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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808205

RESUMO

Uncontrolled inflammation plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Here, we studied the time trend of inflammatory markers in a population of hemodialysis (HD) patients affected by COVID-19, undergoing two different dialysis approaches. In a prospective study, thirty-one maintenance HD patients with COVID-19 were randomized to expanded HD (HDx), performed using a medium cut-off membrane, or standard treatment using a protein-leaking dialyzer (PLD). Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble TLR4 (sTLR4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), were collected at diagnosis, and one and two weeks after. Compared with 14 non-infected HD patients, COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and higher ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Moreover, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of IL-10 (15.2 (12.5) vs. 1.2 (1.4) pg/mL, p = 0.02). Twenty-nine patients were randomized to HDx (n = 15) or PLD (n = 14). After a single treatment, IL-8 showed a significant reduction in both groups, whereas IL-10 decreased only in HDx. All over the study, there were no significant modifications in circulating cytokine levels between the two groups, except for a parallel increase of IL-8 and IL-10 at one week control in the HDx group. No correlations were found between cytokine levels and clinical outcomes. In maintenance HD patients, COVID-19 is not related to a sustained inflammatory response. Therefore, modulation of inflammation seems not to be a suitable therapeutic target in this specific population.

2.
G Ital Nefrol ; 38(2)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852225

RESUMO

Acute flaccid paralysis is a medical emergency that may be caused by primary neuro-muscular disorders, metabolic alterations, and iatrogenic effects. Severe hyperkalemia is also a potential cause, especially in elderly patients with impaired renal function. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. Here, we report the case of a 78-year-old woman with hypertension and diabetes presenting to the emergency department because of pronounced asthenia, rapidly evolving in quadriparesis. Laboratory examinations showed severe hyperkalemia of 9.9 mmol/L, metabolic acidosis, kidney failure (creatinine 1.6 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia (501 mg/dl). The electrocardiography showed absent P-wave, widening QRS, and tall T-waves. The patient was immediately treated with medical therapy and a hemodialysis session, presenting a rapid resolution of electrocardiographic and neurological abnormalities. This case offers the opportunity to discuss the pathogenesis, the clinical presentation, and the management of hyperkalemia-induced acute flaccid paralysis.

3.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765764

RESUMO

Uric acid has long been considered responsible for a single specific disease, namely gout. In recent years, novel knowledge has emerged linking serum uric acid with a variety of conditions and related risk factors, from hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, to fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular diseases and all-cause death, with the underlying mechanisms involving disrupted neurohormonal and metabolic signaling as well as oxidative stress and inflammation. Importantly, the cut-off value of serum uric acid predicting the risk of incident events is within the range of normality and below the threshold for increased risk of gout. A large contribution to the advancement in knowledge in the cardiovascular implications of uric acid derives from the Italian study URic acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH). This review summarizes the mechanisms linking uric acid with cardiovascular risk and the major findings of the URRAH study. The need for a reappraisal of the definition of range of normality for uric acid is discussed.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671406

RESUMO

Gout as well as asymptomatic hyperuricemia have been associated with several traditional cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease. Both in vitro studies and animal models support a role for uric acid mediating both hemodynamic and tissue toxicity leading to glomerular and tubule-interstitial damage, respectively. Nevertheless, two recent well designed and carried out trials failed to show the benefit of allopurinol treatment on kidney outcomes, casting doubts on expectations of renal protection by the use of urate lowering treatment. With the aim of providing possible explanations for the lack of effect of urate lowering treatment on chronic kidney disease progression, we will critically review results from all available randomized controlled trials comparing a urate-lowering agent with placebo or no study medication for at least 12 months and report renal clinical outcomes.

5.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a better understanding of the relationship among uric acid (UA) values, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the excess of cardiovascular mortality associated with both chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia and lead to better risk stratification. Our main goal was to study the relationships between serum uric acid and kidney disease measures (namely estimated GFR [eGFR] and albuminuria) in a large cohort of individuals at cardiovascular risk from the URic acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH) Project database. METHODS: Clinical data of 26,971 individuals were analyzed. Factors associated with the presence of hyperuricemia defined on the basis of previously determined URRAH cutoffs for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were evaluated through multivariate analysis. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and/or abnormal urinary albumin excretion diagnosed as: (i) microalbuminuria if urinary albumin concentration was > 30 and ≤ 300 mg/L, or if urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was > 3.4 mg/mmol and ≤ 34 mg/mmol; (ii) macroalbuminuria if urinary albumin concentration was > 300 mg/L, or if ACR was > 34 mg/mmol. RESULTS: Mean age was 58 ± 15 years (51% males, 62% with hypertension and 12% with diabetes), mean eGFR was 81 ml/min per 1.73m22with a prevalence of eGFR < 60 and micro- or macroalbuminuria of 16, 15 and 4%, respectively. Serum uric acid showed a trend towards higher values along with decreasing renal function. Both the prevalence of gout and the frequency of allopurinol use increased significantly with the reduction of eGFR and the increase in albuminuria. Hyperuricemia was independently related to male gender, eGFR strata, and signs of insulin resistance such as body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: The lower the eGFR the higher the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout. In subjects with eGFR < 60 ml/min the occurrence of hyperuricemia is about 10 times higher than in those with eGFR > 90 ml/min. The percentage of individuals treated with allopurinol was below 2% when GFR was above 60 ml/min, it increased to 20% in the presence of CKD 3b and rose further to 35% in individuals with macroalbuminuria.

7.
J Med Chem ; 64(4): 1904-1929, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626870

RESUMO

The modulation of melatonin signaling in peripheral tissues holds promise for treating metabolic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Here, several benzimidazole derivatives have been identified as novel agonists of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The lead compounds 10b, 15a, and 19a demonstrated subnanomolar potency at MT1/MT2 receptors, high oral bioavailability in rodents, peripherally preferred exposure, and excellent selectivity in a broad panel of targets. Two-month oral administration of 10b in high-fat diet rats led to a reduction in body weight gain similar to dapagliflozin with superior results on hepatic steatosis and triglyceride levels. An early toxicological assessment indicated that 10b (also codified as ACH-000143) was devoid of hERG binding, genotoxicity, and behavioral alterations at doses up to 100 mg/kg p.o., supporting further investigation of this compound as a drug candidate.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293940

RESUMO

Background: Snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA2) are biologically active toxins, capable of triggering and modulating a wide range of biological functions. Among the svPLA2s, crotoxin (CTX) has been in the spotlight of bioprospecting research due to its role in modulating immune response and hemostasis. In the present study, novel anticoagulant mechanisms of CTX, and the modulation of inflammation-induced coagulation were investigated. Methods: CTX anticoagulant activity was evaluated using platelet poor plasma (PPP) and whole blood (WB), and also using isolated coagulation factors and complexes. The toxin modulation of procoagulant and pro-inflammatory effects was evaluated using the expression of tissue factor (TF) and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in WB. Results: The results showed that CTX impaired clot formation in both PPP and WB, and was responsible for the inhibition of both intrinsic (TF/factor VIIa) and extrinsic (factor IXa/factor VIIIa) tenase complexes, but not for factor Xa and thrombin alone. In addition, the PLA2 mitigated the prothrombinase complex by modulating the coagulation phospholipid role in the complex. In regards to the inflammation-coagulation cross talk, the toxin was capable of reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, and was followed by decreased levels of TF and procoagulant activity from LPS-treated PBMC either isolated or in WB. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study recognize the toxin as a novel medicinal candidate to be applied in inflammatory diseases with coagulation disorders.

9.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop recombinant factor IX (FIX) variants with augmented clotting activity. RESULTS: We generated three new variants, FIX-YKALW, FIX-ALL and FIX-LLW, expressed in SK-Hep-1 cells and characterized in vitro and in vivo. FIX-YKALW showed the highest antigen expression level among the variants (2.17 µg-mL), followed by FIX-LLW (1.5 µg-mL) and FIX-ALL (0.9 µg-mL). The expression level of FIX variants was two-five fold lower than FIX-wild-type (FIX-WT) (4.37 µg-mL). However, the biological activities of FIX variants were 15-31 times greater than FIX-WT in the chromogenic assay. Moreover, the new variants FIX-YKALW, FIX-LLW and FIX-ALL also presented higher specific activity than FIX-WT (17, 20 and 29-fold higher, respectively). FIX variants demonstrated a better clotting time than FIX-WT. In hemophilia B mice, we observed that FIX-YKALW promoted hemostatic protection. CONCLUSION: We have developed three improved FIX proteins with potential for use in protein replacement therapy for hemophilia B.

10.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of kidney involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported to be high. Nevertheless, data are lacking about the determinants of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the combined effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and AKI in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected data on patient demographics, comorbidities, chronic medications, vital signs, baseline laboratory test results and in-hospital treatment in patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to our Institution. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria at urinalysis within 180 days prior to hospital admission. AKI was defined according to KDIGO criteria. The primary and secondary outcomes were the development of AKI and death. RESULTS: Of 777 patients eligible for the study, acute kidney injury developed in 176 (22.6%). Of these, 79 (45%) showed an acute worsening of a preexisting CKD, and 21 (12%) required kidney replacement therapy. Independent associates of AKI were chronic kidney disease, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ventilation support. Among patients with acute kidney injury, 111 died (63%) and its occurrence increased the risk of death by 60% (HR 1.60 [95% IC 1.21-2.49] p = 0.002) independently of potential confounding factors including hypertension, preexisting kidney damage, and comorbidities. Patients with AKI showed a significantly higher rate of deaths attributed to bleeding compared to CKD and the whole population (7.5 vs 1.5 vs 3.5%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Awareness of kidney function, both preexisting CKD and development of acute kidney injury, may help to identify those patients at increased risk of death.

11.
Poult Sci ; 99(9): 4351-4359, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867979

RESUMO

The vaccines currently available to control infectious bursal disease (IBD) include live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines, immune-complex vaccines, and vaccines consisting of viral constructs of herpesvirus of turkeys genetically engineered to express VP2 surface protein. To evaluate the impact of vaccines on the chicken immune system, 2 animal trials were performed in specific pathogen-free broiler chickens. In trial 1, birds were either vaccinated when they are one-day old with a dual recombinant herpes virus of turkey construct vaccine, expressing VP2 protein of (IBDV) and F protein of Newcastle disease virus, or an immune-complex IBDV vaccine or birds were not vaccinated. At 14, 28, and 35 D, the bursa of Fabricius was collected for bursa:body weight (B:BW) ratio calculation. In trial 2, birds were vaccinated when they were 1-day old according to the same protocol as trial 1, but at day 14, all groups also received a live infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccine. At 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after IB vaccination, birds were tested by ELISA for IB serology and, soon after the last blood sampling, they were euthanized for collection of Harderian glands, trachea, and spleen and testing by flow cytometry for characterization of mononuclear cells. The immune-complex vaccine groups showed significantly lower B:BW ratio, lower IBV antibody titers, and higher mean percentage of CD8+ T cells in the spleen, trachea, and Harderian glands than those in the other experimental groups. The results of the in vivo trials coupled with a depth analysis of the repertoire of parameters involved in the immune response to IBD and IB vaccinations show one vaccine may influence the immune response of other vaccines included in the vaccination program.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2343-2350, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide and a leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). In addition to classical progression factors, other atherosclerosis-related factors, including hyperuricemia (HU), have been associated to the renal progression of IgAN. Increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels are well known to be concomitant of cardiovascular and kidney diseases, and have been proposed to be implicated in the development of arteriolar damage (AD). The aim of the present study was to explore the correlation between SUA levels, renal damage and its implication for outcome in IgAN patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical, laboratory and histologic data of 145 patients with biopsy proven IgAN were collected and retrospectively analyzed to determine the correlation between SUA levels, renal damage and the primary outcome (death or ESRD). Biopsy-proven AD was defined by the presence of arteriolar hyalinosis and/or intimal thickening. HU, defined as the highest SUA gender-specific tertile, was >7.7 mg/dl for males and >6.2 mg/dl for females. The prevalence of AD increased with the increase in the SUA level tertiles (p = 0.02). At logistic regression analysis SUA was independently related to the presence of AD (OR 1.75 [95%CI 1.10-2.93], p = 0.03). HU and AD had a synergic impact on progression of IgAN. Patients having both AD and HU, showed a reduced survival free from the primary outcome as compared to those having only one risk factor or neither (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: SUA levels are independently associated with AD and poor prognosis in patients with IgAN.

14.
J Hypertens ; 38(11): 2279-2286, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Long-term visit-to-visit SBP variability (VVV) predicts cerebro-cardiovascular and renal events in patients with hypertension. Whether VVV predicts hypertension and/or chronic kidney disease is currently unknown. We assessed the role of VVV on the development of hypertension and changes in renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal blood pressure (NBP) in a real-life clinical setting. METHODS: Clinical records from 8998 patients with type 2 diabetes, NBP, and normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed. VVV was measured by SD of the mean SBP recorded in at least four visits during 2 consecutive years before follow-up. Hypertension was defined as SBP at least 140 mmHg and DBP at least 90 mmHg or the presence of antihypertensive treatment. Renal function was defined as worsening of albuminuria status and/or a reduction in eGFR at least 30% from baseline. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 3.5 ±â€Š2.8 years, 3795 patients developed hypertension (12.1 per 100 person-years). An increase of 5 mmHg VVV was associated with a 19% (P < 0.0001) and a 5% (P = 0.008) independent increased risk of developing hypertension and worsening of albuminuria, respectively. We found no association between VVV and eGFR decrease from baseline. Patients with VVV in the upper quartile (>12.8 mmHg) showed a 50% increased risk of developing hypertension (P < 0.0001) and an almost 20% increased risk of worsening albuminuria (P = 0.004) as compared with those in the lower one (<6.9 mmHg). CONCLUSION: Increased VVV independently predicts incident hypertension and albuminuria worsening in type 2 diabetes and NBP.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599713

RESUMO

Recently, there has been a growing interest in epidemiological and clinical studies supporting a pathogenetic role of fructose in cardio-metabolic diseases, especially in children and adolescents. In the present review, we summarize experimental data on the potential biological mechanisms linking fructose and uric acid in the development of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic renal disease, thereby contributing to an increase in cardiovascular risk at pediatric age.

16.
J Nephrol ; 33(4): 715-724, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933161

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies show that hyperuricemia independently predicts the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals with normal kidney function both in the general population and in subjects with diabetes. As a matter of fact, an unfavorable role of uric acid may somewhat be harder to identify in the context of multiple risk factors and pathogenetic mechanisms typical of overt CKD such as proteinuria and high blood pressure. Although the discrepancy in clinical results could mean that urate lowering treatment does not provide a constant benefit in all patients with hyperuricemia and CKD, we believe that the inconsistency in the results from available meta-analysis is mainly due to inadequate sample size, short follow-up times and heterogeneity in study design characterizing the randomized controlled trials included in the analyses. Therefore, available data support the view that hyperuricemia has a damaging impact on kidney function, while preliminary evidence suggests that treatment of so-called asymptomatic hyperuricemia may be helpful to slow or delay the progression of chronic kidney.

17.
J Hypertens ; 38(5): 925-935, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive treatment by the use of RAAS inhibitors (RAAS-is) is of paramount importance in the management of slowly progressive IgA nephropathy (IgAN). With the aim of better understanding the relationship between BP behavior and progression, we looked at time-averaged SBP and time-averaged proteinuria and renal outcome in a single-center cohort of IgAN patients. METHODS: Among 248 consecutive patients referred to the Clinic of Nephrology of San Martino Hospital from 1996 to 2018 for native renal biopsy with a diagnosis of IgAN, we retrospectively analyzed 145 with available data at baseline and during follow-up. All patients received Supportive Care, 39% were on RAAS-is alone, 45% plus steroids, and 16% plus steroids and immunosuppressors. Renal replacing treatment (RRT) was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 67 ±â€Š6 months, 23% of study patients (n = 33) progressed to RRT and 6% (n = 9) died. Patients who reached the renal endpoint, had lower baseline eGFR and higher proteinuria and proteinuria indexed at baseline. Moreover, they had higher TA-SBP (139 ±â€Š17 vs. 130 ±â€Š13, P = 0.0016). The incidence of RRT was higher in IgAN patients in the highest time-averaged SBP tertile as compared with the others (32 vs. 23 vs. 9%, χ 6.8, P = 0.033). After adjusting for baseline SBP, baseline and time-averaged proteinuria indexed, MEST-C score, and treatment, the association between TA-SBP and RRT persisted. CONCLUSION: Time-averaged low BP values were independently associated to a decreased risk of renal progression in IgAN with no evidence of a J-curve relationship even at SBP levels below 125 mmHg.

18.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(12): 950-958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A current, albeit unproven, hypothesis is that an acceleration of cellular senescence is involved in impaired renal repair and progression of glomerular diseases. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular disease with a substantial risk for progression to ESRD. However, if and to what extent cell senescence predicts a negative outcome in FSGS is still unknown. METHODS: The hypothesis that cell senescence represents a proximate mechanism by which the kidney is damaged in FSGS (NOS phenotype) was investigated in 26 consecutive kidney biopsies from adult FSGS cases (eGFR 72 ± 4 mL/min, proteinuria 2.3 ± 0.6 g/day) who were incident for 2 years in a Northern Italian nephrology center and had a 6-year clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Cell senescence (p16INK4A, SA-ß-galactosidase [SA-ß-Gal]) was upregulated by ∼3- to 4-fold in both glomerular and tubular cells in kidney biopsies of FSGS as compared to age-matched controls (p < 0.05-0.01). Tubular SA-ß-Gal correlated with proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, while only as a trend, tubular p16INK4A was directly associated with interstitial fibrosis. At univariate analysis, basal eGFR, proteinuria, and tubular expression of SA-ß-Gal and p16INK4A were significantly directly related to the annual loss of eGFR. No correlation was observed between glomerular p16INK4A and eGFR loss. However, at multivariate analysis, eGFR, proteinuria, and tubular p16INK4A, but not SA-ß-Gal, contributed significantly to the prediction of eGFR loss. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that an elevated cell senescence rate, expressed by an upregulation of p16INK4A in tubules at the time of initial biopsy, represents an independent predictor of progression to ESRD in adult patients with FSGS.

19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 599736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584667

RESUMO

In the last few months, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide and has provoked an exceptional effort from the scientific community to understand the disease. Clinical evidence suggests that severe COVID-19 is associated with both dysregulation of damage tolerance caused by pulmonary immunopathology and high viral load. In this review article, we describe and discuss clinical studies that show advances in the understanding of mild and severe illness and we highlight major points that are critical for improving the comprehension of different clinical outcomes. The understanding of pulmonary immunopathology will contribute to the identification of biomarkers in an attempt to classify mild, moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 illness. The interface of pulmonary immunopathology and the identification of biomarkers are critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce the systemic and pulmonary hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , /patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia
20.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200076, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143214

RESUMO

Snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA2) are biologically active toxins, capable of triggering and modulating a wide range of biological functions. Among the svPLA2s, crotoxin (CTX) has been in the spotlight of bioprospecting research due to its role in modulating immune response and hemostasis. In the present study, novel anticoagulant mechanisms of CTX, and the modulation of inflammation-induced coagulation were investigated. Methods: CTX anticoagulant activity was evaluated using platelet poor plasma (PPP) and whole blood (WB), and also using isolated coagulation factors and complexes. The toxin modulation of procoagulant and pro-inflammatory effects was evaluated using the expression of tissue factor (TF) and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in WB. Results: The results showed that CTX impaired clot formation in both PPP and WB, and was responsible for the inhibition of both intrinsic (TF/factor VIIa) and extrinsic (factor IXa/factor VIIIa) tenase complexes, but not for factor Xa and thrombin alone. In addition, the PLA2 mitigated the prothrombinase complex by modulating the coagulation phospholipid role in the complex. In regards to the inflammation-coagulation cross talk, the toxin was capable of reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and was followed by decreased levels of TF and procoagulant activity from LPS-treated PBMC either isolated or in WB. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study recognize the toxin as a novel medicinal candidate to be applied in inflammatory diseases with coagulation disorders.(AU)

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