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Toxicon ; 157: 18-24, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448287


The aim of this study was to obtain the first data on the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the Russian Easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. Studied samples were collected from 2012 to 2017 and three independent approaches - HPLC-HRMS, PCR and light microscopy were applied for cyanotoxins analysis and detection of toxigenic cyanobacteria. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Born. et Flah., Planktothrix agardhii (Gom.) Anag. et Kom., Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. and Dolichospermum spp. dominated among cyanobacteria in collected samples. In 2012-2013 during research cruises, microcystins concentrations varied from below detection levels to low (0.01-0.6 µg L-1) values. In the autumn of 2015 and 2017, during cyanobacterial bloom events very high concentrations of microcystins (dissolved up to 49 µg L-1, intracellular up to 466 µg g-1) and dissolved anatoxin-a (1.4 µg L-1) were detected. The evaluated toxin profile was represented by most common arginine-containing variants of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR) and their desmethylated forms. Leucine-containing congeners (MC-LF; MC-LY; MC-LW for the biomass sample from the coast of Komarovo, 2015) were found at low concentrations. In environmental DNA from bloom samples, we identified mcy genes regions responsible for MC biosynthesis that are specific for Dolichospermum, Microcystis, and Planktothrix. This study is the first molecular evidence the ability of Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii from the Gulf of Finland to produce microcystins. On the basis of the obtained data of genus-specific PCR and microscopy, we suppose the presence of anatoxin-a-producing Apanizomenon flos-aquae population in the phytoplankton of Russian part of the Gulf of Finland.

Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microcistinas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Tropanos/análise , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Eutrofização , Oceanos e Mares , Federação Russa
Toxicon ; 130: 47-55, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235579


Last decades, cyanobacterial blooms have been commonly reported in Russia. Among the boom-forming species, potential toxin producers have been identified. The aim of this paper was to study the presence of neurotoxic compounds - saxitoxins and anatoxin-a - in water bodies from different regions of Russia. We also made attempts to identify the neurotoxin-producing genera. The good convergence of the results obtained by light microscopy, PCR and LC-MS/MS analyses indicated the presence of active neurotoxin producing species in all investigated water bodies. Saxitoxin was detected in phytoplankton from 4 water bodies in Central European Russia and West Siberia, including lake and reservoirs used as a source for potable water. The water bodies differed with the respect of saxitoxin producers which belonged to Aphanizomenon and/or Dolichospermum genera. For the first time, we obtained quantitative data on the intracellular saxitoxin concentration in Russian freshwaters using LC-MS/MS. Anatoxin-a was detected only in lakes of Northwestern Russia. In the eutrophic shallow Lower Suzdal Lake, Aphanizomenon was the stated anatoxin-a-producing genus. In the large shallow artificial hypertrophic Sestroretskij Razliv Lake, it was very likely that both dominant species - Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Dolichospermum planctonicum - were anatoxin-a producers.

Aphanizomenon/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Água Doce/química , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Aphanizomenon/genética , Aphanizomenon/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Neurotoxinas/química , Neurotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Federação Russa , Saxitoxina/química , Saxitoxina/isolamento & purificação , Saxitoxina/metabolismo , Tropanos/química , Tropanos/isolamento & purificação , Tropanos/metabolismo