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1.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 12: 219-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190949

RESUMO

Purpose: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased by 700% in Western countries over the last 30 years. Although clinical guidelines call for endoscopic surveillance for EAC among high-risk populations, fewer than 5% of new EAC patients are under surveillance at the time of diagnosis. We studied the accuracy of combined cytopathology and MUC2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) for screening of Intestinal Metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and EAC, using specimens collected from the EsophaCap swallowable encapsulated cytology sponge from Canada and United States. Patients and methods: By comparing the EsophaCap cytological diagnosis with concurrent endoscopic biopsies performed on the same patients in 28 cases, we first built up the cytology diagnostic categories and criteria. Based on these criteria, 136 cases were evaluated by both cytology and MUC2 IHC with blinded to patient biopsy diagnosis. Results: We first set up categories and criteria for cytological diagnosis of EscophaCap samples. Based on these, we divided our evaluated cytological samples into two groups: non-IM group and IM or dysplasia or adenocarcinoma group. Using the biopsy as our gold standard to screen IM, dysplasia and EAC by combined cytology and MUC2 IHC, the sensitivity and specificity were 68% and 91%, respectively, which is in the range of clinically useful cytological screening tests such as the cervical Pap smear. Conclusions: Combined EsophaCap cytology and MUC2 IHC could be a good screening test for IM and Beyond.

2.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 143(1): 81-85, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133317

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Obtaining diagnostic concordance for squamous intraepithelial lesions in cytology can be challenging. OBJECTIVE.­: To determine diagnostic concordance for biopsy-proven low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) Papanicolaou test slides in the College of American Pathologists PAP Education program. DESIGN.­: We analyzed 121 059 responses from 4251 LSIL and HSIL slides for the interval 2004 to 2013 using a nonlinear mixed-model fit for reference diagnosis, preparation type, and participant type. We evaluated interactions between the reference diagnosis and the other 2 factors in addition to a repeated-measures component to adjust for slide-specific performance. RESULTS.­: There was a statistically significant difference between misclassification of LSIL (2.4%; 1384 of 57 664) and HSIL (4.4%; 2762 of 63 395). There was no performance difference between pathologists and cytotechnologists for LSIL, but cytotechnologists had a significantly higher HSIL misclassification rate than pathologists (5.5%; 1437 of 27 534 versus 4.0%; 1032 of 25 630; P = .01), and both were more likely to misrepresent HSIL as LSIL ( P < .001) than the reverse. ThinPrep LSIL slides were more likely to be misclassified as HSIL (2.4%; 920 of 38 582) than SurePath LSIL slides (1.5%; 198 of 13 196), but conventional slides were the most likely to be misclassified in both categories (4.5%; 266 of 5886 for LSIL, and 6.5%; 573 of 8825 for HSIL). CONCLUSIONS.­: More participants undercalled HSIL as LSIL (false-negative) than overcalled LSIL as HSIL (false-positive) in the PAP Education program, with conventional slides more likely to be misclassified than ThinPrep or SurePath slides. Pathologists and cytotechnologists classify LSIL equally well, but cytotechnologists are significantly more likely to undercall HSIL as LSIL than are pathologists.


Assuntos
Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/classificação , American Medical Association , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou , Patologistas , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/diagnóstico , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/patologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Cytojournal ; 15: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662515

RESUMO

Background: programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a ligand for the inhibitory programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-L1), which are targeted by several anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 drugs for lung cancer treatment. In clinical practice, many lung cancer cases only have cytology samples available to test PD-L1. Our current study compared the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) between paired cytological and surgical samples. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed lung cancer tissue microarray and paired cell blocks and surgical specimens from the same patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 29) and adenocarcinoma (AC, n = 23) were sectioned for PD-L1 IHC. Results: PD-L1 was expressed on tumor cells in 16 of 29 (55%) SCC surgical specimens and 18 of 29 (62%) paired cytologic specimens with 83% matched immunostains. PD-L1 was expressed on tumor cells in 13 of 23 (57%) AC surgical specimens and in 17 of 23 (74%) paired cytologic specimens with 79% matched immunostains. The PD-L1 was expressed on inflammatory cells in 20 of 23 (87%) AC surgical specimens and in 15 of 23 (65%) paired cytologic specimens with 70% matched immunostains. The PD-L1 was expressed on inflammatory cells in 18 of 29 (62%) SCC surgical specimens and in 12 of 29 (41%) paired cytologic specimens with 79% matched immunostains. Conclusions: PD-L1 immunostain in cytology samples matched very well with paired surgical samples in both SCC and AC cases. The cytologic samples present slightly higher sensitivity for PD-L1 immunostain on tumor cells as compared to surgical biopsies.

4.
J Glob Health ; 7(2): 021202, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163938

RESUMO

Objectives: The AMANHI study aims to seek for biomarkers as predictors of important pregnancy-related outcomes, and establish a biobank in developing countries for future research as new methods and technologies become available. Methods: AMANHI is using harmonised protocols to enrol 3000 women in early pregnancies (8-19 weeks of gestation) for population-based follow-up in pregnancy up to 42 days postpartum in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania, with collection taking place between August 2014 and June 2016. Urine pregnancy tests will be used to confirm reported or suspected pregnancies for screening ultrasound by trained sonographers to accurately date the pregnancy. Trained study field workers will collect very detailed phenotypic and epidemiological data from the pregnant woman and her family at scheduled home visits during pregnancy (enrolment, 24-28 weeks, 32-36 weeks & 38+ weeks) and postpartum (days 0-6 or 42-60). Trained phlebotomists will collect maternal and umbilical blood samples, centrifuge and obtain aliquots of serum, plasma and the buffy coat for storage. They will also measure HbA1C and collect a dried spot sample of whole blood. Maternal urine samples will also be collected and stored, alongside placenta, umbilical cord tissue and membrane samples, which will both be frozen and prepared for histology examination. Maternal and newborn stool (for microbiota) as well as paternal and newborn saliva samples (for DNA extraction) will also be collected. All samples will be stored at -80°C in the biobank in each of the three sites. These samples will be linked to numerous epidemiological and phenotypic data with unique study identification numbers. Importance of the study: AMANHI biobank proves that biobanking is feasible to implement in LMICs, but recognises that biobank creation is only the first step in addressing current global challenges.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Biomarcadores , Países em Desenvolvimento , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 141(5): 666-670, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301226

RESUMO

CONTEXT: - Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is difficult to correctly interpret on Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology slides and false-negative interpretations of AIS can cause significant problems in daily practice. OBJECTIVE: - To investigate the false-negative interpretation rate of AIS and the factors related to false-negative interpretation through responses in an educational environment. DESIGN: - We retrospectively evaluated 11 337 responses in the PAP Education Program (PAP-Edu) from 173 AIS slides from 2011 to 2015. The false-negative interpretation rate, most common false-negative interpretations, and related other factors were evaluated. RESULTS: - The overall false-negative rate was 6.9% (784 of 11 337). Respondents correctly interpreted AIS 50.0% (5667 of 11 337) of the time; high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and malignancies (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other carcinomas) accounted for 42.7% (4842 of 11 337) and low-grade intraepithelial lesion accounted for 0.4% (44 of 11 337) of responses. Overall, 92.7% (10 509 of 11 337) of responses were HSIL and above. Among 784 false-negative responses, negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy was the most common (61.5% [482 of 784]), followed by reparative changes (24.1% [189 of 784]) and atrophic vaginitis (7.7% [60 of 784]). Overall, pathologists' responses showed a significantly higher false-negative rate than cytotechnologists' responses (8.3%, 403 of 4835 versus 5.7%, 275 of 4816; P < .001). The false-negative response rates were not statistically different among preparation types. CONCLUSIONS: - The low correct interpretation rate and higher false-negative rate for AIS demonstrate the difficulty in interpreting AIS on Pap cytology, which may cause clinical consequences. The higher false-negative rate with pathologists than with cytotechnologists suggests cytotechnologists' higher screening sensitivity for AIS or cautious interpretation to avoid false-positive results by pathologists.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma in Situ/patologia , Vaginite Atrófica/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Patologia Clínica/educação , Patologia Molecular/educação , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico , American Medical Association , Vaginite Atrófica/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
6.
J Am Soc Cytopathol ; 6(4): 131-144, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In concert with the 2014 update to the Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology, a Web-based image interobserver study was performed to evaluate concordance with the "expert panel" interpretation, as was done during the Bethesda 2001 update. The aim was to identify cytomorphologic features and Bethesda reporting categories that represent sources of poor interobserver agreement and see how the trends compared to the first Bethesda Interobserver Reproducibility Study (BIRST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were recruited online through national and international cytopathology professional societies. Study participants evaluated 84 previously unpublished web images chosen from the third Bethesda Atlas image set, prior to the release of the atlas. These images spanned all reporting categories and included typical and borderline cytomorphology. Demographic information was collected on level of training, practice patterns, and experience of the participants. Participation was restricted to those correctly answering 2 basic cytopathology questions, ensuring minimal knowledge of gynecologic cytopathology. RESULTS: A total of 1290 unique individuals attempted access to this Web-based study and 833 correctly answered the two qualifying questions. Of these, 518 respondents completed the survey. Participant origin included: 59% United States, 41% international; 48% cytotechnologists, 41% pathologists, 5% fellows, and 6% other. Practice types were: 39% academic institutions, 29% private hospitals, and 16% commercial laboratories. Overall, the mean participant agreement with the exact Bethesda panel interpretation was 62.8%. The best agreement was found for negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM; 74%) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; 86%) categories. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (63%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; 60%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 62%) and atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H; 60%) showed slightly lower concordance with the panel interpretations. Cervical glandular lesions were more problematic (33%). Anal samples performed similarly to their gynecologic counterparts. There was similar diagnostic agreement across participant certifications and practice type (academic versus non-academic). Performance was higher for United States and other North America-based participants (P = 0.0104). This significance may be attributed to a language bias, as the survey was only offered in English. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to the BIRST-1 study conducted in 2001, the most important factor for diagnostic agreement by cytotechnologists, pathologists, and trainees was the a priori difficulty of an image rather than participant training, certification, or experience. Participants showed better general diagnostic agreement with the expert panel interpretations of the material in BIRST-2 than in BIRST-1. Agreement was highest for Bethesda categories of NILM, LSIL, HSIL, and SCC. Concordance for even the borderline ASC-US and ASC-H categories exhibited remarkable improvement in the BIRST-2.

7.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 140(1): 22-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26717056

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Nongynecologic cytology (NGC) practices are expanding in relationship to historical gynecologic cytology screening programs. Bronchopulmonary cytology is experiencing an evolution regarding new procedural types. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) tracks practice patterns in NGC by developing questionnaires, surveying participants, and analyzing respondent data. OBJECTIVE: To analyze responses to a 2013 CAP supplemental survey from the Interlaboratoy Comparison Program on bronchopulmonary NGC. DESIGN: The "NGC 2013 Supplemental Questionnaire: Demographics in Performance and Reporting of Respiratory Cytology" was mailed to 2074 laboratories. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 42% (880 of 2074) with 90% of respondents (788 of 880) indicating that their laboratories evaluated cytology bronchopulmonary specimens. More than 95% of respondents indicated interpreting bronchial washings (765 of 787) and bronchial brushings (757 of 787). A minority of laboratories (43%, 340 of 787) dealt with endobronchial ultrasound-guided samples, and an even smaller fraction of laboratories (14%, 110 of 787) saw cases from electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy. Intraprocedural adequacy assessments by pathologists (and less often by cytotechnologists or pathologists-in-training) were routinely performed in percutaneous transthoracic aspiration cases (74%, 413 of 560) with less involvement for other case types. Most laboratories reported that newly diagnosed primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas were triaged for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters examined in this 2013 survey provide a snapshot of current pulmonary cytopathology practice and may be used as benchmarks in the future.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/tendências , Citodiagnóstico/tendências , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/tendências , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Patologia Clínica/tendências , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/tendências , Broncoscopia/métodos , Endossonografia , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Laboratórios , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Estados Unidos
8.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 139(6): 757-61, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25436905

RESUMO

CONTEXT: College of American Pathologists (CAP) surveys are used to establish national benchmarks for laboratory parameters. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in laboratory human papillomavirus (HPV) testing patterns in laboratories incorporating HPV testing with Papanicolaou tests in 2012. DESIGN: Data were analyzed from the CAP HPV Supplemental Questionnaire distributed to 1771 laboratories participating in either CAP HPV or CAP Papanicolaou proficiency testing in 2013. RESULTS: A total of 1022 laboratories (58%) responded. There were more high-risk (HR) HPV tests performed per institution as compared to previous surveys. There were more HPV tests performed within an institution as compared to previous surveys. Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) remains the most common method (42.4%, 239 of 564); Cervista and cobas methods are used in 37.2% (210 of 564) and 14.9% (84 of 564) of laboratories, respectively. Human papillomavirus testing is offered as a reflex test after a Papanicolaou test result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in 89.6% of laboratories (476 of 531); as a cotest for women aged 30 years and older in 60.3% (404 of 531); as reflex testing after atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) in 42.7% (320 of 531); and as reflex testing after atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 27.3% (145 of 531). The HPV-positive rates for ASC-US and ASC-H were similar in 2012 and 2006. Cervista (49.2%, 88 of 179) and Roche cobas (27.4%, 49 of 179) are the most common methods used for genotyping. Most laboratories use the CAP Human Papillomavirus for Cytology Program for proficiency testing. CONCLUSIONS: There was an increase in annual volume of HR-HPV testing with a shift toward in-house HR-HPV testing. Genotyping volumes also increased. HC2 and Cervista are most commonly used, with an increasing volume of Roche cobas testing. The most common indication for HPV testing among all laboratories was ASC-US reflex testing, but an increase in HPV cotesting was observed. The data provide an update into persisting and newer trends in HPV testing practices.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Patologia Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Feminino , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Patologia Clínica/organização & administração , Sociedades Científicas , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/diagnóstico , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/virologia , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
9.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 121(8): 449-58, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23677908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is often complicated because of sampling and interpretive challenges. The current study was performed to determine the rates, types, and causes of diagnostic discrepancies. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed cytology cases from 2004 to 2010 using matched surgical resection cases as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 733 cases were divided into 3 categories: 1) positive or suspicious (290 cases); 2) negative or atypical (403 cases); and 3) unsatisfactory (40 cases). Of these cases, 101 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases had matched surgical resections including 58 positive diagnoses, 39 negative diagnoses, and 4 unsatisfactory diagnoses. All 19 discrepant cases represented false-negative diagnoses without any false-positive cases noted, which included 2 cases with interpretive errors (10%) and 17 cases with sampling errors (90%). All matched cytology cases were divided into 5 subgroups based on the type of lesion or type of error and were analyzed for sensitivity and specificity. The sampling error rate in cystic lesions (8 of 24; 33%) was significantly higher than that in solid lesions (9 of 73; 12%). The false-negative rate in the interpretive error group (3%) was significantly lower than that in the sampling error group (23%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study confirm that pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA diagnosis has a very low false-positive rate but a relatively high false-negative rate using matched surgical resections as the gold standard. The major cause of a false-negative cytology diagnosis is sampling error and the rate of sampling error in cystic lesions is significantly higher than that in solid lesions.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Cytojournal ; 10: 6, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23599725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Automated screening of Thin Prep(®) Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep(®) Imaging System (TIS). Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-H) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) results on Thin Prep(®) Pap Tests by comparing TIS-assisted and manual screening findings and the diagnoses on subsequent follow-up in a screening population over a 1-year time period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A compilation of all ASC-H and HGSIL cases was prepared by conducting a computerized search over a 1-year period (7/06-6/07). The accumulated cases include Thin Prep Pap tests that were both TIS and manually screened. Follow-up results of cytologic and histologic cervical specimens were obtained for a time period extending to 2010. Interpretation utilizing TIS was in place 10 months prior to the study's initiation. RESULTS: During the study period 70,522 Pap tests were performed in our laboratory. One third (33%) of Pap tests were screened with assistance of TIS. Manual screening was performed on 47,380 Pap tests of which 153 (0.32%) were interpreted as ASC-H and 164 (0.35%) were interpreted as HGSIL. During the same time period automated screening (TIS) was performed on 23,111 Pap tests. Interpretation of 62 (0.27%) cases provided an ASC-H result, while 71 (0.31%) were HGSIL. Follow-up cervical dysplasia by colposcopic biopsy and cone biopsy was distributed proportionally between TIS and manual screening for both ASC-H and HGSIL categories. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III) was identified on follow-up biopsy of 41% TIS cases and 45% manually screened cases for ASC-H. In the HGSIL subset 71% of TIS cases and 69% manually screened cases showed CIN II/III on follow-up. TIS was 26% less sensitive relative to manual screening for ASC-H cases and 3% less sensitive for HGSIL. CONCLUSION: The similar rate of detection using TIS with an equal percentage of histologic correlation for ASC-H and HGSIL lesions on follow-up histology suggests patients screened by the TIS method are being sent for appropriate follow-up surveillance and treatment. A high-grade or possible high-grade lesion is as likely to be detected by TIS as by a manual screen. The similarities in relative sensitivity and specificity in a direct comparison between manual and TIS screening methodologies indicate that TIS compared to manual screening does not affect detection in patients with high-grade cervical lesions.

11.
OMICS ; 15(4): 213-5, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21476843

RESUMO

The advent of data-intensive science has sharpened our need for better communication within and between the fields of science and technology, to name a few. No one mind can encompass all that is necessary to be successful in controlling and analyzing the data deluge we are experiencing. Therefore, we must bring together diverse fields, communicate clearly, and build crossdisciplinary methods and tools to realize its potential. This article is a summary of the communication issues and challenges as discussed in the Data-Intensive Science (DIS) workshop in Seattle, September 19-20, 2010.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/métodos , Comunicação
12.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 39(10): 730-6, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20949469

RESUMO

Traditional cell block (TCB) sections serve as an important diagnostic adjunct to cytologic smears but are also used today as a reliable preparation for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. There are many ways to prepare a cell block and the methods continue to be revised. In this study, we compare the TCB with the Cellient™ automated cell block system. Thirty-five cell blocks were obtained from 16 benign and 19 malignant nongynecologic cytology specimens at a large university teaching hospital and prepared according to TCB and Cellient protocols. Cell block sections from both methods were compared for possible differences in various morphologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns. In the 16 benign cases, no significant morphologic differences were found between the TCB and Cellient cell block sections. For the 19 malignant cases, some noticeable differences in the nuclear chromatin and cellularity were identified, although statistical significance was not attained. Immunohistochemical or special stains were performed on 89% of the malignant cases (17/19). Inadequate cellularity precluded full evaluation in 23% of Cellient cell block IHC preparations (4/17). Of the malignant cases with adequate cellularity (13/17), the immunohistochemical staining patterns from the different methods were identical in 53% of cases. The traditional and Cellient cell block sections showed similar morphologic and immunohistochemical staining patterns. The only significant difference between the two methods concerned the lower overall cell block cellularity identified during immunohistochemical staining in the Cellient cell block sections.


Assuntos
Células/patologia , Técnicas Citológicas/instrumentação , Imuno-Histoquímica/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Líquido Ascítico/patologia , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Membrana Nuclear/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 133(6): 894-8, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20472847

RESUMO

Cervical screening with combined cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection has been approved for women 30 years or older. We investigated the clinical use of cotesting for women with negative Papanicolaou tests. Follow-up cytology, HR-HPV test, and biopsy findings were identified during an 18-month period. In 1 year, 2,719 cotests from 2,686 women were identified; 146 were positive for HR-HPV. Among women with positive HR-HPV testing, 120 had follow-up, including 70 with repeated cotesting, and 3 had high-grade dysplasia identified (2.5% of women with follow-up). In 1,334 women with initial double-negative cotest results who had repeated cytologic testing within 18 months, 2 high-grade dysplasias were found (0.1%). The vast majority of cotest results are double-negative. Among tests that show HR-HPV positivity, the prevalence of underlying high-grade dysplasia is low. About half of all women who undergo cotesting receive follow-up that is not in accord with published guidelines.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Risco
14.
Cytojournal ; 5: 10, 2008 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18435848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated screening of Papanicolaou tests (Pap tests) improves the productivity of cytopathology laboratories. The ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) has been widely adopted primarily for this reason for use on ThinPrep Pap tests (TPPT). However, TIS may also influence the interpretation of Pap tests, leading to changes in the frequency of various interpretive categories. The effect of the TIS on rates of TPPT interpretation as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is of concern because any shift in the frequency of ASC-US will alter the sensitivity and specificity of the Pap test. We have sought to determine whether automated screening of TPPT has altered ASC-US rates in our institution when compared with manual screening (MS) of TPPT. METHODS: A computerized search for all ASC-US with reflex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing over a one-year-period (7/1/06 to 6/30/07) was conducted. Cases included both TPPT screened utilizing TIS and screened manually. HPV test results for both groups were recorded. Pertinent follow-up cervical cytology and histology results were retrieved for the period extending to 11/30/07. Automated screening was in clinical use for 10 months prior to the start of the study. RESULTS: Automated screening was performed on 23,103 TPPT, of which 977 (4.23%) were interpreted as ASC-US. Over the same period, MS was performed on 45,789 TPPT, of which 1924 (4.20%) were interpreted as ASC-US. Reflex HPV testing was positive for high risk (HR) types in 47.4% of the TIS cases and 50.2% of MS cases. Follow-up cervical dysplasia found by colposcopy was also distributed proportionally between the two groups. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was found on follow-up biopsy of 20.1% of the TIS cases (5.2% CIN 2/3) and 21.2% of MS cases (5.1% CIN 2/3). None of these differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Use of the ThinPrep Imaging System did not appreciably change ASC-US rates or follow-up reflex HPV test results in our laboratory. This demonstrates that the benefits of automated screening may be obtained without increasing the rate of referral to colposcopy for ASC-US follow-up.

15.
J Healthc Prot Manage ; 24(1): 63-77, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18409454

RESUMO

The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

16.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 36(4): 232-7, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18335553

RESUMO

The cytologic features of endocervical neoplasia have been well-described for conventional and ThinPrep, but not for SurePath, methods. This study is designed to ascertain if cytological features are similar in SurePath specimens. Conventional, ThinPrep and SurePath specimens with either endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma were evaluated for architectural and cytological features previously described for endocervical neoplasia. A generalized linear model was used to assess the differences of ordinal multinomial data. Of 18 evaluated, the only features showing statistical differences were architectural: large groups of cells and single cells were more frequent in SurePath preparations and conventional smears. Feathering was more frequently noted in conventional smears. Individual cytological features were identical across all groups. Mitoses and apoptotic debris were seen with equal frequency in all preparations. The architectural and cytologic features of endocervical glandular neoplasia in liquid-based specimens show only subtle architectural differences when compared with conventional smears. Keeping these differences in mind, virtually the same criteria can be used to identify endocervical glandular lesions in all three specimen types.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Técnicas Citológicas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Razão de Chances , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esfregaço Vaginal
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 51(6): 1362-71, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17199622

RESUMO

The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.


Assuntos
Psicologia Criminal , Psiquiatria Legal , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Métodos , Motivação , Pacientes , Distribuição por Sexo
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