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1.
BJU Int ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature to determine the benefits and harms of the surgical techniques used for the correction of Adult Acquired Buried Penis (AABP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021267440) and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Pariser system was used to classify surgical procedures. RESULTS: In total, 170 studies were identified and screened and 21 studies (570 patients) were included. In general, high complexity reconstructive procedures (category > III) were performed, with split-thickness skin grafts for shaft reconstruction. Pooled mean operative time was 192.2 min and mean estimated blood loss range was 57-326 cc. No intraoperative complications were recorded. The incidence of postoperative complications varied across studies (0-80.8%) with >Grade 4 complications reported in 3.1-3.7% of cases. Wound infection and genital lymphedema were reported in 4.7-33% and 7.1-60% of cases, respectively. The incidence of graft contracture and partial/total loss was 2.4-14.3% and 1.5-21%, respectively. The incidence of recurrence was not systematically reported and ranged from 5.2% to 13%. Postoperative evaluation of functional outcomes demonstrated significant improvements in sexual, urinary function and cosmesis. Assessment of Risk of Bias (RoB) demonstrated a high RoB across all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management of AABP has a high incidence of complications, but results in satisfactory outcomes with significant improvement in patients' quality of life. The high incidence of graft related-complications should be taken into account when counselling patients and AAPB care centralised to high-volume centres.

2.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924336

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In patients with Peyronie's disease (PD), oral, injected, or topical agents provide limited efficacy. In this setting, combination of two or more conservative treatments may improve symptoms further. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of available conservative combination therapies for active and stable PD through a systematic review and meta-analysis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched multiple databases and sources of gray literature until June 2021. We included randomized or observational comparative studies assessing any conservative combination therapies for PD. We undertook a random-effect meta-analysis when at least two studies employed the same treatment modality (PROSPERO: CRD42021224517). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 13 studies on active PD and ten on stable PD (1962 participants) were included. Most included studies raised methodological concerns. In patients with active or stable PD, the available evidence is inconclusive to support the use of any combination treatment modality, such as intralesional verapamil injections, antioxidants, and other oral, injected, or topical agents. Based on data availability, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) plus adjunctive mechanical therapies (penile traction or vacuum pump) versus CCH monotherapy on penile curvature and length in patients with stable PD. CCH and adjunctive mechanical therapies resulted in an additional decrease of 0.3° in penile curvature (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.97 to 4.49, I2 = 0%) and in an increase of 0.5 cm in penile length (95% CI: -0.32 to 1.4, I2 = 70%) compared with CCH monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The available combination treatment modalities, including the addition of adjunctive mechanical therapies to CCH, do not improve symptoms further compared with monotherapy and should not be implemented in patients with active or stable PD. Further high-quality randomized trials combining only recommended treatments are mandatory. PATIENT SUMMARY: Despite the interest in and optimism for combination treatment modalities, the road to an effective conservative therapy for Peyronie's disease still seems long.

3.
Curr Oncol ; 28(6): 5318-5331, 2021 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Nowadays, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks and could be useful for the new concept of precision medicine in order to help physicians in the choice of therapeutic strategies for brain tumours. Previous data suggest that, in the central nervous system (CNS) tumours, amino acid PET may more accurately demarcate the active disease than paramagnetic enhanced MRI, which is currently the standard method of evaluation in brain tumours and helps in the assessment of disease grading, as a fundamental basis for proper clinical patient management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of ML on 11[C]-MET PET/CT scan images and to propose a radiomics workflow using a machine-learning method to create a predictive model capable of discriminating between low-grade and high-grade CNS tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, fifty-six patients affected by a primary brain tumour who underwent 11[C]-MET PET/CT were selected from January 2016 to December 2019. Pathological examination was available in all patients to confirm the diagnosis and grading of disease. PET/CT acquisition was performed after 10 min from the administration of 11C-Methionine (401-610 MBq) for a time acquisition of 15 min. 11[C]-MET PET/CT images were acquired using two scanners (24 patients on a Siemens scan and 32 patients on a GE scan). Then, LIFEx software was used to delineate brain tumours using two different semi-automatic and user-independent segmentation approaches and to extract 44 radiomics features for each segmentation. A novel mixed descriptive-inferential sequential approach was used to identify a subset of relevant features that correlate with the grading of disease confirmed by pathological examination and clinical outcome. Finally, a machine learning model based on discriminant analysis was used in the evaluation of grading prediction (low grade CNS vs. high-grade CNS) of 11[C]-MET PET/CT. RESULTS: The proposed machine learning model based on (i) two semi-automatic and user-independent segmentation processes, (ii) an innovative feature selection and reduction process, and (iii) the discriminant analysis, showed good performance in the prediction of tumour grade when the volumetric segmentation was used for feature extraction. In this case, the proposed model obtained an accuracy of ~85% (AUC ~79%) in the subgroup of patients who underwent Siemens tomography scans, of 80.51% (AUC 65.73%) in patients who underwent GE tomography scans, and of 70.31% (AUC 64.13%) in the whole patients' dataset (Siemens and GE scans). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study on the use of an ML model demonstrated to be feasible and able to select radiomics features of 11[C]-MET PET with potential value in prediction of grading of disease. Further studies are needed to improve radiomics algorithms to personalize predictive and prognostic models and potentially support the medical decision process.

4.
Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833068

RESUMO

The rapid improvement of space technologies is leading to the continuous increase of space missions that will soon bring humans back to the Moon and, in the coming future, toward longer interplanetary missions such as the one to Mars. The idea of living in space is charming and fascinating; however, the space environment is a harsh place to host human life and exposes the crew to many physical challenges. The absence of gravity experienced in space affects many aspects of human biology and can be reproduced in vitro with the help of microgravity simulators. Simulated microgravity (s-µg) is applied in many fields of research, ranging from cell biology to physics, including cancer biology. In our study, we aimed to characterize, at the biological and mechanical level, a Random Positioning Machine in order to simulate microgravity in an in vitro model of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). We investigated the effects played by s-µg by analyzing the change of expression of some genes that drive proliferation, survival, cell death, cancer stemness, and metastasis in the human MDA-MB-231 cell line. Besides the mechanical verification of the RPM used in our studies, our biological findings highlighted the impact of s-µg and its putative involvement in cancer progression.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836403

RESUMO

Interest in the role of dietary patterns has been consistently emerging in recent years due to much research that has documented the impact of metabolism on erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a non-systematic review of English articles published from 1964 to September 2021. The search terms were: ("dietary patterns" OR "diet") AND/OR ("erectile dysfunction") AND/OR ("benign prostatic hyperplasia"). In the present review, we have highlighted how the association between dietary patterns and two of the most frequent pathologies in urology, namely erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia, is present in the literature. The data suggested that a diet that is more adherent to the Mediterranean diet or that emphasizes the presence of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, and fish or other sources of long-chain (n-3) fats, in addition to reduced content of red meat, may have a beneficial role on erectile function. At the same time, the same beneficial effects can be transferred to BPH as a result of the indirect regulatory effects on prostatic growth and smooth muscle tone, thus determining an improvement in symptoms. Certainly, in-depth studies and translational medicine are needed to confirm these encouraging data.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using an Italian multi-institutional database of TURBT patients with high-risk urothelial NMIBC between January 2019 and February 2021, followed by Re-TURBT and/or adjuvant intravesical BCG. RESULTS: A total of 2591 patients from 27 institutions with primary TURBT were included. Of these, 1534 (59.2%) and 1056 (40.8%) underwent TURBT before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Time between diagnosis and TURBT was significantly longer during the COVID-19 period (65 vs. 52 days, p = 0.002). One thousand and sixty-six patients (41.1%) received Re-TURBT, 604 (56.7%) during the pre-COVID-19. The median time to secondary resection was significantly longer during the COVID-19 period (55 vs. 48 days, p < 0.0001). A total of 977 patients underwent adjuvant intravesical therapy after primary or secondary resection, with a similar distribution across the two groups (n = 453, 86% vs. n = 388, 86.2%). However, the proportion of the patients who underwent maintenance significantly differed (79.5% vs. 60.4%, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic represented an unprecedented challenge to our health system. Our study did not show significant differences in TURBT quality. However, a delay in treatment schedule and disease management was observed. Investigation of the oncological impacts of those differences should be advocated.

7.
Eur Urol Open Sci ; 33: 28-41, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604814

RESUMO

Context: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is diagnosed in up to 80% of men during their lifetime. Several novel ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments (uMISTs) for BPH/benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) have become available over the past 5 yr. Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and functional outcomes of recently introduced uMISTs for BPH/BPO, including Urolift, Rezum, temporary implantable nitinol device, prostatic artery embolization (PAE), and intraprostatic injection. Evidence acquisition: A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2020 using Medline (via PubMed), Embase (via Ovid), Scopus, and Web of Science (registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021225014). The search strategy used PICO criteria and article selection was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias and the quality of the articles included were assessed. A dedicated data extraction form was used to collect the data of interest. Pooled and cumulative analyses were performed to compare perioperative and functional outcomes between study groups. A random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Stata version 15.0 software was used for all statistical analyses. Evidence synthesis: The initial electronic search identified 3978 papers, of which 48 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis revealed a uMIST benefit in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; -9.81 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.37 to -8.25 at 1 mo; -13.13 points, 95% CI -14.98 to -11.64 at 12 mo), maximum flow rate (from +3.66 ml/s, 95% CI 2.8-4.5 to +4.14 ml/s, 95% CI 0.72-7.56 at 12 mo), and postvoid residual volume (-10.10 ml, 95% CI -27.90 to 7.71 at 12 mo). No negative impact was observed on scores for the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction bother and function scales (overall postintervention change in pooled median score of 1.88, 95% CI 1.34-2.42 at the start of follow-up; and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-1.8 after 1 yr), or the IPSS-Quality of Life questionnaire. Conclusions: Novel uMISTs can yield fast and effective relief of LUTS without affecting patient quality of life. Only Rezum, UroLift, and PAE had a minimal impact on patients' sexual function with respect to baseline, especially regarding preservation of ejaculation. Patient summary: We reviewed outcomes for recently introduced ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostate enlargement or obstruction. The evidence suggests that these novel techniques are beneficial in terms of controlling symptoms while preserving sexual function. Take Home Message: Novel ultra-minimally invasive treatments can yield fast and effective relief of lower urinary tract symptoms without affecting a patient's quality of life.

8.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600805

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a radiomic model, with radiomic features extracted from breast Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) from a 1.5T scanner, for predicting the malignancy of masses with enhancement. Images were acquired using an 8-channel breast coil in the axial plane. The rationale behind this study is to show the feasibility of a radiomics-powered model that could be integrated into the clinical practice by exploiting only standard-of-care DCE-MRI with the goal of reducing the required image pre-processing (ie, normalization and quantitative imaging map generation). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 107 radiomic features were extracted from a manually annotated dataset of 111 patients, which was split into discovery and test sets. A feature calibration and pre-processing step was performed to find only robust non-redundant features. An in-depth discovery analysis was performed to define a predictive model: for this purpose, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was trained in a nested 5-fold cross-validation scheme, by exploiting several unsupervised feature selection methods. The predictive model performance was evaluated in terms of Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC), specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV. The test was performed on unseen held-out data. RESULTS: The model combining Unsupervised Discriminative Feature Selection (UDFS) and SVMs on average achieved the best performance on the blinded test set: AUROC = 0.725±0.091, sensitivity = 0.709±0.176, specificity = 0.741±0.114, PPV = 0.72±0.093, and NPV = 0.75±0.114. CONCLUSION: In this study, we built a radiomic predictive model based on breast DCE-MRI, using only the strongest enhancement phase, with promising results in terms of accuracy and specificity in the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640344

RESUMO

Over the years, sexual behaviour has changed due to the growing interest in everything related to the sexual sphere. The purpose of the study was to collect information on the sexual habits and behaviours of Italian people of all ages, sexes and sexual orientations and to describe the patterns of sexual behaviour, with the aim of gaining a representative picture of sexuality in Italy, before the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed a survey with 99 questions about their sexual habits. In our group first sexual experiences occurred on average around the age of 15, whilst the median age of the first sexual intercourse was 17. The fantasies that most stimulated and excited our group (Likert scale ≥ 3) was having sex in public (63.9%), having sex with more than one person at the same time (59.4%), blindfolded sex (64.9%), being tied up (56.3%) and observing a naked person (48.6%). As for pornography, we have shown that 80% of our group watched porn at home, alone or from their smartphones. Our results have several practical implications for the areas of sex education and sexual health. It is necessary to safeguard the health of young people and support them increasing their sexual well-being.

10.
Eur Urol ; 80(5): 603-620, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511305

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The European Association of Urology (EAU) has updated its guidelines on sexual and reproductive health for 2021. OBJECTIVE: To present a summary of the 2021 version of the EAU guidelines on sexual and reproductive health, including advances and areas of controversy in male infertility. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The panel performed a comprehensive literature review of novel data up to January 2021. The guidelines were updated and a strength rating for each recommendation was included that was based either on a systematic review of the literature or consensus opinion from the expert panel, where applicable. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The male partner in infertile couples should undergo a comprehensive urological assessment to identify and treat any modifiable risk factors causing fertility impairment. Infertile men are at a higher risk of harbouring and developing other diseases including malignancy and cardiovascular disease and should be screened for potential modifiable risk factors, such as hypogonadism. Sperm DNA fragmentation testing has emerged as a novel biomarker that can identify infertile men and provide information on the outcomes from assisted reproductive techniques. The role of hormone stimulation therapy in hypergonadotropic hypogonadal or eugonadal patients is controversial and is not recommended outside of clinical trials. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence to support the widespread use of other empirical treatments and surgical interventions in clinical practice (such as antioxidants and surgical sperm retrieval in men without azoospermia). There is low-quality evidence to support the routine use of testicular fine-needle mapping as an alternative diagnostic and predictive tool before testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), and either conventional or microdissection TESE remains the surgical modality of choice for men with NOA. CONCLUSIONS: All infertile men should undergo a comprehensive urological assessment to identify and treat any modifiable risk factors. Increasing data indicate that infertile men are at higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and of developing cancers and should be screened and counselled accordingly. There is low-quality evidence supporting the use of empirical treatments and interventions currently used in clinical practice; the efficacy of these therapies needs to be validated in large-scale randomised controlled trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: Approximately 50% of infertility will be due to problems with the male partner. Therefore, all infertile men should be assessed by a specialist with the expertise to not only help optimise their fertility but also because they are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer long term and therefore require appropriate counselling and management. There are many treatments and interventions for male infertility that have not been validated in high-quality studies and caution should be applied to their use in routine clinical practice.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503188

RESUMO

Despite early detection and regular surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), recurrence and progression rates remain exceedingly high for this highly prevalent malignancy. Limited visualization of malignant lesions with standard cystoscopy and associated false-negative biopsy rates have been the driving force for investigating alternative and adjunctive technologies for improved cystoscopy. The aim of our systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and oncologic outcomes of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) fluorescence, narrow band imaging (NBI), and conventional white light cystoscopy (WLC) in detecting NMIBC. Out of 1,087 studies reviewed, 17 prospective non-randomized and randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria for the study. We demonstrated that tumor resection with either PDD and NBI exhibited lower recurrence rates and greater diagnostic sensitivity compared to WLC alone. NBI demonstrated superior disease sensitivity and specificity as compared to WLC and an overall greater hierarchical summary receiver operative characteristic. Our findings are consistent with emerging guidelines and underscore the value of integrating these enhanced technologies as a part of the standard care for patients with suspected or confirmed NMIBC.

12.
Int J Impot Res ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552228

RESUMO

Peyronie's disease treatments is changing again due the interruption of Xiapex® distrubution in Europe. There are many reasons that can be referred to this event. In this editorial we would like to shed light on the current cost items relating to treatment with collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH). The inaccessibility of the drug has seen both an increase in surgery for the treatments of both PD and Dupuytren's disease and an interruption of therapies in patients who had not completed their therapeutic cycle. Considering the aforementioned concerns, we would like to invite researchers dealing with PD to conduct studies with the available CCH products in collaboration with the drug companies in order to give again an efficacious treatment for PD.

13.
Urol Int ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404057

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is still a lack of availability of high-quality multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) interpreted by experienced uro-radiologists to rule out clinically significant PC (csPC). Consequently, we developed a new imaging method based on computed tomographic ultrasound (US) supported by artificial neural network analysis (ANNA). METHODS: Two hundred and two consecutive patients with visible mpMRI lesions were scanned and recorded by robotic CT-US during mpMRI-TRUS biopsy. Only significant index lesions (ISUP ≥2) verified by whole-mount pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Their visibility was reevaluated by 2 blinded investigators by grayscale US and ANNA. RESULTS: In the cohort, csPC was detected in 105 cases (52%) by mpMRI-TRUS biopsy. Whole-mount histology was available in 44 cases (36%). In this subgroup, mean PSA level was 8.6 ng/mL, mean prostate volume was 33 cm3, and mean tumor volume was 0.5 cm3. Median PI-RADS and ISUP of index lesions were 4 and 3, respectively. Index lesions were visible in grayscale US and ANNA in 25 cases (57%) and 30 cases (68%), respectively. Combining CT-US-ANNA, we detected index lesions in 35 patients (80%). CONCLUSIONS: The first results of multiparametric CT-US-ANNA imaging showed promising detection rates in patients with csPC. US imaging with ANNA has the potential to complement PC diagnosis.

14.
J Imaging ; 7(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460513

RESUMO

Structural and metabolic imaging are fundamental for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up in oncology. Beyond the well-established diagnostic imaging applications, ultrasounds are currently emerging in the clinical practice as a noninvasive technology for therapy. Indeed, the sound waves can be used to increase the temperature inside the target solid tumors, leading to apoptosis or necrosis of neoplastic tissues. The Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) technology represents a valid application of this ultrasound property, mainly used in oncology and neurology. In this paper; patient safety during MRgFUS treatments was investigated by a series of experiments in a tissue-mimicking phantom and performing ex vivo skin samples, to promptly identify unwanted temperature rises. The acquired MR images, used to evaluate the temperature in the treated areas, were analyzed to compare classical proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift techniques and referenceless thermometry methods to accurately assess the temperature variations. We exploited radial basis function (RBF) neural networks for referenceless thermometry and compared the results against interferometric optical fiber measurements. The experimental measurements were obtained using a set of interferometric optical fibers aimed at quantifying temperature variations directly in the sonication areas. The temperature increases during the treatment were not accurately detected by MRI-based referenceless thermometry methods, and more sensitive measurement systems, such as optical fibers, would be required. In-depth studies about these aspects are needed to monitor temperature and improve safety during MRgFUS treatments.

15.
Prostate ; 81(12): 882-892, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between insulin receptors (isoforms α and ß), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and serine/arginine splicing factor 1 (SRSF-1) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) and diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 368 patients who underwent surgery for PC or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) between 2010 and 2020 at the Department of Urology, University of Catania. Tissue microarray slides were constructed and they were stained for androgen receptor (AR), insulin receptor-α and -ß, IGF1 (IGF1-R), Ki-67, and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression using validated score. RESULTS: The final cohort was represented by 100 patients with BPH and 268 with PC, with a median age of 68 years. We found that SRSF-1 expression was associated with AR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.66), PSMA (OR: 2.13), Ki-67 (OR: 5.99), insulin receptor (IR)-α (OR: 2.38), IR-ß (OR: 3.48), IGF1-R (OR: 1.53), and microvascular density (MVD) was associated with PSMA (OR: 3.44), Ki-67 (OR: 2.23), IR-α (OR: 2.91), IR-ß (OR: 3.02), IGF1-R (OR: 2.95), and SRSF-1 (OR: 2.21). In the sub cohort of PC patients, we found that SRSF-1 expression was associated with AR (OR: 2.34), Ki-67 (OR: 6.77), IR-α (OR: 2.7), and MVD (OR: 1.98). At the Kaplan-Meier analysis, SRSF-1+ patients had worse 5- and 9-year biochemical recurrence (36% and 6%) respect to SRSF-1- (67% and 7%; p < .01) and similarly MVD+ patients (44% and 7%) respect to MVD- (64% and 8%; p < .01). Restricting the analysis only in patients with PC and diabetes, we found that SRSF-1+ was associated with Ki-67+ (OR: 8.75; p < .05) and MVD+ (OR: 7.5; p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: PC exhibits widespread heterogeneity in protein expression. In particular, the expressions of the SRSF-1 protein and of the MVD are associated with a worse prognosis and in particular with a greater cell proliferation. These results, although preliminary, may offer new future scientific insights with the aim of highlighting possible genetic alterations linked to a greater expression of SRSF-1 and associated with a worse prognosis.

16.
Front Oncol ; 11: 682647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262867

RESUMO

Protontherapy is a rapidly expanding radiotherapy modality where accelerated proton beams are used to precisely deliver the dose to the tumor target but is generally considered ineffective against radioresistant tumors. Proton-Boron Capture Therapy (PBCT) is a novel approach aimed at enhancing proton biological effectiveness. PBCT exploits a nuclear fusion reaction between low-energy protons and 11B atoms, i.e. p+11B→ 3α (p-B), which is supposed to produce highly-DNA damaging α-particles exclusively across the tumor-conformed Spread-Out Bragg Peak (SOBP), without harming healthy tissues in the beam entrance channel. To confirm previous work on PBCT, here we report new in-vitro data obtained at the 62-MeV ocular melanoma-dedicated proton beamline of the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania, Italy. For the first time, we also tested PBCT at the 250-MeV proton beamline used for deep-seated cancers at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), Pavia, Italy. We used Sodium Mercaptododecaborate (BSH) as 11B carrier, DU145 prostate cancer cells to assess cell killing and non-cancer epithelial breast MCF-10A cells for quantifying chromosome aberrations (CAs) by FISH painting and DNA repair pathway protein expression by western blotting. Cells were exposed at various depths along the two clinical SOBPs. Compared to exposure in the absence of boron, proton irradiation in the presence of BSH significantly reduced DU145 clonogenic survival and increased both frequency and complexity of CAs in MCF-10A cells at the mid- and distal SOBP positions, but not at the beam entrance. BSH-mediated enhancement of DNA damage response was also found at mid-SOBP. These results corroborate PBCT as a strategy to render protontherapy amenable towards radiotherapy-resilient tumor. If coupled with emerging proton FLASH radiotherapy modalities, PBCT could thus widen the protontherapy therapeutic index.

17.
Future Sci OA ; 7(7): FSO709, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258022

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the prognostic role of neutrophil percentage-to-albumin ratio (NPAR) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and radical cystectomy (RC). Patients & methods: 213 patients were included. Inclusion criteria: Nonmetastatic, MIBC (cT2-T4aN0M0), at least three cycles of NAC, undergone RC and with blood count within 30 days before NAC. Results: Five-years overall survival (OS) with NPAR >18 was 34.06% (95% CI: 18.3-50.5) and 65.37% (95% CI: 52.4-75.6) with NPAR <18. Five years cancer-specific survival (CSS) with NPAR >18 was 42.9% (95% CI: 23.9-60.7) and 74.5% (95% CI: 62.6-83.1) with NPAR <18 (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, NPAR increased OS of 1.3 points and CSS of 4.37 points. Conclusion: High NPAR prior to NAC seems to be a strong predictor of OS and CSS in MIBC patients treated with NAC and RC.

18.
Epileptic Disord ; 23(4): 611-622, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259155

RESUMO

Hemispheric surgery is an effective and cost-effective option for hemispheric epilepsy. Data specifically focusing on very early infancy are scant. In our study, we report the results of hemispheric surgery in children under three years of age, along with clinical, neuroradiological and EEG features, from two Italian epilepsy surgery centres. After reviewing our epilepsy surgery databases (2008-2018), we identified 14 patients (seven males) submitted to hemispheric surgery, under three years (range: 2-29 months), with a follow-up of at least 12 months. No deaths occurred, and surgical complications were observed in 3/17 procedures. At final follow-up visit (mean: 30.8 months; range: 12-90), 10/14 patients (71.4%) achieved Engel Class I (eight Class 1A, one Class 1B, and one Class 1C). Antiepileptic drugs were completely discontinued in three and reduced in eight, thus a significant decrease in drug regimen after surgery was achieved in 11/14 patients (78.6%). Before surgery, severe developmental delay was present in 10 patients, moderate in two and mild in two. At the last follow-up visit, the degree of developmental delay changed from severe to moderate in five patients, remained unchanged in six cases (four severe and two moderate), and changed from mild to moderate in two following surgery. In many cases, hemispheric surgery in children under three years is effective in achieving seizure freedom or reducing seizure frequency, with the possibility of simplifying complex drug regimens. Moreover, it appears to be a safe and well tolerated procedure, leading to improvement in cognition and posture.

20.
Future Oncol ; 17(30): 3987-3994, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278815

RESUMO

The objective of the current research was to explore the potential prognostic value of readily available clinical and pathologic variables in bladder cancer. The novel association found between cholesterol levels and prognosis may provide the rationale for exploring novel treatments. Patients included had histologically confirmed urothelial bladder cancer and were treated with at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy. A total of 245 patients at low, intermediate and high risk, presenting with 0-1, 2 or 3-4 risk factors, including positive lymph nodes, Hb <12.8, NLR ≥2.7 and cholesterol levels ≥199, were included. Five-year cancer-specific survival rate was 0.67, 0.78 and 0.94 at high, intermediate and low risk, respectively. Total cholesterol levels at the time of cystectomy may represent a commonly assessable prognostic factor and may be incorporated in a clinically meaningful risk-group classification model.

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