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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18746, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548526

RESUMO

Comparison of several regimens of oral vitamin D including an individually calculated loading regimen with the aim of achieving serum values > 75 nmol/l. Interventional, randomized, 3-arm study in vitamin D-deficient outpatients. Participants were allocated to supplementation of 24,000 IU vitamin D monthly over three months, using either a monthly drinking solution (Vi-De 3) or capsule (D3 VitaCaps), or an individualized loading regimen with the capsules taken weekly. For the loading regimen, the cumulative dose was calculated according to baseline 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum value and body weight. Main inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years and 25(OH)D serum concentration < 50 nmol/l. The primary outcome was 25(OH)D serum concentration one week after treatment termination. Secondary endpoints were patient's preferences and adverse events. Full datasets were obtained from 52 patients. Mean 25(OH)D values were statistically significant higher after a loading regimen compared to a monthly administration of 24,000 IU vitamin D (76.4 ± 15.8 vs 61.4 ± 10.8 nmol/l; p < 0.01). All patients treated with the loading regimen reached sufficient 25(OH)D values > 50 nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D values > 75 nmol/l were observed more frequently in patients taking the loading regimen (47% vs 11% drinking solution vs 12% capsules). Vitamin D-related adverse effects did not occur in any treatment groups. Capsules were preferred by 88.5% of the patients. Compared to treatments with monthly intake of 24,000 IU vitamin D, the intake of an individually calculated weekly loading regimen was able to raise serum concentrations > 50 nmol/l in all cases within a safe range.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

3.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 227, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The innate and adaptive immune system is involved in the airway inflammation associated with acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the association of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), immunoglobulin (Ig) and ficolin-2 concentrations with COPD exacerbations and according to the glucocorticoid treatment duration for an index exacerbation. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled REDUCE trial of 5 vs. 14 days of glucocorticoid treatment for an index exacerbation. MBL, ficolin-2 and total IgG/IgA and subclass concentrations were determined in stored samples drawn (n = 178) 30 days after the index exacerbation and associated with the risk of re-exacerbation during a 180-day follow-up period. RESULTS: IgG and subclass concentrations were significantly lower after 14 days vs. 5 days of glucocorticoid treatment. Patients with higher MBL concentrations were more likely to suffer from a future exacerbation (multivariable hazard ratio 1.03 per 200 ng/ml increase (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.06), p = 0.048), whereas ficolin-2 and IgG deficiency were not associated. The risk was most pronounced in patients with high MBL concentrations, IgG deficiency and 14 days of glucocorticoid treatment pointing towards an interactive effect of MBL and IgG deficiency in the presence of prolonged glucocorticoid treatment duration [Relative excess risk due to interaction 2.13 (95% CI - 0.41-4.66, p = 0.10)]. IgG concentrations were significantly lower in patients with frequent re-exacerbations (IgG, 7.81 g/L vs. 9.53 g/L, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: MBL modified the short-term exacerbation risk after a recent acute exacerbation of COPD, particularly in the setting of concurrent IgG deficiency and recent prolonged systemic glucocorticoid treatment. Ficolin-2 did not emerge as a predictor of a future exacerbation risk.

4.
Nutrition ; 89: 111279, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients with aging-related vulnerability defined by very old age (≥80 y), physical frailty or cognitive impairment, and increases the risks for morbidity and mortality. The effects of individualized nutritional support for patients with aging-related vulnerability in the acute hospital setting on mortality and other clinical outcomes remains understudied. METHODS: For this secondary analysis of the randomized-controlled Effect of Early Nutritional Support on Frailty, Functional Outcomes, and Recovery of Malnourished Medical Inpatients Trial (EFFORT), we analyzed data of patients at a nutritional risk (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 score ≥3 points) with aging-related vulnerability, randomized to receive protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach specific protein and energy goals (intervention group) or routine hospital food (control group). The primary endpoint was all-cause 30-d mortality. RESULTS: Of the 881 patients with aging-related vulnerability, 23.4% presented with a frailty syndrome, 81.8% were age ≥80 y and 15.3% showed cognitive impairment. Patients with aging-related vulnerability receiving individualized nutritional support compared with routine hospital food showed a >50% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality (60 of 442 [13.6%] versus 31 of 439 [7.1%]; odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.76; P = 0.002). Significant improvements were also found for long-term mortality at 180 days, as well as functional outcomes and quality of life measures. CONCLUSIONS: Malnourished patients with aging-related vulnerability show a significant and clinically relevant reduction in the risk of mortality and other adverse clinical outcomes after individualized in-hospital nutritional support compared to routine hospital nutrition. These data support the early screening of patients with aging-related vulnerability for nutritional risk, followed by a nutritional assessment and implementation of individualized nutritional interventions.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Desnutrição , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Idoso Fragilizado , Hospitalização , Humanos , Desnutrição/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2762-2771, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at substantial risk of malnutrition, which negatively affects clinical outcomes. We investigated the association of kidney function assessed at hospital admission and effectiveness of nutritional support in hospitalized medical patients at risk of malnutrition. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of an investigator-initiated, randomized-controlled, Swiss multicenter trial (EFFORT) that compared individualised nutritional support with usual hospital food on clinical outcomes. We compared effects of nutritional support on mortality in subgroups of patients stratified according to kidney function at the time of hospital admission (estimated glomerular filtration rates [eGFR] <15, 15-29, 30-59, 60-89 and ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2). RESULTS: We included 1943 of 2028 patients (96%) from the original trial with known admission creatinine levels. Admission eGFR was a strong predictor for the beneficial effects of nutritional support in regard to lowering of 30-day mortality. Patients with an eGFR <15, 15-29 and 30-59 had the strongest mortality benefit (odds ratios [95%CI] of 0.24 [0.05 to 1.25], 0.37 [0.14 to 0.95] and 0.39 [0.21 to 0.75], respectively), while patients with less severe impairment in kidney function had a less pronounced mortality benefits (p for interaction 0.001). A similar stepwise association of kidney function and response to nutritional support was found also for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: In medical inpatients at nutritional risk, admission kidney function was a strong predictor for the response to nutritional therapy. Initial kidney function may help to individualize nutritional support in the future by identification of patients with most clinical benefit. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02517476.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(18): 2307-2319, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deterioration of nutritional status during hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure increases mortality. Whether nutritional support during hospitalization reduces these risks, or on the contrary, may be harmful due to an increase in salt and fluid intake, remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this trial was to study the effect of nutritional support on mortality in patients hospitalized with chronic heart failure who are at nutritional risk. METHODS: A total of 645 patients with chronic heart failure (36% [n = 234] with acute decompensation) participated in the investigator-initiated, open-label EFFORT (Effect of early nutritional support on Frailty, Functional Outcomes and Recovery of malnourished medical inpatients) trial. Patients were randomized to protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach energy, protein, and micronutrient goals (intervention group) or standard hospital food (control group). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 30 days. RESULTS: Mortality over 180 days increased with higher severity of malnutrition (odds ratio per 1-point increase in Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 score: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21 to 2.24; p = 0.001). By 30 days, 27 of 321 intervention group patients (8.4%) died, compared with 48 of 324 (14.8%) control group patients (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.75; p = 0.002). Patients at high nutritional risk showed the most benefit from nutritional support. Mortality effects remained significant at 180-day follow-up. Intervention group patients also had a lower risk for major cardiovascular events at 30 days (17.4% vs. 26.9%; odds ratio: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.75; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure at high nutritional risk, individualized nutritional support reduced the risk for mortality and major cardiovascular events compared with standard hospital food. These data support malnutrition screening upon hospital admission followed by an individualized nutritional support strategy in this vulnerable patient population. (Effect of Early Nutritional Therapy on Frailty, Functional Outcomes and Recovery of Undernourished Medical Inpatients Trial [EFFORT]; NCT02517476).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Apoio Nutricional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 155, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroid administration for severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) reduces the duration of hospital stays. Corticosteroid-sparing regimens have showed non-inferiority to higher accumulated dose regimens regarding re-exacerbation risk in patients with AECOPD. However, it remains unclear whether 14-day or 2-5-day regimens would result in shorter admission durations and changes in mortality risk. We explored this by analysing the number of days alive and out of hospital based on two randomised controlled trials with different corticosteroid regimens. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from the two available multicentre randomised trials on corticosteroid-sparing regimens for AECOPD: the REDUCE (n = 314) and CORTICO-COP (n = 318) trials. In the 14-day regimen group, patients were older, fewer patients received pre-treatment with antibiotics and more patients received pre-treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Patients randomly allocated to the 14-day and 2-5-day regimens were compared, with adjustment for baseline differences. RESULTS: The number of days alive and out of hospital within 14 days from recruitment was higher for the 2-5 day regimen group (mean 8.4 days; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0-8.8) than the 14-day regimen patient group (4.2 days; 95% CI3.4-4.9; p < 0.001). The 14-day AECOPD group had longer hospital stays (mean difference, 5.4 days [standard error ± 0.6]; p < 0.0001) and decreased likelihood of discharge within 30 days (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.6; p < 0.0001). Comparing the 14-day regimen and the 2-5 day regimen group showed no differences in the composite endpoint 'death or ICU admission' (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% CI 0.8-2.3; p = 0.15), new or aggravated hypertension (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.7; p = 0.15), or mortality risk (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.45) during the 6-month follow-up period. CONCLUSION: 14-day corticosteroid regimens were associated with longer hospital stays and fewer days alive and out of hospital within 14 days, with no apparent 6-month benefit regarding death or admission to ICU in COPD patients. Our results favour 2-5 day regimens for treating COPD exacerbations. However, prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 731-740, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease-related malnutrition is associated with loss of muscle mass and impaired functional status. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been proposed as an easy-to-use tool to assess muscle strength in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prognostic implications of HGS in patients at nutritional risk with regard to clinical outcomes and response to nutritional support. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the randomized controlled, multicenter, Effect of Early Nutritional Support on Frailty, Functional Outcome, and Recovery of Malnourished Medical Inpatients Trial, which compared the effects of individualized nutritional support with usual hospital food in medical inpatients at nutritional risk. Our primary endpoint was 30-d all-cause mortality. The association between sex-specific HGS and clinical outcomes was investigated using multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for randomization, age, weight, height, nutritional risk, admission diagnosis, comorbidities, interaction terms, and study center. We used interaction terms to investigate possible effect modification regarding the nutritional support intervention. RESULTS: Mean ± SD HGS in the 1809 patients with available handgrip measurement was 17.0 ± 7.1 kg for females and 28.9 ± 11.3 kg for males. Each decrease of 10 kg in HGS was associated with increased risk of 30-d mortality (female: adjusted OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.62, P = 0.007; male: adjusted OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93, P = 0.015) and 180-d mortality (female: adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.10, P = 0.048; male: adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.89, P < 0.001). Individualized nutritional support was most effective in reducing mortality in patients with low HGS (adjusted OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.82 in patients in the ≤10th percentile compared with OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.48 in patients in the >10th percentile; P for interaction = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: In medical inpatients at nutritional risk, HGS provided significant prognostic information about expected mortality and complication risks and helps to identify which patients benefit most from nutritional support. HGS may thus improve individualization of nutritional therapy.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02517476.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Pacientes Internados , Desnutrição/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Terapia Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20470, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714209

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency remains very common in the general population. Adding to the importance of this issue is the discovery that vitamin D plays a role in many other tissues apart from the bone, including muscle, brain, prostate, breast and colon. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a large group of patients hospitalised in the cantonal hospital Basel-Country, and analysed the dependence of serum vitamin D concentrations on gender, time of the year and age. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed anonymised data received from the central laboratory of the cantonal hospital Basel-Country. The pool of data contains values obtained between 2013 and 2017 from 8861 patients aged between 18 and 102 years. If sequential measurements were available from a patient, only the first was used for the analyses. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum concentration of <50 nmol/l and severe deficiency as <25 nmol/l. Vitamin D values between 50 and 75 nmol/l are considered a grey zone. Optimal values are >75 nmol/l. RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation serum vitamin D concentration was 52.5 ± 30.5 nmol/l, with women having a higher mean of 55.5 ± 31.5 nmol/l as compared with 48.1 ± 28.6 nmol/l in men (p <10-5). Of the 8861 first measurements taken within the observation period, 4527 (51%) were vitamin D deficient with levels <50 nmol/l, including 1860 (21.0%) with levels <25 nmol/l. There was only a weak positive association of average vitamin D levels with age (p = 0.06). Women reached peak concentrations of 56.9 ± 35.4 nmol/l in the age group 90–102 years, whereas men reached peaks of 50.3 ± 31.9 nmol/l in 50–59-year-olds. Mean autumn and spring concentrations differed less (51.6 ± 29.6 vs 52.7 ± 30.7 nmol/l, respectively, p = 0.38) than mean summer and winter concentrations (57.1 ± 29.5 vs 48.0 ± 31.2 nmol/l, respectively, p <10-5). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency was a common finding in our cohort, affecting all age groups and occurring in over half (51%) of the values measured. As current guidelines recommend vitamin D concentrations >75 nmol/l, only 22.1% of measured values indicated adequate vitamin D levels. This issue should be addressed in order to improve quality of life and reduce medical costs.    .


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Suíça/epidemiologia , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Nutr ; 40(3): 812-819, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among medical inpatients at risk of malnutrition, the use of individualized nutritional support during the hospital stay was found to reduce complications and improve mortality at short-term. We evaluated clinical outcomes at 6-months follow-up. METHODS: We randomly assigned 2028 patients to receive protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach protein and energy goals (intervention group) or hospital food as usual (control group) during the hospital stay. The intervention was discontinued at hospital discharge and further nutritional support was based on the discretion of the treating team. We had complete follow-up information of 1995 patients (98%), which were included in the final analysis. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 6-months. Prespecified secondary end points included non-elective hospital readmissions, functional outcome and quality of life. RESULTS: At 6-month, 231 of 994 (23.2%) intervention group patients had died compared to 246 of 999 (24.6%) control group patients, resulting in a hazard ratio for death of 0.90 (95%CI 0.76 to 1.08, p = 0.277). Compared to control patients, intervention group patients had similar rates of hospital readmission (27.3% vs. 27.6%, HR 1.00 (95%CI 0.84 to 1.18), p = 0.974), falls (11.2% vs. 10.9%, HR 0.96 (95%CI 0.72 to 1.27), p = 0.773) and similar quality of life and activities of daily living scores. INTERPRETATION: While individualized nutritional support during the hospital stay significantly reduced short-term mortality, there was no legacy effect on longer term outcomes. Future trials should investigate whether continuation of nutritional support after hospital discharge reduces the high malnutrition-associated mortality rates in this vulnerable patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02517476.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Acidentes por Quedas , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1843-1850, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In polymorbid patients with bronchopulmonary infection, malnutrition is an independent risk factor for mortality. There is a lack of interventional data investigating whether providing nutritional support during the hospital stay in patients at risk for malnutrition presenting with lower respiratory tract infection lowers mortality. METHODS: For this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial (EFFORT), we analyzed data of a subgroup of patients with confirmed lower respiratory tract infection from an initial cohort of 2028 patients. Patients at nutritional risk (Nutritional Risk Screening [NRS] score ≥3 points) were randomized to receive protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach protein and energy goals (intervention group) or standard hospital food (control group). The primary endpoint of this analysis was all-cause 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 378 of 2028 EFFORT patients (mean age 74.4 years, 24% with COPD) into this analysis. Compared to usual care hospital nutrition, individualized nutritional support to reach caloric and protein goals showed a similar beneficial effect of on the risk of mortality in the subgroup of respiratory tract infection patients as compared to the main EFFORT trial (odds ratio 0.47 [95%CI 0.17 to 1.27, p = 0.136] vs 0.65 [95%CI 0.47 to 0.91, p = 0.011]) with no evidence of a subgroup effect (p for interaction 0.859). Effects were also similar among different subgroups based on etiology and type of respiratory tract infection and for other secondary endpoints. CONCLUSION: This subgroup analysis from a large nutrition support trial suggests that patients at nutritional risk as assessed by NRS 2002 presenting with bronchopulmonary infection to the hospital likely have a mortality benefit from individualized inhospital nutritional support. The small sample size and limited statistical power calls for larger nutritional studies focusing on this highly vulnerable patient population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02517476.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suíça/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 21(1): 51, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess adherence to and preference for vitamin D substitution with different pharmaceutical forms and frequencies of administration. METHODS: A focus group of stakeholders aimed at preparing the design of an interventional, randomized, cross-over study with 2 × 2 groups obtaining monthly or weekly vitamin D products in liquid or solid form for 3 months each. Dosage corresponds to cumulated amount of recommended 800 IU daily (5.600 IU weekly / 24.000 IU monthly). Main inclusion criteria were a vitamin D serum value < 50 nmol/l and age ≥ 18 years. Primary endpoint was adherence, secondary endpoints were preferences and vitamin D serum levels. RESULTS: The focus group reached consensus for preference of a monthly administration of solid forms to adults. Full datasets were obtained from 97 participants. Adherence was significantly higher with monthly (79.5-100.0%) than weekly (66.4-98.1%) administration. Vitamin D levels increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all participants. An optimal value of > 75 nmol/l was achieved by 32% after 3 months and by 50% after 6 months. Preferred formulation was solid form (tablets, capsules) for 71% of participants, and preferred dosage frequency was monthly for 39% of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly oral vitamin D in solid form lead to the highest adherence, and is preferred by the participants. However, only one third of study participants achieved values in the optimal range of > 75 nmol/l cholecalciferol using weekly or monthly administration providing an average daily cholecalciferol dose of 800 IU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03121593 | SNCTP000002251 . Registered 30. May 2017,. Prospectively registered.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Adesão à Medicação , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Formas de Dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
14.
15.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(5): 101432, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712149

RESUMO

In the majority of cases, hereditary neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (DI) is a monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the AVP gene. Dominant transmission is by far the most common form. In these patients, symptoms develop gradually at various ages during childhood, progressing with complete penetrance to polyuria and polydipsia that is usually severe. In autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal DI (ADNDI), the mutant prohormone is folding deficient and consequently retained in the ER, where it forms amyloid-like fibrillar aggregates. Degradation by proteasomes occurs, but their clearance capacity appears to be insufficient. Postmortem studies in affected individuals suggest a neurodegenerative process confined to vasopressinergic neurons. Other forms of genetic neurohypophyseal DI include the very rare autosomal recessive type, also caused by mutations in the AVP gene, and complex multiorgan disorders, such as Wolfram syndrome. In all individuals where a congenital form of DI is suspected, including nephrogenic types, genetic analysis should be performed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/classificação , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/genética , Neurofisinas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Vasopressinas/genética , Criança , Diabetes Insípido/classificação , Diabetes Insípido/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação
16.
Vitam Horm ; 113: 55-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138954

RESUMO

The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is synthesized as a longer precursor protein. After folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), provasopressin is transported through the secretory pathway, forms secretory granules in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), is processed, and finally secreted into the circulation. Mutations in provasopressin cause autosomal dominant diabetes insipidus. They prevent native protein folding and cause fibrillar, amyloid-like aggregation in the ER, which eventually results in cell death. Secretory granules of peptide hormones were proposed to constitute functional amyloids and thus might be the cause of amyloid formation of misfolded mutant protein in the ER. Indeed, the same two segments in the precursor-vasopressin and a C-terminal glycopeptide-were found to be responsible for pathological aggregation in the ER and physiological aggregation in granule formation in the TGN. Furthermore, even wild-type provasopressin tends to aggregate in the ER, but is controlled by ER-associated degradation. When essential components thereof, Sel1L or Hrd1, were inactivated, wild-type provasopressin accumulated as fibrillar aggregates in vasopressinergic neurons in mice, causing diabetes insipidus. Evolution of amyloidogenic sequences for granule formation thus made provasopressin dependent on ER quality control mechanisms. These principles may similarly apply to other peptide hormones.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e200663, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154887

RESUMO

Importance: Inflammation is a key driver of malnutrition during illness and is often accompanied by metabolic effects, including insulin resistance and reduction of appetite. However, it still remains unclear if inflammation influences the response to nutritional support among patients with disease-related malnutrition. Objective: To examine whether patients' baseline inflammatory status is associated with the effect of nutritional support on 30-day mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of the Effect of Early Nutritional Support on Frailty, Functional Outcomes, and Recovery of Malnourished Medical Inpatients Trial (EFFORT), a randomized clinical trial conducted in 8 Swiss hospitals from April 2014 to February 2018. A total of 1950 participants who had C-reactive protein measurements at the time of admission were included in this secondary analysis. Data analysis was conducted between June and July 2019. Interventions: Hospitalized patients at risk for malnutrition were randomly assigned to receive protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach protein and energy goals (intervention group) or standard hospital food (control group). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was 30-day mortality. Based on C-reactive protein levels at admission, patients were stratified into groups with low, moderate, or high inflammation (<10 mg/L, 10-100 mg/L, and >100 mg/L, respectively). Results: A total of 1950 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 75 [65-83] years; 1025 [52.6%] men) were included; 533 (27.3%) had low levels of inflammation, 894 (45.9%) had moderate levels of inflammation, and 523 (26.8%) had high levels of inflammation. Compared with the control group, patients receiving nutritional support showed a significant reduction in 30-day mortality, regardless of C-reactive protein level (adjusted odds ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.86; P = .005). In the subgroup of patients with high inflammation, there was no beneficial effect of nutritional support (adjusted odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.70-2.50; P = .39), providing evidence that inflammation has a significant modifying association (P for interaction = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial, a patient's admission inflammatory status was associated with their response to nutritional support. If validated in future clinical trials, nutritional support may need to be individualized based on a patient's initial presentation and markers of inflammation. These results may also help to explain some of the heterogeneity in treatment effects of nutrition seen in previous critical care trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02517476.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Clin Nutr ; 39(9): 2720-2729, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) identifies patients at risk of malnutrition. We studied the prognostic implications of this score with regard to short-term and long-term clinical outcomes in a well-characterised cohort of medical inpatients from a previous trial. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of an investigator-initiated, prospective randomised controlled multicenter trial in Switzerland (EFFORT) that compared the effects of an individualised nutritional support intervention with standard of care. We investigated associations between admission NRS and several short-term and long-term outcomes using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 2028 patients, 31% had an NRS of 3, 38% of 4 and 31% of ≥5 points, and 477 (24%) died during the 180 days of follow-up. For each point increase in NRS, we found a stepwise increase in risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.22 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.48), p = 0.048) and 180-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.37 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.55), p < 0.001). NRS was associated with length of hospital stay (adjusted difference of 0.60 days per NRS point increase, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.97, p = 0.002) and functional outcomes at 180 days (adjusted decrease in Barthel index of -4.49 points per NRS point increase, 95%CI -6.54 to -2.45, p < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis, associations of NRS and short-term adverse outcomes were less pronounced in patients receiving nutritional support (intervention group) compared to control group patients (adjusted HR for 30-day mortality 1.12 [95%CI 0.83 to 1.52, p = 0.454] vs. 1.33 [95%CI 1.02 to 1.72, p = 0.032]). CONCLUSION: The NRS is a strong and independent risk score for malnutrition-associated mortality and adverse outcomes over 180 days. Our data provide strong evidence that the nutritional risk, however, is modifiable and can be reduced by the provision of adequate nutritional support.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Avaliação Nutricional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Apoio Nutricional , Readmissão do Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado , Suíça
19.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 501: 110653, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785344

RESUMO

This review focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects underlying familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (DI), a rare disorder that is usually transmitted in an autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease, manifesting in infancy or early childhood and gradually progressing in severity, is caused by fully penetrant heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding prepro-vasopressin-neurophysin II, the precursor of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). Post mortem studies in affected adults have shown cell degeneration in vasopressinergic hypothalamic nuclei. Studies in cells expressing pathogenic mutants and knock-in rodent models have shown that the mutant precursors are folding incompetent and fail to exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as occurs normally with proteins that have entered the regulated secretory pathway. A portion of these mutants is eliminated via ER-associated degradation (ERAD) by proteasomes after retrotranslocation to the cytosol. Another portion forms large disulfide-linked fibrillar aggregates within the ER, in which wild-type precursor is trapped. Aggregation capacity is independently conferred by two domains of the prohormone, namely the AVP moiety and the C-terminal glycopeptide (copeptin). The same domains are also required for packaging into dense-core secretory granules and regulated secretion, suggesting a disturbed balance between the physiological self-aggregation at the trans-Golgi network and avoiding premature aggregate formation at the ER in the disease. The critical role of ERAD in maintaining physiological water balance has been underscored by experiments in mice expressing wild-type AVP but lacking critical components of the ERAD machinery. These animals also develop DI and show amyloid-like aggregates in the ER lumen. Thus, the capacity of the ERAD is exceeded in autosomal dominant DI, which can be viewed as a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the formation of amyloid ER aggregates. While DI symptoms develop prior to detectable cell death in transgenic DI mice, the eventual loss of vasopressinergic neurons is accompanied by autophagy, but the mechanism leading to cell degeneration in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal DI still remains unknown.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos/fisiologia , Proteólise , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
20.
Trials ; 20(1): 727, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health issue affecting approximately 4% to 7% of the Swiss population. According to current inpatient guidelines, systemic corticosteroids are important in the treatment of acute COPD exacerbations and should be given for 5 to 7 days. Several studies suggest that corticosteroids accelerate the recovery of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), enhance oxygenation, decrease the duration of hospitalization, and improve clinical outcomes. However, the additional therapeutic benefit regarding FEV1 recovery appears to be most apparent in the first 3 to 5 days. No data are available on the optimum duration of corticosteroid treatment in primary-care patients with acute COPD exacerbations. Given that many COPD patients are treated as outpatients, there is an urgent need to improve the evidence base on COPD management in this setting. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a 3-day treatment with orally administered corticosteroids is non-inferior to a 5-day treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD in a primary-care setting. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in a primary-care setting. It is anticipated that 470 patients with acutely exacerbated COPD will be recruited. Participants are randomized to receive systemic corticosteroid treatment of 40 mg prednisone daily for 5 days (conventional arm, n = 235) or for 3 days followed by 2 days of placebo (experimental arm, n = 235). Antibiotic treatment for 7 days is given to all patients with CRP ≥ 50 mg/l, those with a known diagnosis of bronchiectasis, or those presenting with Anthonisen type I exacerbation. Additional treatment after inclusion is left at the discretion of the treating general practitioner. Follow-up visits are performed on days 3 and 7, followed by telephone interviews on days 30, 90, and 180 after inclusion in the study. The primary endpoint is the time to next exacerbation during the 6-month follow-up period. DISCUSSION: The study is designed to assess whether a 3-day course of corticosteroid treatment is not inferior to the conventional 5-day treatment course in outpatients with exacerbated COPD regarding time to next exacerbation. Depending on the results, this trial may lead to a reduction in the cumulative corticosteroid dose in COPD patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02386735. Registered on 12 March 2015.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Assistência Ambulatorial , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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