal Quality Image (UQI) to evaluate the final reconstruction results. Our experiments showed that our proposed trajectories could achieve a comparable image quality in the VOI compared to the standard C-arm circular CBCT. We achieved a relative deviation less than 10% for both FSIM and UQI metrics between the reconstructed images from the optimized trajectories and the standard C-arm CBCT for all three targets. The whole trajectory optimization took approximately three to four minutes.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(1): 225-232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes a borderland between healthy cognition and dementia. Progression to and reversion from MCI is relatively common but more research is required to understand the factors affecting this fluidity and improve clinical care interventions. OBJECTIVE: We explore these transitions in MCI status and their predictive factors over a six-year period in a highly-phenotyped longitudinal study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. METHODS: MCI status was derived in the LBC1936 at ages 76 (n = 567) and 82 years (n = 341) using NIA-AA diagnostic guidelines. Progressions and reversions between healthy cognition and MCI over the follow-up period were assessed. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the effect of various predictors on the likelihood of progressing, reverting, or maintaining cognitive status. RESULTS: Of the 292 participants who completed both time points, 41 (14%) participants had MCI at T1 and 56 (19%) at T2. Over the follow-up period, 74%remained cognitively healthy, 12%transitioned to MCI, 7%reverted to healthy cognition, and 7%maintained their baseline MCI status. Findings indicated that membership of these transition groups was affected by age, cardiovascular disease, and number of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Findings that higher baseline depressive symptoms increase the likelihood of reverting from MCI to healthy cognition indicate that there may be an important role for the treatment of depression for those with MCI. However, further research is required to identify prevention strategies for those at high risk of MCI and inform effective interventions that increase the likelihood of reversion to, and maintenance of healthy cognition.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escócia/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 40, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease with well-known genetic and environmental risk factors contributing to its prevalence. Epigenetic mechanisms related to changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), may also contribute to T2D risk, but larger studies are required to discover novel markers, and to confirm existing ones. RESULTS: We performed a large meta-analysis of individual epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of prevalent T2D conducted in four European studies using peripheral blood DNAm. Analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMR) was also undertaken, based on the meta-analysis results. We found three novel CpGs associated with prevalent T2D in Europeans at cg00144180 (HDAC4), cg16765088 (near SYNM) and cg24704287 (near MIR23A) and confirmed three CpGs previously identified (mapping to TXNIP, ABCG1 and CPT1A). We also identified 77 T2D associated DMRs, most of them hypomethylated in T2D cases versus controls. In adjusted regressions among diabetic-free participants in ALSPAC, we found that all six CpGs identified in the meta-EWAS were associated with white cell-types. We estimated that these six CpGs captured 11% of the variation in T2D, which was similar to the variation explained by the model including only the common risk factors of BMI, sex, age and smoking (R2 = 10.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies novel loci associated with T2D in Europeans. We also demonstrate associations of the same loci with other traits. Future studies should investigate if our findings are generalizable in non-European populations, and potential roles of these epigenetic markers in T2D etiology or in determining long term consequences of T2D.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1063-1074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been consistently linked with dementia and cognitive decline. However, it is unclear whether risk is accumulated through long-term exposure or whether there are sensitive/critical periods. A key barrier to clarifying this relationship is the dearth of historical air pollution data. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of modelling historical air pollution data and using them in epidemiologicalmodels. METHODS: Using the EMEP4UK atmospheric chemistry transport model, we modelled historical fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations for the years 1935, 1950, 1970, 1980, and 1990 and combined these with contemporary modelled data from 2001 to estimate life course exposure in 572 participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 with lifetime residential history recorded. Linear regression and latent growth models were constructed using cognitive ability (IQ) measured by the Moray House Test at the ages of 11, 70, 76, and 79 years to explore the effects of historical air pollution exposure. Covariates included sex, IQ at age 11 years, social class, and smoking. RESULTS: Higher air pollution modelled for 1935 (when participants would have been in utero) was associated with worse change in IQ from age 11-70 years (ß = -0.006, SE = 0.002, p = 0.03) but not cognitive trajectories from age 70-79 years (p > 0.05). There was no support for other critical/sensitive periods of exposure or an accumulation of risk (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The life course paradigm is essential in understanding cognitive decline and this is the first study to examine life course air pollution exposure in relation to cognitive health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/história , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/história , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 35(3): 230-236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) is a highly phenotyped longitudinal study of cognitive and brain ageing. Given its substantial clinical importance, we derived an indicator of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and amnestic and nonamnestic subtypes at 3 time points. METHODS: MCI status was derived at 3 waves of the LBC1936 at ages 76 (n=567), 79 (n=441), and 82 years (n=341). A general MCI category was derived as well as amnestic MCI (aMCI) and nonamnestic MCI (naMCI). A comparison was made between MCI derivations using normative data from the LBC1936 cohort versus the general UK population. RESULTS: MCI rates showed a proportional increase at each wave between 76 and 82 years from 15% to 18%. Rates of MCI subtypes also showed a proportional increase over time: aMCI 4% to 6%; naMCI 12% to 16%. Higher rates of MCI were found when using the LBC1936 normative data to derive MCI classification rather than UK-wide norms. CONCLUSIONS: We found that MCI and aMCI rates in the LBC1936 were consistent with previous research. However, naMCI rates were higher than expected. Future LBC1936 research should assess the predictive factors associated with MCI prevalence to validate previous findings and identify novel risk factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Amnésia/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amnésia/complicações , Amnésia/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Escalas de Wechsler/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 68(5): 1518-1526, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) blood vessel structure information is important for diagnosis and treatment in various clinical scenarios. We present a fully automatic method for the extraction and differentiation of the arterial and venous vessel trees from abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) volumes using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). METHODS: We used a novel ratio-based sampling method to train 2D and 3D versions of the U-Net, the V-Net and the DeepVesselNet. Networks were trained with a combination of the Dice and cross entropy loss. Performance was evaluated on 20 IRCAD subjects. Best performing networks were combined into an ensemble. We investigated seven different weighting schemes. Trained networks were additionally applied to 26 BTCV cases to validate the generalizability. RESULTS: Based on our experiments, the optimal configuration is an equally weighted ensemble of 2D and 3D U- and V-Nets. Our method achieved Dice similarity coefficients of 0.758 ± 0.050 (veins) and 0.838 ± 0.074 (arteries) on the IRCAD data set. Application to the BTCV data set showed a high transfer ability. CONCLUSION: Abdominal vascular structures can be segmented more accurately using ensembles than individual CNNs. 2D and 3D networks have complementary strengths and weaknesses. Our ensemble of 2D and 3D U-Nets and V-Nets in combination with ratio-based sampling achieves a high agreement with manual annotations for both artery and vein segmentation. Our results surpass other state-of-the-art methods. SIGNIFICANCE: Our segmentation pipeline can provide valuable information for the planning of living donor organ transplantations.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163987

RESUMO

Metal artifacts are a major confounding factor for image quality in CT, especially in image-guided surgery scenarios where surgical tools and implants frequently occur in the field-of-view. Traditional metal artifact correction methods typically use algorithmic solutions to interpolate over the highly attenuated projection measurements where metal is present but cannot recover the missing information obstructed by the metal. In this work, we treat metal artifacts as a missing data problem and employ noncircular orbits to maximize data completeness in the presence of metal. We first implement a local data completeness metric based on Tuy's condition as the percentage of great circles sampled by a particular orbit and accounted for the presence of metal by discounting any rays that pass through metal. We then compute the metric over many locations and many possible metal locations to reflect data completeness for arbitrary metal placements within a volume of interest. We used this metric to evaluate the effectiveness of sinusoidal orbits of different magnitudes and frequencies in metal artifact reduction. We also evaluated noncircular orbits in two imaging systems for phantoms with different metal objects and metal arrangements. Among a circular, tilted circular, and a sinusoidal orbit of two cycles per rotation, the latter is shown to most effectively remove metal artifacts. The noncircular orbit not only reduce the extent of streaks, but allows better visualization of spatial frequencies that cannot be recovered by metal artifact correction algorithms. These results illustrate the potential of relatively simple noncircular orbits to be robust against metal implants which ordinarily present significant challenges in interventional imaging.

19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1299-1302, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018226

RESUMO

We proposed a target-based cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging framework in order to optimize a free three dimensional (3D) source-detector trajectory by incorporating prior 3D image data. We aim to enable CBCT systems to provide topical information about a region of interest (ROI) using a short-scan trajectory with a reduced number of projections. The best projection views are selected by maximizing an objective function fed by the image quality by means of applying different x-ray positions on the digital phantom data. Finally, an optimized trajectory is selected which is applied to a C-arm device able to perform general source-detector positioning. An Alderson-Rando head phantom is used in order to investigate the performance of the proposed framework. Our experiments showed that the optimized trajectory could achieve a comparable image quality in the ROI with respect to the reference C-arm CBCT while using approximately one-quarter of projections. An angular range of 156° was used for the optimized trajectory.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagens de Fantasmas , Cintilografia
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