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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 644: 884-898, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743886

RESUMO

An assessment of potential carcinogenic and toxic health outcomes related to atmospheric emissions from the new-generation coal fired power plant of Torrevaldaliga Nord, in Central Italy, has been conducted. A chemical-transport model was applied on the reference year 2010 in the area of the plant, in order to calculate airborne concentrations of a set of 17 emitted pollutants of health concern. Inhalation cancer risks and hazard quotients, for each pollutant and for each target organ impacted via the inhalation pathway, were calculated and mapped on the study domain for the overall ambient concentrations and for the sole contribution of the plant to airborne concentrations, allowing to assess the relative contribution of the power plant to the risk from all sources. Cancer risks, cumulated on all pollutants, resulted around 5 × 10-5 for the concentrations from all sources and below 3 × 10-7 for the plant contribution, mainly targeting the respiratory system. On each part of the study domain, the plant contributed for less than 6% to the overall cancer risk. Hazard quotients from all sources, cumulated on all pollutants, reached values of 2.5 for the respiratory and 1.5 for the cardiovascular systems. Hazard quotients of non-carcinogenic risks from the plant, cumulated on all pollutants, resulted below 0.03 for the respiratory system and 0.02 for the cardiovascular system. On each part of the study domain, the plant contributed for less than 5% to the respiratory and cardiovascular risks. Both cancer risks and hazard quotients related to the plant are far below international thresholds for human health protection, while the values from all sources require consideration. The proposed method provides an instrument for prospective health risk assessment of large industrial sources, with some limitations presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Centrais Elétricas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 458-460: 459-65, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23688968

RESUMO

Numerical experiments using both passive tracers and full chemistry were performed to investigate the budget of pollutants in the Po Valley hot spot, using the BOLCHEM integrated model of atmospheric dynamics and composition. A one-year run was undertaken over the European domain, with a resolution of 50×50 km(2). Sources internal and external to the Po Valley were treated in separated runs. For the tracer experiment, the ratio between total masses of locally and externally emitted tracers showed that for half of the year the contribution from remote sources exceeds the local one. Although local sources prevailed at the ground level, external contribution exceedance was observed 15% of the time. Since the Po Valley is mostly surrounded by high mountains, vertical mixing and entrainment at the boundary layer top were found to be more effective than the advection at low levels. As the concentration of reacting species is affected by the nonlinearity of the transport-reaction mechanism, the results of the full chemistry runs with internal and external sources can be compared only in cases where this effect is weak. In these cases, the results for tracers were broadly confirmed for the less reacting species (CO, PM10) and, to some extent, also for more reactive ones (NO2, O3) for which more pronounced seasonal and diurnal cycles were found due to photochemical reactivity.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Simulação por Computador , Itália
3.
Appl Opt ; 45(27): 7073-88, 2006 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16946786

RESUMO

To calculate aerosol extinction from Raman lidar data, it is necessary to evaluate the derivative of a molecular Raman signal with respect to range. The typical approach taken in the lidar community is to make an a priori assumption about the functional behavior of the data to calculate the derivative. It has previously been shown that the use of the chi-squared technique to determine the most likely functional behavior of the data prior to actually calculating the derivative eliminates the need for making a priori assumptions. Here that technique is validated through numerical simulation and by application to a significant body of Raman lidar measurements. In general, we show that the chi-squared approach for evaluating extinction yields lower extinction uncertainty than traditional techniques. We also use the technique to study the feasibility of developing a general characterization of the extinction uncertainty that could permit the uncertainty in Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements to be estimated accurately without the need of the chi-squared technique.

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