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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1884-1894, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313512

RESUMO

Brachyolmia is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short spine-short stature, platyspondyly, and minor long bone abnormalities. We describe 18 patients, from different ethnic backgrounds and ages ranging from infancy to 19 years, with the autosomal recessive form, associated with PAPSS2. The main clinical features include disproportionate short stature with short spine associated with variable symptoms of pain, stiffness, and spinal deformity. Eight patients presented prenatally with short femora, whereas later in childhood their short-spine phenotype emerged. We observed the same pattern of changing skeletal proportion in other patients. The radiological findings included platyspondyly, irregular end plates of the elongated vertebral bodies, narrow disc spaces and short over-faced pedicles. In the limbs, there was mild shortening of femoral necks and tibiae in some patients, whereas others had minor epiphyseal or metaphyseal changes. In all patients, exome and Sanger sequencing identified homozygous or compound heterozygous PAPSS2 variants, including c.809G>A, common to white European patients. Bi-parental inheritance was established where possible. Low serum DHEAS, but not overt androgen excess was identified. Our study indicates that autosomal recessive brachyolmia occurs across continents and may be under-recognized in infancy. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of short femora presenting in the second trimester.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1611-1618, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278393

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a heterogeneous group of chronic encephalopathies frequently associated with rare de novo nonsynonymous coding variants in neuronally expressed genes. Here, we describe eight probands with a DEE phenotype comprising intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypotonia. Exome trio analysis showed de novo variants in TRPM3, encoding a brain-expressed transient receptor potential channel, in each. Seven probands were identically heterozygous for a recurrent substitution, p.(Val837Met), in TRPM3's S4-S5 linker region, a conserved domain proposed to undergo conformational change during gated channel opening. The eighth individual was heterozygous for a proline substitution, p.(Pro937Gln), at the boundary between TRPM3's flexible pore-forming loop and an adjacent alpha-helix. General-population truncating variants and microdeletions occur throughout TRPM3, suggesting a pathomechanism other than simple haploinsufficiency. We conclude that de novo variants in TRPM3 are a cause of intellectual disability and epilepsy.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 749-757, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905398

RESUMO

Over a relatively short period of time, the clinical geneticist's "toolbox" has been expanded by machine-learning algorithms for image analysis, which can be applied to the task of syndrome identification on the basis of facial photographs, but these technologies harbor potential beyond the recognition of established phenotypes. Here, we comprehensively characterized two individuals with a hitherto unknown genetic disorder caused by the same de novo mutation in LEMD2 (c.1436C>T;p.Ser479Phe), the gene which encodes the nuclear envelope protein LEM domain-containing protein 2 (LEMD2). Despite different ages and ethnic backgrounds, both individuals share a progeria-like facial phenotype and a distinct combination of physical and neurologic anomalies, such as growth retardation; hypoplastic jaws crowded with multiple supernumerary, yet unerupted, teeth; and cerebellar intention tremor. Immunofluorescence analyses of patient fibroblasts revealed mutation-induced disturbance of nuclear architecture, recapitulating previously published data in LEMD2-deficient cell lines, and additional experiments suggested mislocalization of mutant LEMD2 protein within the nuclear lamina. Computational analysis of facial features with two different deep neural networks showed phenotypic proximity to other nuclear envelopathies. One of the algorithms, when trained to recognize syndromic similarity (rather than specific syndromes) in an unsupervised approach, clustered both individuals closely together, providing hypothesis-free hints for a common genetic etiology. We show that a recurrent de novo mutation in LEMD2 causes a nuclear envelopathy whose prognosis in adolescence is relatively good in comparison to that of classical Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, and we suggest that the application of artificial intelligence to the analysis of patient images can facilitate the discovery of new genetic disorders.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 553-564, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746764

RESUMO

SLC35A2-CDG is caused by mutations in the X-linked SLC35A2 gene encoding the UDP-galactose transporter. SLC35A2 mutations lead to hypogalactosylation of N-glycans. SLC35A2-CDG is characterized by severe neurological symptoms and, in many patients, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. In view of the diagnostic challenges, we studied the clinical, neuroradiological, and biochemical features of 15 patients (11 females and 4 males) with SLC35A2-CDG from various centers. We describe nine novel pathogenic variations in SLC35A2. All affected individuals presented with a global developmental delay, and hypotonia, while 70% were nonambulatory. Epilepsy was present in 80% of the patients, and in EEG hypsarrhythmia and findings consistent with epileptic encephalopathy were frequently seen. The most common brain MRI abnormality was cerebral atrophy with delayed myelination and multifocal inhomogeneous abnormal patchy white matter hyperintensities, which seemed to be nonprogressive. Thin corpus callosum was also common, and all the patients had a corpus callosum shorter than normal for their age. Variable dysmorphic features and growth deficiency were noted. Biochemically, normal mucin type O-glycosylation and lipid glycosylation were found, while transferrin mass spectrometry was found to be more specific in the identification of SLC35A2-CDG, as compared to routine screening tests. Although normal glycosylation studies together with clinical variability and genetic results complicate the diagnosis of SLC35A2-CDG, our data indicate that the combination of these three elements can support the pathogenicity of mutations in SLC35A2.

5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Defects in the cohesin pathway are associated with cohesinopathies, notably Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We aimed to delineate pathogenic variants in known and candidate cohesinopathy genes from a clinical exome perspective. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients referred for clinical exome sequencing (CES, N = 10,698). Patients with causative variants in novel or recently described cohesinopathy genes were enrolled for phenotypic characterization. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variants (SNVs/indels) were identified in established disease genes including NIPBL (N = 5), SMC1A (N = 14), SMC3 (N = 4), RAD21 (N = 2), and HDAC8 (N = 8). The phenotypes in this genetically defined cohort skew towards the mild end of CdLS spectrum as compared with phenotype-driven cohorts. Candidate or recently reported cohesinopathy genes were supported by de novo SNVs/indels in STAG1 (N = 3), STAG2 (N = 5), PDS5A (N = 1), and WAPL (N = 1), and one inherited SNV in PDS5A. We also identified copy-number deletions affecting STAG1 (two de novo, one of unknown inheritance) and STAG2 (one of unknown inheritance). Patients with STAG1 and STAG2 variants presented with overlapping features yet without characteristic facial features of CdLS. CONCLUSION: CES effectively identified disease-causing alleles at the mild end of the cohensinopathy spectrum and enabled characterization of candidate disease genes.

6.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 28-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has emerged linking mutations in CDK13 to syndromic congenital heart disease. We present here genetic and phenotypic data pertaining to 16 individuals with CDK13 mutations. METHODS: Patients were investigated by exome sequencing, having presented with developmental delay and additional features suggestive of a syndromic cause. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 16 individuals aged 4-16 years. All had developmental delay, including six with autism spectrum disorder. Common findings included feeding difficulties (15/16), structural cardiac anomalies (9/16), seizures (4/16) and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (4/11 patients who had undergone MRI). All had craniofacial dysmorphism, with common features including short, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism or telecanthus, medial epicanthic folds, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears and a small mouth with thin upper lip vermilion. Fifteen patients had predicted missense mutations, including five identical p.(Asn842Ser) substitutions and two p.(Gly717Arg) substitutions. One patient had a canonical splice acceptor site variant (c.2898-1G>A). All mutations were located within the protein kinase domain of CDK13. The affected amino acids are highly conserved, and in silico analyses including comparative protein modelling predict that they will interfere with protein function. The location of the missense mutations in a key catalytic domain suggests that they are likely to cause loss of catalytic activity but retention of cyclin K binding, resulting in a dominant negative mode of action. Although the splice-site mutation was predicted to produce a stable internally deleted protein, this was not supported by expression studies in lymphoblastoid cells. A loss of function contribution to the underlying pathological mechanism therefore cannot be excluded, and the clinical significance of this variant remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: These patients demonstrate that heterozygous, likely dominant negative mutations affecting the protein kinase domain of the CDK13 gene result in a recognisable, syndromic form of intellectual disability, with or without congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/química , Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Síndrome , Termodinâmica
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 232-245, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping. RESULTS: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays. CONCLUSION: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0150555, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974433

RESUMO

Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (axial SMD) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by dysplasia of axial skeleton and retinal dystrophy. We conducted whole exome sequencing and identified C21orf2 (chromosome 21 open reading frame 2) as a disease gene for axial SMD. C21orf2 mutations have been recently found to cause isolated retinal degeneration and Jeune syndrome. We found a total of five biallelic C21orf2 mutations in six families out of nine: three missense and two splicing mutations in patients with various ethnic backgrounds. The pathogenic effects of the splicing (splice-site and branch-point) mutations were confirmed on RNA level, which showed complex patterns of abnormal splicing. C21orf2 mutations presented with a wide range of skeletal phenotypes, including cupped and flared anterior ends of ribs, lacy ilia and metaphyseal dysplasia of proximal femora. Analysis of patients without C21orf2 mutation indicated genetic heterogeneity of axial SMD. Functional data in chondrocyte suggest C21orf2 is implicated in cartilage differentiation. C21orf2 protein was localized to the connecting cilium of the cone and rod photoreceptors, confirming its significance in retinal function. Our study indicates that axial SMD is a member of a unique group of ciliopathy affecting skeleton and retina.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Cartilagem/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteocondrodisplasias/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Radiografia , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurology ; 84(2): 141-7, 2015 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25480913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the proportion of individuals in our schwannomatosis cohort whose disease is associated with an LZTR1 mutation. METHODS: We used exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and copy number analysis to screen 65 unrelated individuals with schwannomatosis who were negative for a germline NF2 or SMARCB1 mutation. We also screened samples from 39 patients with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (UVS), plus at least one other schwannoma, but who did not have an identifiable germline or mosaic NF2 mutation. RESULTS: We identified germline LZTR1 mutations in 6 of 16 patients (37.5%) with schwannomatosis who had at least one affected relative, 11 of 49 (22%) sporadic patients, and 2 of 39 patients with UVS in our cohort. Three germline mutation-positive patients in total had developed a UVS. Mosaicism was excluded in 3 patients without germline mutation in NF2, SMARCB1, or LZTR1 by mutation screening in 2 tumors from each. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the relationship between mutations in LZTR1 and schwannomatosis. They indicate that germline mutations in LZTR1 confer an increased risk of vestibular schwannoma, providing further overlap with NF2, and that further causative genes for schwannomatosis remain to be identified.


Assuntos
Neurilemoma/genética , Neurofibromatoses/genética , Neuroma Acústico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(1): 96-107, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24931394

RESUMO

Human phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-6-phosphate into GlcNAc-1-phosphate during the synthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc, a sugar nucleotide critical to multiple glycosylation pathways. We identified three unrelated children with recurrent infections, congenital leukopenia including neutropenia, B and T cell lymphopenia, and progression to bone marrow failure. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated deleterious mutations in PGM3 in all three subjects, delineating their disease to be due to an unsuspected congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Functional studies of the disease-associated PGM3 variants in E. coli cells demonstrated reduced PGM3 activity for all mutants tested. Two of the three children had skeletal anomalies resembling Desbuquois dysplasia: short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability. However, these additional features were absent in the third child, showing the clinical variability of the disease. Two children received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of cord blood and bone marrow from matched related donors; both had successful engraftment and correction of neutropenia and lymphopenia. We define PGM3-CDG as a treatable immunodeficiency, document the power of whole-exome sequencing in gene discoveries for rare disorders, and illustrate the utility of genomic analyses in studying combined and variable phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Fosfoglucomutase/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 6(3): 248-54, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23677905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in CHD7 cause Coloboma, Heart Disease, Atresia of Choanae, Retardation of Growth and/or Development, Genital Hypoplasia, and Ear Abnormalities With or Without Deafness (CHARGE) syndrome, a variable combination of multiple congenital malformations including heart defects. Heart defects are reported in 70% to 92% of patients with a CHD7 mutation, but most studies are small and do not provide a detailed classification of the defects. We present the first, detailed, descriptive study on the cardiac phenotype of 299 patients with a CHD7 mutation and discuss the role of CHD7 in cardiac development. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on congenital heart defects in 299 patients with a pathogenic CHD7 mutation, of whom 220 (74%) had a congenital heart defect. Detailed information on the heart defects was available for 202 of these patients. We classified the heart defects based on embryonic cardiac development and compared the distribution to 1007 equally classified nonsyndromic heart defects of patients registered by EUROCAT, a European Registry of Congenital Anomalies. Heart defects are highly variable in patients with CHD7 mutations, but atrioventricular septal defects and conotruncal heart defects are over-represented. Sex did not have an effect on the presence of heart defects, but truncating CHD7 mutations resulted in a heart defect significantly more often than missense or splice-site mutations (χ², P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CHD7 plays an important role in cardiac development, given that we found a wide range of heart defects in 74% of a large cohort of patients with a CHD7 mutation. Conotruncal defects and atrioventricular septal defects are over-represented in patients with CHD7 mutations compared with patients with nonsyndromic heart defects.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/enzimologia , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Coração/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
13.
Neurogenetics ; 13(2): 141-5, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22434358

RESUMO

Mutations of the SMARCB1 gene have been implicated in several human tumour predisposing syndromes. They have recently been identified as an underlying cause of the tumour suppressor syndrome schwannomatosis. There is a much higher rate of mutation detection in familial disease than in sporadic disease. We have carried out extensive genetic testing on a cohort of familial and sporadic patients who fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis. In our current cohort, we identified novel mutations within the SMARCB1 gene and detected several mutations that have been previously identified in other schwannomatosis cohorts. Of the schwannomatosis screens reported to date, including our current dataset, SMARCB1 mutations have been found in 45 % of familial probands and 7 % of sporadic patients. The exon 1 mutation, c.41C >A, and the 3' untranslated region mutation, c.*82C >T, are the most common changes reported in schwannomatosis disease so far, indicating mutation hotspots at both 5' and 3' portions of the gene. SMARCB1 mutations are found in a significant proportion of schwannomatosis patients, but there remains the possibility that further causative genes remain to be found.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação/genética , Neurilemoma/genética , Neurofibromatoses/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Proteína SMARCB1
14.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 128(13): 1535-6, 2008 Jun 26.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18604903

RESUMO

Respiratory alkalosis is an early sign of urea cycle disorder. A high level of plasma ammonia will strengthen this suspicion. It is of great importance to transfer the infant as soon as possible to a unit capable of giving specific treatment with Na-benzoate, Na-phenylbutyrate, argininchloride and carglumic acid. The early treatment may also include haemodialysis, which is preferred over peritoneal dialysis or exchange transfusion. We here describe an infant with respiratory alkalosis within the first two days of life and a high plasma level of ammonia (> 700 micromol/L). He did not respond to conventional therapy and died 48 hours after birth in spite of specific treatment. DNA-analysis showed a gene defect in the OTC gene, c.67C >T (p.R23X), a known mutation leading to urea cycle disorder (OTC). It is important to detect carriers among older siblings and to inform the parents of the possibility of prenatal diagnostics.


Assuntos
Alcalose Respiratória , Alcalose Respiratória/diagnóstico , Alcalose Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Alcalose Respiratória/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Doença da Deficiência de Ornitina Carbomoiltransferase/diagnóstico , Ureia/metabolismo
15.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 4(4): 177-85, 2006 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20223021

RESUMO

Cowden syndrome (multiple hamartoma syndrome, MIM 158350) is an early onset syndrome characterized by multiple hamartomas in the skin, mucous membranes, breast, thyroid and endometrium. Patients with Cowden syndrome have increased risk of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and endometrial cancer. In 1997 germline mutations in PTEN were demonstrated to cause Cowden syndrome. We report the results of diagnostic and predictive testing in all families with Cowden syndrome or suspected Cowden syndrome registered at the Norwegian cancer family clinics. PTEN mutations were found in all six families meeting the clinical criteria for Cowden syndrome, in none of the two families assumed to have Cowden syndrome but not fulfilling the criteria, and in none of the eight families selected in our computerized medical files to have a combination of breast and thyroid cancers. Age-related penetrances for the various neoplasms are given. All families but one were small and de novo mutations were found.

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