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1.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(8): 1128-1137, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292033

RESUMO

Throughout history, African Americans have endured much, and their experiences with discrimination and racism continue today. Despite ongoing challenges, African Americans have also shown their resilience. Religion and spirituality are two of the largest resources of resilience that African Americans employ. However, little is known about the role of religion and spirituality within African American couple relationships. Using dyadic data from 292 married and 233 cohabiting African American couples, we examined the impact of sanctification of the couple relationship on communal coping within the Actor Partner Interdependence Model. Significant actor effects were found between relational sanctification and communal coping for both married and cohabiting men and women. There was a significant partner effect between married men's relational sanctification and married women's communal coping. However, no other significant partner effects were found. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 17(4): 278-295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866957

RESUMO

Social workers play an integral role in end-of-life planning and patient outcomes, and yet how social workers approach such conversations with patients is not well understood. The current study employed a cross-sectional design to examine social worker planned communication about end-of-life care using a multiple goals framework. Recruited from online listservs, a content analysis was conducted with social worker curated plans (n = 20) for end-of-life conversations. Plans were coded for topics and content alignment with instrumental, identity, and relational goal types. Topics found were related to eliciting patient goals and the utilization of written resources. A substantial percentage of social workers also noted the inclusion of other parties in the conversation. Findings suggested that content was predominately instrumental (i.e. task-oriented) with an overwhelming majority adhering to multiple conversational goals. Plan content affords insight to occupational orientation and prioritization during conversations with patients. Further, identifying how the majority of planned responses integrate multiple goals simultaneously gives credence to existing research regarding enhanced conversational effectiveness when social workers are present on the palliative care team.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a recognised need to develop clear service models and pathways to provide high quality care in the community for people with complex emotional needs, who may have been given a "personality disorder" diagnosis. Services should be informed by the views of people with these experiences. AIMS: To identify and synthesise qualitative studies on service user experiences of community mental health care for Complex Emotional Needs. METHODS: We searched six bibliographic databases for papers published since 2003. We included peer reviewed studies reporting data on service user experiences and views about good care from community-based mental health services for adults with CEN, including generic mental health services and specialist "personality disorder" services. Studies using any qualitative method were included and thematic synthesis used to identify over-arching themes. RESULTS: Forty-seven papers were included. Main themes were: 1) The need for a long-term perspective on treatment journeys; 2) The need for individualised and holistic care; 3) Large variations in accessibility and quality of mental health services; 4) The centrality of therapeutic relationships; 5) Impacts of 'personality disorder' diagnosis. Themes tended to recur across studies from different countries and years. DISCUSSION: Recurrent major themes included wanting support that is individualised and holistic, provides continuity over long journeys towards recovery, and that is delivered by empathetic and well-informed clinicians who are hopeful but realistic about the prospects of treatment. Care that met these simple and clearly stated priorities tended to be restricted to often limited periods of treatment by specialist "personality disorder" services: generic and primary care services were often reported as far from adequate. There is an urgent need to co-design and test strategies for improving long-term support and treatment care for people with "personality disorders" throughout the mental health care system.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Gerenciamento Clínico , Emoções , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(3): e28802, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that parents of children with cancer desire more prognostic information than is often given even when prognosis is poor. We explored in audio-recorded consultations the kinds of information they seek. METHODS: Ethnographic study including observation and audio recording of consultations at diagnosis. Consultations were transcribed and analyzed using an interactionist perspective including tools drawn from conversation and discourse analysis. RESULTS: Enrolled 21 parents and 12 clinicians in 13 cases of children diagnosed with a high-risk brain tumor (HRBT) over 20 months at a tertiary pediatric oncology center. Clinicians presented prognostic information in all cases. Through their questions, parents revealed what further information they desired. Clinicians made clear that no one could be absolutely certain what the future held for an individual child. Explicit communication about prognosis did not satisfy parents' desire for information about their own child. Parents tried to personalize prognostic information and to apply it to their own situation. Parents moved beyond prognostic information presented and drew conclusions, which could change over time. Parents who were present in the same consultations could form different views of their child's prognosis. CONCLUSION: Population level prognostic information left parents uncertain about their child's future. The need parents revealed was not for more such information but rather how to use the information given and how to apply it to their child in the face of such uncertainty. Further research is needed on how best to help parents deal with uncertainty and make prognostic information actionable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Comunicação , Pais/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Revelação da Verdade/ética , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Health Commun ; 35(1): 56-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339088

RESUMO

This study examined health-care provider planned responses to patient misunderstandings about end-of-life care using a multiple goals framework. Plan topics and content alignment with task, identity, and relational goal types were coded. Findings suggested that content was predominately task-oriented and concerned implications of treatment options such as choice outcomes and efficacy rates. A substantial percentage of providers planned to refer further discussion about the misunderstanding to another team member or occupational resource. Despite the prompt of patient misunderstanding, little attention was given to literacy and/or avoidance of medical jargon. Implications for these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Health Soc Care Community ; 27(5): 1353-1362, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157937

RESUMO

Recovery Colleges aim to assist people with mental health difficulties in the journey to recovery through education. They bring together professional and lived experience of mental health challenges in a non-stigmatising college environment and operate on college principles. All courses are designed to contribute towards well-being and recovery. Despite the ever-growing number of Recovery Colleges (both in the UK and internationally), the evaluative evidence is limited; comprising mostly non-peer-reviewed evaluations, audits and case studies. The present article comprises a mixed-methods evaluation of a newly established Recovery College in South East Essex, UK. The evaluation comprised questionnaires of mental well-being and social inclusion at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-up, in addition to three focus groups. There were significant improvements in both mental well-being and social inclusion from baseline to 6 month follow-up (25 participants completed the measure of well-being at both time points and 19 completed the measure of social inclusion). This was supported by additional free-text questionnaire comments and focus group findings (17 participants participated across the focus groups), with reports of increased confidence, reduced anxiety and increased social inclusion/reduced social isolation. Additionally, at 6 month follow-up a majority of respondents were planning on attending courses external to the Recovery College, volunteering and/or gaining paid employment. Challenges and recommendations identified through the focus groups indicate the importance for standardisation of processes (which is particularly important when multiple organisations are involved in the running of a Recovery College), as well as consideration of longer-running courses. Funders should continue to invest in the Recovery College movement as the growing evidence-base is demonstrating how these colleges can help address the high prevalence of mental health difficulties, by promoting mental well-being and social inclusion.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 192, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to multiple United Kingdom investigations and inquiries into the care of adults with learning disabilities, Mencap produced the Getting it Right Charter which campaigned for the appointment of a Learning Disability Liaison Nurse in every hospital. More recent best practice guidelines from the Care Quality Commission included the need for all children's units to have access to a senior learning disability nurse who can support staff and help them manage difficult situations. However, little evidence exists of the extent of learning disability nurse provision in children's hospitals or the nature and impact of this role. Here we report selected findings from a national mixed methods study of hospital care for children and young people with and without learning disabilities in England. The extent of learning disability nurse provision in children's hospitals is described and perceptions of staff working in hospitals with and without such provision is compared. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior staff across 15 children's hospitals and an anonymous survey was sent to clinical and non-clinical staff with patient (children and young people) contact within these hospitals. The survey focused on six different elements of care for those with and without learning disability, with additional questions concerning identifying and tracking those with learning disabilities and two open-ended questions. RESULTS: Forty-eight senior staff took part in interviews, which included a subset of nine nurses and one allied health professional employed in a dedicted learning disability nurse role, or similar. Surveys were completed by 1681, of whom 752 worked in a hospital with dedicated learning disability nurse provision. We found evidence of limited and varied learning disability nurse provision which was valued by hospital staff and shown to positively impact their perceptions of being capable to care for children and young people with learning disabilities, but not shown to increase staff perceptions of capacity or confidence, or how children and young people are valued within the hospital, their safety or access to appointments. CONCLUSION: Further consideration must be given to how learning disability nurse roles within children's hospitals are best operationalised in practice to have the greatest impact on staff and families, as well as how we monitor and evaluate them to ensure they are being utilised effectively and efficiently. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on the NIHR CRN portfolio 20,461 (Phase 1), 31,336 (Phases 2-4).


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Pediátricos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Adolescente , Criança , Análise de Dados , Inglaterra , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 32(5): 1176-1183, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children and young people with learning disabilities experience poor health outcomes and lengthier hospital admissions than those without learning disabilities. No consistently applied, systematic approach exists across the NHS to identify and record this population. This paper describes practices in English hospitals to identify children and young people with learning disabilities. METHOD: Interviews: 65 NHS staff. Questionnaire: 2,261 NHS staff. Conducted across 24 NHS hospitals in England. RESULTS: No standardized approach exists to identify children or young people with a learning disability or for this information to be consistently recorded, communicated to relevant parties within a hospital, Trust or across NHS services. Staff reported a reliance on parents to inform them about their child's needs but concerns about "flagging" patients might be a significant barrier. DISCUSSION: Without an integrated systematic way across the NHS to identify children with learning disabilities, their individual needs will not be identified.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Administradores Hospitalares , Hospitais , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Inglaterra , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
9.
Viruses ; 10(6)2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891797

RESUMO

Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus. Clinical presentation is rare but severe, with a case fatality rate of 15⁻30%. Here we report a case of MVEV from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient in the Northern Territory in Australia. Initial diagnosis was performed using both MVEV-specific real-time, and Pan-Flavivirus conventional, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Subsequent isolation, the first from CSF, was conducted in Vero cells and the observed cytopathic effect was confirmed by increasing viral titre in the real-time PCR. Isolation allowed for full genome sequencing using the Scriptseq V2 RNASeq library preparation kit. A consensus genome for VIDRL-MVE was generated and phylogenetic analysis identified it as Genotype 2. This is the first reported isolation, and full genome sequencing of MVEV from CSF. It is also the first time Genotype 2 has been identified in humans. As such, this case has significant implications for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and the understanding of MVEV evolution.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite do Vale de Murray/classificação , Vírus da Encefalite do Vale de Murray/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite por Arbovirus/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Criança , Chlorocebus aethiops , Vírus da Encefalite do Vale de Murray/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Northern Territory , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Homologia de Sequência , Células Vero , Cultura de Vírus
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 203, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children and young people (CYP) with learning disabilities (LD) are a vulnerable population with increased risk of abuse and accidental injury and whose parents have reported concerns about the quality, safety and accessibility of their hospital care. The Care Quality Commission's (CQC) view of best practice for this group of patients includes: access to senior LD nurse provision; a clearly visible flagging system for identifying them; the use of hospital passports; and defined communication strategies (Glasper, Comp Child Adolesc Nurs 40:63-67, 2017). What remains unclear is whether these recommendations are being applied and if so, what difference they are making. Furthermore, what we do not know is whether parental concerns of CYP with LD differ from parents of other children with long-term conditions. The aims of this study were to 1) describe the organisational context for healthcare delivery to CYP with LD and their families and 2) compare staff perceptions of their ability to identify the needs of CYP with and without LD and their families and provide high quality care to effectively meet these needs. METHODS: Individual interviews (n = 65) and anonymised online survey (n = 2261) were conducted with hospital staff working with CYP in 15 children's and 9 non-children's hospitals in England. The majority of interviews were conducted over the telephone and recorded and transcribed verbatim. Health Research Authority was obtained and verbal or written consent for data collection was obtained from all interview participants. RESULTS: The nature and extent of organisational policies, systems and practices in place within hospitals to support the care of CYP with LD differs across England and some uncertainty exists within and across hospitals as to what is currently available and accessed. Staff perceived that those with LD were included less, valued less, and less safe than CYP without LD. They also reported having less confidence, capability and capacity to meet the needs of this population compared to those without LD. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate inequality with regards the provision of high quality hospital care to children and young people with LD that meets their needs. There is a pressing need to understand the impact this has on them and their families. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on the NIHR CRN portfolio 20461 (Phase 1), 31336 (Phases 2-4).


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
11.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 158: 137-146, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688363

RESUMO

In this study, we designed emulsions with an oil-water interface consisting of a composite layer of whey protein isolate (WPI, 1wt%) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (1-3wt%). The hypothesis was that a secondary layer of CNCs at the WPI-stabilized oil-water interface could protect the interfacial protein layer against in vitro gastric digestion by pepsin at 37°C. A combination of transmission electron microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, interfacial shear viscosity measurements and theoretical surface coverage considerations suggested the presence of CNCs and WPI together at the O/W interface, owing to the electrostatic attraction between complementarily charged WPI and CNCs at pH 3. Microstructural analysis and droplet sizing revealed that the presence of CNCs increased the resistance of the interfacial protein film to rupture by pepsin, thus inhibiting droplet coalescence in the gastric phase, which occurs rapidly in an emulsion stabilized by WPI alone. It appeared that there was an optimum concentration of CNCs at the interface for such barrier effects. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results further confirmed that the presence of 3wt% of CNCs reduced the rate and extent of proteolysis of protein at the interface. Besides, evidence of adsorption of CNCs to the protein-coated droplets to form more rigid layers, there is also the possibility that network formation by the CNCs in the bulk (continuous) phase reduced the kinetics of proteolysis. Nevertheless, structuring emulsions with mixed protein-particle layers could be an effective strategy to tune and control interfacial barrier properties during gastric passage of emulsions.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Emulsões/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Digestão , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3304, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607437

RESUMO

Social insects host a diversity of viruses. We examined New Zealand populations of the globally widely distributed invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) for RNA viruses. We used metatranscriptomic analysis, which identified six potential novel viruses in the Dicistroviridae family. Of these, three contigs were confirmed by Sanger sequencing as Linepithema humile virus-1 (LHUV-1), a novel strain of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV), while the others were chimeric or misassembled sequences. We extended the known sequence of LHUV-1 to confirm its placement in the Dicistroviridae and categorised its relationship to closest relatives, which were all viruses infecting Hymenoptera. We examined further for known viruses by mapping our metatranscriptomic sequences to all viral genomes, and confirmed KBV, BQCV, LHUV-1 and Deformed wing virus (DWV) presence using qRT-PCR. Viral replication was confirmed for DWV, KBV and LHUV-1. Viral titers in ants were higher in the presence of honey bee hives. Argentine ants appear to host a range of' honey bee' pathogens in addition to a virus currently described only from this invasive ant. The role of these viruses in the population dynamics of the ant remain to be determined, but offer potential targets for biocontrol approaches.


Assuntos
Formigas/virologia , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Animais , Genoma Viral , Nova Zelândia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
Health Commun ; 32(3): 279-287, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219106

RESUMO

Evidence regarding possible environmental causes of breast cancer is advancing. Often, however, the public is not informed about these advances in a manner that is easily understandable. This research translates findings from biologists into messages at two literacy levels about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a possible environmental contributor to breast cancer. The Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM) was used to investigate how ability, motivation, and systematic and heuristic processing lead to risk beliefs and, ultimately, to negative attitudes for individuals receiving translated scientific messages about PFOA. Participants (N = 1,389) came from the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women. Findings indicated that ability, in the form of translated messages, predicted systematic processing, operationalized as knowledge gain, which was negatively associated with formation of risk beliefs that led to negative attitudes toward PFOA. Heuristic processing cues, operationalized as perceived message quality and source credibility, were positively associated with risk beliefs, which predicted negative attitudes about PFOA. Overall, more knowledge and lower literacy messages led to lower perceived risk, while greater involvement and ratings of heuristic cues led to greater risk perceptions. This is an example of a research, translation, and dissemination team effort in which biologists created knowledge, communication scholars translated and tested messages, and advocates were participants and those who disseminated messages.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Caprilatos/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Comunicação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Feminino , Heurística , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Fatores de Risco
14.
Health Expect ; 20(4): 675-684, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27670148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early engagement in advance care planning (ACP) is seen as fundamental for ensuring the highest standard of care for children and young people with a life-limiting condition (LLC). However, most families have little knowledge or experience of ACP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how parents of children and young people with LLCs approach and experience ACP. METHODS: Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of 18 children; nine children who were currently receiving palliative care services, and nine children who had received palliative care and died. Verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were analysed following principles of grounded theory while acknowledging the use of deductive strategies, taking account of both the child's condition, and the timing and nature of decisions made. RESULTS: Parents reported having discussions and making decisions about the place of care, place of death and the limitation of treatment. Most decisions were made relatively late in the illness and by parents who wished to keep their options open. Parents reported different levels of involvement in a range of decisions; many wished to be involved in decision making but did not always feel able to do so. DISCUSSION: This study highlights that parents' approaches to decision making vary by the type of decision required. Their views may change over time, and it is important to allow them to keep their options open. We recommend that clinicians have regular discussions over the course of the illness in an effort to understand parents' approaches to particular decisions rather than to drive to closure prematurely.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Tomada de Decisões , Pais/psicologia , Doente Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Doente Terminal/psicologia
15.
J Health Commun ; 21(9): 1023-30, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27442346

RESUMO

The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is a planning tool representative of an emerging paradigm aimed at facilitating elicitation of patient end-of-life care preferences. This study assessed the impact of the POLST document on provider goals and plans for conversations about end-of-life care treatment options. A 2 (POLST: experimental, control) × 3 (topic of possible patient misunderstanding: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, medical intervention, artificially administered nutrition) experimental design was used to assess goals, plan complexity, and strategies for plan alterations by medical professionals. Findings suggested that the POLST had little impact on plan complexity or reaction time with initial plans. However, preliminary evidence suggested that the utility of the POLST surfaced with provider responses to patient misunderstanding, in which differences in conditions were identified. Significant differences in goals reported as most important in driving conversational engagement emerged. Implications for findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Comunicação , Objetivos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/organização & administração , Relações Médico-Paciente , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Cancer Educ ; 31(2): 389-96, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25903053

RESUMO

Results of ongoing scientific research on environmental determinants of breast cancer are not typically presented to the public in ways they can easily understand and use to take preventive actions. In this study, results of scientific studies on progesterone exposure as a risk factor for breast cancer were translated into high and low literacy level messages. Using the heuristic systematic model, this study examined how ability, motivation, and message processing (heuristic and systematic) influenced perceptions of risk beliefs and negative attitudes about progesterone exposure among women who read the translated scientific messages. Among the 1254 participants, those given the higher literacy level message had greater perceptions of risk about progesterone. Heuristic message cues of source credibility and perceived message quality, as well as motivation, also predicted risk beliefs. Finally, risk beliefs were a strong predictor of negative attitudes about exposure to progesterone. The results can help improve health education message design in terms of practitioners having better knowledge of message features that are the most persuasive to the target audiences on this topic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Comunicação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Heurística , Modelos Psicológicos , Progesterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Comunicação Persuasiva , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 11(3-4): 323-45, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654064

RESUMO

The current study assessed the role of health care provider constraints and perceived consequences on plan complexity for conversations with patients about end-of-life care. Meta-goal constraints, perceived consequences associated with conversational engagement and planning theory provides the basis for research questions and hypotheses posed. Findings suggested that while the meta-goals of efficiency and politeness were each recognized as important, providers indicated greater concern for politeness during patient interactions concerning treatment options. Reported constraints had no impact on plan complexity. Perceived consequences of conversational engagement were predominantly positive and concerned the patient. Findings may enhance the understanding of social workers in their educational role regarding the potential training needs of health care team members in palliative care contexts.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Adulto , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Profissional-Família , Relações Profissional-Paciente
18.
J Health Commun ; 18(7): 845-65, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23672206

RESUMO

The heuristic systematic model is used to investigate how ability, motivation, and heuristic message cues predict knowledge scores for individuals receiving messages written for different literacy levels about 3 environmental risk factors for breast cancer. The 3 risk factors were the roles of genetics, progesterone, and ingesting perfluorooctanoic acid in breast cancer risk. In this study, more than 4,000 women participated in an online survey. The results showed support for the hypotheses that ability (measured as education, number of science courses, and confidence in scientific ability) predict knowledge gain and that those individuals who presented with the lower literacy level message had significantly higher knowledge scores across all 3 message topics. There was little support for motivation or heuristic cues as direct predictors of knowledge gain across the 3 message topics, although they served as moderators for the perfluorooctanoic acid topic. The authors provide implications for health communication practitioners.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Saúde Ambiental , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia
19.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 27(1): 33-40, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23237614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kernicterus is a serious but easily preventable disease in newborns that is not well-known even by some health care professionals. This study evaluated a parent guide and poster on kernicterus awareness and prevention generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The extended parallel processing model was used as a framework for creating the interview protocol and analyzing the results. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted with four parents and six health care personnel of different ethnicities to evaluate the materials. Content for the parent guide and poster was held constant, but photos were varied according to the ethnicity of the baby (white, African American, or Hispanic) and the language in which the interviews were conducted (English and Spanish). RESULTS: The parent guide was evaluated positively, but reactions to the poster were varied. The consensus was that the poster drew more attention than the pocket guide but lacked sufficient information about what jaundice is or how to treat it, while the pocket guide provided information, especially with regard to efficacy. The extended parallel processing model claims that when efficacy is equal to or higher than perceived threat, respondents should engage in recommended responses, which was the general finding from these interviews. DISCUSSION: Recommendations for improvements of the materials are presented. The focus on different ethnicities in the materials was perceived as unnecessary and potentially counter-productive. Both parents and health care professionals mentioned the lack of information regarding treatment. Providing information on the length and effectiveness of treatment for jaundice and kernicterus might increase efficacy in averting the threat in both conditions.


Assuntos
Kernicterus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kernicterus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos
20.
J Health Commun ; 18(2): 223-40, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23171277

RESUMO

This study presents data from a content analysis of original research articles published in Health Communication and Journal of Health Communication from 2000 to 2009. The authors coded 776 articles using categories that identified health topics, theory, population characteristics, and methods used in each study. Distinctions between the published research in Health Communication and Journal of Health Communication are highlighted. Across both journals, findings demonstrated articles sometimes lack racial demographic information, primarily perform research in the United States, rely heavily on survey data, and often lack a theoretical framework. The top physical health topic addressed across both journals was cancer, and the top non-physical health topic addressed was the role of media in health. Journals displayed differences in several areas and those differences often mirrored each journal's stated objectives. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for expanding health communication research to be reflective of issues salient to public health within the United States and around the world.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências
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