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1.
Rice (N Y) ; 12(1): 55, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a multitude of genotyping platforms have been developed for rice, the majority of them have not been optimized for breeding where cost, turnaround time, throughput and ease of use, relative to density and informativeness are critical parameters of their utility. With that in mind we report the development of the 1K-Rice Custom Amplicon, or 1k-RiCA, a robust custom sequencing-based amplicon panel of ~ 1000-SNPs that are uniformly distributed across the rice genome, designed to be highly informative within indica rice breeding pools, and tailored for genomic prediction in elite indica rice breeding programs. RESULTS: Empirical validation tests performed on the 1k-RiCA showed average marker call rates of 95% with marker repeatability and concordance rates of 99%. These technical properties were not affected when two common DNA extraction protocols were used. The average distance between SNPs in the 1k-RiCA was 1.5 cM, similar to the theoretical distance which would be expected between 1,000 uniformly distributed markers across the rice genome. The average minor allele frequencies on a panel of indica lines was 0.36 and polymorphic SNPs estimated on pairwise comparisons between indica by indica accessions and indica by japonica accessions were on average 430 and 450 respectively. The specific design parameters of the 1k-RiCA allow for a detailed view of genetic relationships and unambiguous molecular IDs within indica accessions and good cost vs. marker-density balance for genomic prediction applications in elite indica germplasm. Predictive abilities of Genomic Selection models for flowering time, grain yield, and plant height were on average 0.71, 0.36, and 0.65 respectively based on cross-validation analysis. Furthermore the inclusion of important trait markers associated with 11 different genes and QTL adds value to parental selection in crossing schemes and marker-assisted selection in forward breeding applications. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated the marker quality and robustness of the 1k-RiCA genotypic platform for genotyping populations derived from indica rice subpopulation for genetic and breeding purposes including MAS and genomic selection. The 1k-RiCA has proven to be an alternative cost-effective genotyping system for breeding applications.

3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(3): 627-645, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824972

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The integration of new technologies into public plant breeding programs can make a powerful step change in agricultural productivity when aligned with principles of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. The breeder's equation is the foundational application of quantitative genetics to crop improvement. Guided by the variables that describe response to selection, emerging breeding technologies can make a powerful step change in the effectiveness of public breeding programs. The most promising innovations for increasing the rate of genetic gain without greatly increasing program size appear to be related to reducing breeding cycle time, which is likely to require the implementation of parent selection on non-inbred progeny, rapid generation advance, and genomic selection. These are complex processes and will require breeding organizations to adopt a culture of continuous optimization and improvement. To enable this, research managers will need to consider and proactively manage the, accountability, strategy, and resource allocations of breeding teams. This must be combined with thoughtful management of elite genetic variation and a clear separation between the parental selection process and product development and advancement process. With an abundance of new technologies available, breeding teams need to evaluate carefully the impact of any new technology on selection intensity, selection accuracy, and breeding cycle length relative to its cost of deployment. Finally breeding data management systems need to be well designed to support selection decisions and novel approaches to accelerate breeding cycles need to be routinely evaluated and deployed.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas/genética , Setor Público , Marcadores Genéticos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Seleção Genética
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(6): 1705-1720, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778634

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) models have been validated for many quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding. However, those models are mostly constrained within the same growing cycle and the extension of GS to the case of across cycles has been a challenge, mainly due to the low predictive accuracy resulting from two factors: reduced genetic relationships between different families and augmented environmental variances between cycles. Using the data collected from diverse field conditions at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center, we evaluated GS for grain yield in three elite yield trials across three wheat growing cycles. The objective of this project was to employ the secondary traits, canopy temperature, and green normalized difference vegetation index, which are closely associated with grain yield from high-throughput phenotyping platforms, to improve prediction accuracy for grain yield. The ability to predict grain yield was evaluated reciprocally across three cycles with or without secondary traits. Our results indicate that prediction accuracy increased by an average of 146% for grain yield across cycles with secondary traits. In addition, our results suggest that secondary traits phenotyped during wheat heading and early grain filling stages were optimal for enhancing the prediction accuracy for grain yield.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Seleção Genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(4): 1231-1247, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796086

RESUMO

Hyperspectral reflectance phenotyping and genomic selection are two emerging technologies that have the potential to increase plant breeding efficiency by improving prediction accuracy for grain yield. Hyperspectral cameras quantify canopy reflectance across a wide range of wavelengths that are associated with numerous biophysical and biochemical processes in plants. Genomic selection models utilize genome-wide marker or pedigree information to predict the genetic values of breeding lines. In this study, we propose a multi-kernel GBLUP approach to genomic selection that uses genomic marker-, pedigree-, and hyperspectral reflectance-derived relationship matrices to model the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (G × E) interactions across environments within a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding program. We utilized an airplane equipped with a hyperspectral camera to phenotype five differentially managed treatments of the yield trials conducted by the Bread Wheat Improvement Program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) at Ciudad Obregón, México over four breeding cycles. We observed that single-kernel models using hyperspectral reflectance-derived relationship matrices performed similarly or superior to marker- and pedigree-based genomic selection models when predicting within and across environments. Multi-kernel models combining marker/pedigree information with hyperspectral reflectance phentoypes had the highest prediction accuracies; however, improvements in accuracy over marker- and pedigree-based models were marginal when correcting for days to heading. Our results demonstrate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging to predict grain yield within a multi-environment context and also support further studies on the integration of hyperspectral reflectance phenotyping into breeding programs.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , México , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Plant Genome ; 11(1)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505641

RESUMO

Genomics and phenomics have promised to revolutionize the field of plant breeding. The integration of these two fields has just begun and is being driven through big data by advances in next-generation sequencing and developments of field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms. Each year the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) evaluates tens-of-thousands of advanced lines for grain yield across multiple environments. To evaluate how CIMMYT may utilize dynamic HTP data for genomic selection (GS), we evaluated 1170 of these advanced lines in two environments, drought (2014, 2015) and heat (2015). A portable phenotyping system called 'Phenocart' was used to measure normalized difference vegetation index and canopy temperature simultaneously while tagging each data point with precise GPS coordinates. For genomic profiling, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used for marker discovery and genotyping. Several GS models were evaluated utilizing the 2254 GBS markers along with over 1.1 million phenotypic observations. The physiological measurements collected by HTP, whether used as a response in multivariate models or as a covariate in univariate models, resulted in a range of 33% below to 7% above the standard univariate model. Continued advances in yield prediction models as well as increasing data generating capabilities for both genomic and phenomic data will make these selection strategies tractable for plant breeders to implement increasing the rate of genetic gain.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética , Genoma de Planta , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , México , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
7.
Trends Plant Sci ; 22(11): 961-975, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965742

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) facilitates the rapid selection of superior genotypes and accelerates the breeding cycle. In this review, we discuss the history, principles, and basis of GS and genomic-enabled prediction (GP) as well as the genetics and statistical complexities of GP models, including genomic genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We also examine the accuracy of GP models and methods for two cereal crops and two legume crops based on random cross-validation. GS applied to maize breeding has shown tangible genetic gains. Based on GP results, we speculate how GS in germplasm enhancement (i.e., prebreeding) programs could accelerate the flow of genes from gene bank accessions to elite lines. Recent advances in hyperspectral image technology could be combined with GS and pedigree-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Modelos Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Seleção Genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética
8.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724067

RESUMO

High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat ( L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect selection for grain yield. In this study, we evaluated three statistical models, simple repeatability (SR), multitrait (MT), and random regression (RR), for the longitudinal data of secondary traits and compared the impact of the proposed models for secondary traits on their predictive abilities for grain yield. Grain yield and secondary traits, canopy temperature (CT) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were collected in five diverse environments for 557 wheat lines with available pedigree and genomic information. A two-stage analysis was applied for pedigree and genomic selection (GS). First, secondary traits were fitted by SR, MT, or RR models, separately, within each environment. Then, best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of secondary traits from the above models were used in the multivariate prediction models to compare predictive abilities for grain yield. Predictive ability was substantially improved by 70%, on average, from multivariate pedigree and genomic models when including secondary traits in both training and test populations. Additionally, (i) predictive abilities slightly varied for MT, RR, or SR models in this data set, (ii) results indicated that including BLUPs of secondary traits from the MT model was the best in severe drought, and (iii) the RR model was slightly better than SR and MT models under drought environment.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Modelos Genéticos , Triticum/genética , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724079

RESUMO

Genomic prediction models have been commonly used in plant breeding but only in reduced datasets comprising a few hundred genotyped individuals. However, pedigree information for an entire breeding population is frequently available, as are historical data on the performance of a large number of selection candidates. The single-step method extends the genomic relationship information from genotyped individuals to pedigree information from a larger number of phenotyped individuals in order to combine relationship information on all members of the breeding population. Furthermore, genomic prediction models that incorporate genotype × environment interactions (G × E) have produced substantial increases in prediction accuracy compared with single-environment genomic prediction models. Our main objective was to show how to use single-step genomic and pedigree models to assess the prediction accuracy of 58,798 CIMMYT wheat ( L.) lines evaluated in several simulated environments in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, and to predict the grain yield performance of some of them in several sites in South Asia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) using a reaction norm model that incorporated G × E. Another objective was to describe the statistical and computational challenges encountered when developing the pedigree and single-step models in such large datasets. Results indicate that the genomic prediction accuracy achieved by models using pedigree only, markers only, or both pedigree and markers to predict various environments in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh is higher (0.25-0.38) than prediction accuracy of models that use only phenotypic prediction (0.20) or do not include the G × E term.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Linhagem , Triticum/genética , Ásia , Genes de Plantas , Software
10.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724084

RESUMO

The leaf spotting diseases in wheat that include Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by , Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) caused by , and tan spot (TS) caused by pose challenges to breeding programs in selecting for resistance. A promising approach that could enable selection prior to phenotyping is genomic selection that uses genome-wide markers to estimate breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. To evaluate this approach for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to STB, SNB, and TS, we compared the predictive ability of least-squares (LS) approach with genomic-enabled prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased predictor (GBLUP), Bayesian ridge regression (BRR), Bayes A (BA), Bayes B (BB), Bayes Cπ (BC), Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BL), and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces markers (RKHS-M), a pedigree-based model (RKHS-P) and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP). We observed that LS gave the lowest prediction accuracies and RKHS-MP, the highest. The genomic-enabled prediction models and RKHS-P gave similar accuracies. The increase in accuracy using genomic prediction models over LS was 48%. The mean genomic prediction accuracies were 0.45 for STB (APR), 0.55 for SNB (seedling), 0.66 for TS (seedling) and 0.48 for TS (APR). We also compared markers from two whole-genome profiling approaches: genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and diversity arrays technology sequencing (DArTseq) for prediction. While, GBS markers performed slightly better than DArTseq, combining markers from the two approaches did not improve accuracies. We conclude that implementing GS in breeding for these diseases would help to achieve higher accuracies and rapid gains from selection.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Genéticos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética
11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(7): 1415-1430, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393303

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. Our objective was to compare three genomic prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), GBLUP A that was GBLUP with selected loci as fixed effects and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces-markers (RKHS-M) with least-squares (LS) approach, RKHS-pedigree (RKHS-P), and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP) to determine the BVs for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (LR), stem rust (SR), and stripe rust (YR). The 333 lines in the 45th IBWSN and the 313 lines in the 46th IBWSN were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. The mean prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31-0.74 for LR seedling, 0.12-0.56 for LR APR, 0.31-0.65 for SR APR, 0.70-0.78 for YR seedling, and 0.34-0.71 for YR APR. For most datasets, the RKHS-MP model gave the highest accuracies, while LS gave the lowest. GBLUP, GBLUP A, RKHS-M, and RKHS-P models gave similar accuracies. Using genome-wide marker-based models resulted in an average of 42% increase in accuracy over LS. We conclude that GS is a promising approach for improvement of quantitative rust resistance and can be implemented in the breeding pipeline.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Plant Methods ; 13: 4, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modern agriculture uses hyperspectral cameras to obtain hundreds of reflectance data measured at discrete narrow bands to cover the whole visible light spectrum and part of the infrared and ultraviolet light spectra, depending on the camera. This information is used to construct vegetation indices (VI) (e.g., green normalized difference vegetation index or GNDVI, simple ratio or SRa, etc.) which are used for the prediction of primary traits (e.g., biomass). However, these indices only use some bands and are cultivar-specific; therefore they lose considerable information and are not robust for all cultivars. RESULTS: This study proposes models that use all available bands as predictors to increase prediction accuracy; we compared these approaches with eight conventional vegetation indexes (VIs) constructed using only some bands. The data set we used comes from CIMMYT's global wheat program and comprises 1170 genotypes evaluated for grain yield (ton/ha) in five environments (Drought, Irrigated, EarlyHeat, Melgas and Reduced Irrigated); the reflectance data were measured in 250 discrete narrow bands ranging between 392 and 851 nm. The proposed models for the simultaneous analysis of all the bands were ordinal least square (OLS), Bayes B, principal components with Bayes B, functional B-spline, functional Fourier and functional partial least square. The results of these models were compared with the OLS performed using as predictors each of the eight VIs individually and combined. CONCLUSIONS: We found that using all bands simultaneously increased prediction accuracy more than using VI alone. The Splines and Fourier models had the best prediction accuracy for each of the nine time-points under study. Combining image data collected at different time-points led to a small increase in prediction accuracy relative to models that use data from a single time-point. Also, using bands with heritabilities larger than 0.5 only in Drought as predictor variables showed improvements in prediction accuracy.

13.
Appl Transl Genom ; 11: 3-8, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28018844

RESUMO

The International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) leads the Global Wheat Program, whose main objective is to increase the productivity of wheat cropping systems to reduce poverty in developing countries. The priorities of the program are high grain yield, disease resistance, tolerance to abiotic stresses (drought and heat), and desirable quality. The Wheat Chemistry and Quality Laboratory has been continuously evolving to be able to analyze the largest number of samples possible, in the shortest time, at lowest cost, in order to deliver data on diverse quality traits on time to the breeders for making selections for advancement in the breeding pipeline. The participation of wheat quality analysis/selection is carried out in two stages of the breeding process: evaluation of the parental lines for new crosses and advanced lines in preliminary and elite yield trials. Thousands of lines are analyzed which requires a big investment in resources. Genomic selection has been proposed to assist in selecting for quality and other traits in breeding programs. Genomic selection can predict quantitative traits and is applicable to multiple quantitative traits in a breeding pipeline by attaining historical phenotypes and adding high-density genotypic information. Due to advances in sequencing technology, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers are available through genotyping-by-sequencing at a cost conducive to application for genomic selection. At CIMMYT, genomic selection has been applied to predict all of the processing and end-use quality traits regularly tested in the spring wheat breeding program. These traits have variable levels of prediction accuracy, however, they demonstrated that most expensive traits, dough rheology and baking final product, can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. Currently it is being explored how to combine both phenotypic and genomic selection to make more efficient the genetic improvement for quality traits at CIMMYT spring wheat breeding program.

14.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 54: 79-98, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491433

RESUMO

Breeding for disease resistance is a central focus of plant breeding programs, as any successful variety must have the complete package of high yield, disease resistance, agronomic performance, and end-use quality. With the need to accelerate the development of improved varieties, genomics-assisted breeding is becoming an important tool in breeding programs. With marker-assisted selection, there has been success in breeding for disease resistance; however, much of this work and research has focused on identifying, mapping, and selecting for major resistance genes that tend to be highly effective but vulnerable to breakdown with rapid changes in pathogen races. In contrast, breeding for minor-gene quantitative resistance tends to produce more durable varieties but is a more challenging breeding objective. As the genetic architecture of resistance shifts from single major R genes to a diffused architecture of many minor genes, the best approach for molecular breeding will shift from marker-assisted selection to genomic selection. Genomics-assisted breeding for quantitative resistance will therefore necessitate whole-genome prediction models and selection methodology as implemented for classical complex traits such as yield. Here, we examine multiple case studies testing whole-genome prediction models and genomic selection for disease resistance. In general, whole-genome models for disease resistance can produce prediction accuracy suitable for application in breeding. These models also largely outperform multiple linear regression as would be applied in marker-assisted selection. With the implementation of genomic selection for yield and other agronomic traits, whole-genome marker profiles will be available for the entire set of breeding lines, enabling genomic selection for disease at no additional direct cost. In this context, the scope of implementing genomics selection for disease resistance, and specifically for quantitative resistance and quarantined pathogens, becomes a tractable and powerful approach in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia
15.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 991, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27458472

RESUMO

Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance.

16.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 6(9): 2799-808, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402362

RESUMO

Genomic selection can be applied prior to phenotyping, enabling shorter breeding cycles and greater rates of genetic gain relative to phenotypic selection. Traits measured using high-throughput phenotyping based on proximal or remote sensing could be useful for improving pedigree and genomic prediction model accuracies for traits not yet possible to phenotype directly. We tested if using aerial measurements of canopy temperature, and green and red normalized difference vegetation index as secondary traits in pedigree and genomic best linear unbiased prediction models could increase accuracy for grain yield in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., using 557 lines in five environments. Secondary traits on training and test sets, and grain yield on the training set were modeled as multivariate, and compared to univariate models with grain yield on the training set only. Cross validation accuracies were estimated within and across-environment, with and without replication, and with and without correcting for days to heading. We observed that, within environment, with unreplicated secondary trait data, and without correcting for days to heading, secondary traits increased accuracies for grain yield by 56% in pedigree, and 70% in genomic prediction models, on average. Secondary traits increased accuracy slightly more when replicated, and considerably less when models corrected for days to heading. In across-environment prediction, trends were similar but less consistent. These results show that secondary traits measured in high-throughput could be used in pedigree and genomic prediction to improve accuracy. This approach could improve selection in wheat during early stages if validated in early-generation breeding plots.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Seleção Genética , Triticum/genética , Cruzamento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Temperatura , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Plant Methods ; 12: 35, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27347001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have great potential for rapid proximal measurements of plants in agriculture. In the context of plant breeding and genetics, current approaches for phenotyping a large number of breeding lines under field conditions require substantial investments in time, cost, and labor. For field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP), UAS platforms can provide high-resolution measurements for small plot research, while enabling the rapid assessment of tens-of-thousands of field plots. The objective of this study was to complete a baseline assessment of the utility of UAS in assessment field trials as commonly implemented in wheat breeding programs. We developed a semi-automated image-processing pipeline to extract plot level data from UAS imagery. The image dataset was processed using a photogrammetric pipeline based on image orientation and radiometric calibration to produce orthomosaic images. We also examined the relationships between vegetation indices (VIs) extracted from high spatial resolution multispectral imagery collected with two different UAS systems (eBee Ag carrying MultiSpec 4C camera, and IRIS+ quadcopter carrying modified NIR Canon S100) and ground truth spectral data from hand-held spectroradiometer. RESULTS: We found good correlation between the VIs obtained from UAS platforms and ground-truth measurements and observed high broad-sense heritability for VIs. We determined radiometric calibration methods developed for satellite imagery significantly improved the precision of VIs from the UAS. We observed VIs extracted from calibrated images of Canon S100 had a significantly higher correlation to the spectroradiometer (r = 0.76) than VIs from the MultiSpec 4C camera (r = 0.64). Their correlation to spectroradiometer readings was as high as or higher than repeated measurements with the spectroradiometer per se. CONCLUSION: The approaches described here for UAS imaging and extraction of proximal sensing data enable collection of HTP measurements on the scale and with the precision needed for powerful selection tools in plant breeding. Low-cost UAS platforms have great potential for use as a selection tool in plant breeding programs. In the scope of tools development, the pipeline developed in this study can be effectively employed for other UAS and also other crops planted in breeding nurseries.

18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 6(9): 2725-44, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342738

RESUMO

When information on multiple genotypes evaluated in multiple environments is recorded, a multi-environment single trait model for assessing genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is usually employed. Comprehensive models that simultaneously take into account the correlated traits and trait × genotype × environment interaction (T × G × E) are lacking. In this research, we propose a Bayesian model for analyzing multiple traits and multiple environments for whole-genome prediction (WGP) model. For this model, we used Half-[Formula: see text] priors on each standard deviation term and uniform priors on each correlation of the covariance matrix. These priors were not informative and led to posterior inferences that were insensitive to the choice of hyper-parameters. We also developed a computationally efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) under the above priors, which allowed us to obtain all required full conditional distributions of the parameters leading to an exact Gibbs sampling for the posterior distribution. We used two real data sets to implement and evaluate the proposed Bayesian method and found that when the correlation between traits was high (>0.5), the proposed model (with unstructured variance-covariance) improved prediction accuracy compared to the model with diagonal and standard variance-covariance structures. The R-software package Bayesian Multi-Trait and Multi-Environment (BMTME) offers optimized C++ routines to efficiently perform the analyses.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genômica , Modelos Genéticos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Genoma , Genótipo , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
19.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 54: 303-22, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296137

RESUMO

Wheat is grown worldwide in diverse geographical regions, environments, and production systems. Although many diseases and pests are known to reduce grain yield potential and quality, the three rusts and powdery mildew fungi have historically caused major crop losses and continue to remain economically important despite the widespread use of host resistance and fungicides. The evolution and fast spread of virulent and more aggressive race lineages of rust fungi have only worsened the situation. Fusarium head blight, leaf spotting diseases, and, more recently, wheat blast (in South America and Bangladesh) have become diseases of major importance in recent years largely because of intensive production systems, the expansion of conservation agriculture, undesirable crop rotations, or increased dependency on fungicides. High genetic diversity for race-specific and quantitative resistance is known for most diseases; their selection through phenotyping reinforced with molecular strategies offers great promise in achieving more durable resistance and enhancing global wheat productivity.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/imunologia
20.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 5(10): 2155-64, 2015 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26290571

RESUMO

A genomic selection index (GSI) is a linear combination of genomic estimated breeding values that uses genomic markers to predict the net genetic merit and select parents from a nonphenotyped testing population. Some authors have proposed a GSI; however, they have not used simulated or real data to validate the GSI theory and have not explained how to estimate the GSI selection response and the GSI expected genetic gain per selection cycle for the unobserved traits after the first selection cycle to obtain information about the genetic gains in each subsequent selection cycle. In this paper, we develop the theory of a GSI and apply it to two simulated and four real data sets with four traits. Also, we numerically compare its efficiency with that of the phenotypic selection index (PSI) by using the ratio of the GSI response over the PSI response, and the PSI and GSI expected genetic gain per selection cycle for observed and unobserved traits, respectively. In addition, we used the Technow inequality to compare GSI vs. PSI efficiency. Results from the simulated data were confirmed by the real data, indicating that GSI was more efficient than PSI per unit of time.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética , Algoritmos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto
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