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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In dynamic musculoskeletal sonography, probe fixation can contribute to field of view (FOV) consistency, which is necessary for valid analysis of architectural parameters. In this volunteer study, the achieved FOV consistency in fixated ultrasonography was quantified and compared with freehand acquisition. METHODS: During five resting periods during cycling exercise, longitudinal B-mode images of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle were acquired on one thigh with a fixated probe, and by two trained observers on the other thigh. In each acquisition, the structural similarity compared to the first resting period was determined using the complex wavelet structural similarity index (CW-SSIM). Also, the pennation angle of the VL was measured. Both CW-SSIM and pennation angle were compared between fixated and freehand acquisition. Furthermore, the compression of tissue by the probe fixation was measured. RESULTS: In fixated acquisition, a significantly higher structural similarity (p < 0.05) and an improved repeatability of pennation angle measurement were obtained compared to freehand acquisition. Probe fixation compressed muscle tissue by 12% on average. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of the structural similarity showed an increase in FOV consistency with sonography compared to freehand acquisition. The demonstrated feasibility of long-term fixated acquisition might be attractive in many medical fields and sports, and for reduction of work-related ergonomic problems among sonographers.

2.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746741

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is undeniably invading the "surgical" space and expanding its indication. Over the last 5 years, there has been a real revolution in TAVI technology with the introduction of newer devices that aimed to simplify the procedure 1. These swift advances have transformed the landscape in structural heart disease and culminated in a broader use of TAVI in clinical practice 2, 3. The procedure is not only spreading worldwide but is also becoming less aggressive for the patient with the so-called "minimalist approach".

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085504

RESUMO

AIMS: To validate novel software to calculate vessel Fractional Flow Reserve (vFFR) based on 3D-QCA and to assess inter-observer variability in patients who underwent routine pre procedural FFR assessment for intermediate coronary artery stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In-vitro validation was performed in an experimental model. Clinical validation was performed in an observational, retrospective, single-center cohort study. A total of 100 patients presenting with stable angina or non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and an indication to perform FFR between Jan 2016 and Oct 2016 were included. vFFR was calculated based on the aortic root pressure along with two angiographic projections and validated against pressure wire-derived FFR. Mean FFR and vFFR were 0.82±0.08 and 0.84±0.07 respectively. A good linear correlation was found between FFR and vFFR (r=0.89; p<0.001). Assessment of vFFR had a low inter-observer variability (r=0.95; p<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of vFFR in identifying lesions with an FFR≤0.80 was higher as compared with 3D-QCA: AUC 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) vs. 0.66 (95% CI: 0.55-0.77) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D-QCA derived vFFR has a high linear correlation to invasively measured FFR, a high diagnostic accuracy to detect FFR ≤ 0.80 and a low inter-observer variability.

4.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods ; 24(7): 418-429, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877143

RESUMO

The success of cardiovascular tissue engineering (TE) strategies largely depends on the mechanical environment in which cells develop a neotissue through growth and remodeling processes. This mechanical environment is defined by the local scaffold architecture to which cells adhere, that is, the microenvironment, and by external mechanical cues to which cells respond, that is, hemodynamic loading. The hemodynamic environment of early developing blood vessels consists of both shear stress (due to blood flow) and circumferential stretch (due to blood pressure). Experimental platforms that recapitulate this mechanical environment in a controlled and tunable manner are thus critical for investigating cardiovascular TE. In traditional perfusion bioreactors, however, shear stress and stretch are coupled, hampering a clear delineation of their effects on cell and tissue response. In this study, we uniquely designed a bioreactor that independently combines these two types of mechanical cues in eight parallel vascular grafts. The system is computationally and experimentally validated, through finite element analysis and culture of tissue constructs, respectively, to distinguish various levels of shear stress (up to 5 Pa) and cyclic stretch (up to 1.10). To illustrate the usefulness of the system, we investigated the relative contribution of cyclic stretch (1.05 at 0.5 Hz) and shear stress (1 Pa) to tissue development. Both types of hemodynamic loading contributed to cell alignment, but the contribution of shear stress overruled stretch-induced cell proliferation and matrix (i.e., collagen and glycosaminoglycan) production. At a macroscopic level, cyclic stretching led to the most linear stress-stretch response, which was not related to the presence of shear stress. In conclusion, we have developed a bioreactor that is particularly suited to further unravel the interplay between hemodynamics and in situ TE processes. Using the new system, this work highlights the importance of hemodynamic loading to the study of developing vascular tissues.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505410

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a promising imaging modality due to its high optical specificity. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of in vivo PA images are major challenges that prevent PAI from finding its place in clinics. This paper investigates the merit of spatial compounding of PA images in arterial phantoms and the achievable improvements of SNR, when in vivo conditions are mimicked. The analysis of the compounding technique was performed on a polyvinyl alcohol vessel phantom with black threads embedded in its wall. The in vivo conditions were mimicked by limiting the rotation range in ±30°, adding turbid surrounding medium, and filling the lumen with porcine blood. Finally, the performance of the technique was evaluated in ex vivo human carotid plaque samples. Results showed that spatial compounding elevates the SNR by 5-10 dB and CNR by 1-5 dB, depending on the location of the absorbers. This paper elucidates prospective in vivo PA characterization of carotid plaques by proposing a method to enhance PA image quality.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(3): 287-297, 2018 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare a new quantitative angiographic technique to cardiac magnetic resonance-derived regurgitation fraction (CMR-RF) for the quantification of prosthetic valve regurgitation (PVR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: PVR after TAVR is challenging to quantify, especially during the procedure. METHODS: Post-replacement aortograms in 135 TAVR recipients were analyzed offline by videodensitometry to measure the ratio of the time-resolved contrast density in the left ventricular outflow tract to that in the aortic root (videodensitometric aortic regurgitation [VD-AR]). CMR was performed within an interval of ≤30 days (11 ± 6 days) after the procedure. RESULTS: The average CMR-RF was 6.7 ± 7.0% whereas the average VD-AR was 7.0 ± 7.0%. The correlation between VD-AR and CMR-RF was substantial (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). On receiver-operating characteristic curves, a VD-AR ≥10% corresponded to >mild PVR as defined by CMR-RF (area under the curve: 0.94; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%, specificity 83%), whereas a VD-AR ≥25% corresponded to moderate-to-severe PVR (area under the curve: 0.99; p = 0.004; sensitivity 100%, specificity 98%). Intraobserver reproducibility was excellent for both techniques (for CMR-RF, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.91, p < 0.001; for VD-AR intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93, p < 0.001). The difference on rerating was -0.04 ± 7.9% for CMR-RF and -0.40 ± 6.8% for VD-AR. CONCLUSIONS: The angiographic VD-AR provides a surrogate assessment of PVR severity after TAVR that correlates well with the CMR-RF.

7.
EuroIntervention ; 13(13): 1527-1535, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994656

RESUMO

AIMS: Videodensitometric assessment of aortography provides a periprocedural quantitation of prosthetic valve regurgitation (PVR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We sought to compare the videodensitometric parameters of PVR severity to the regurgitation fraction (RF) in a controlled in vitro setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a mock circulation system, a transcatheter balloon-expandable valve inserted at the aortic valve position was gradually deformed to induce different grades of paravalvular leakage and the RF was measured with a transonic flow probe. Contrast aortography was performed and the following videodensitometric parameters were generated: left ventricle aortic regurgitation (LV-AR), LV outflow tract AR (LVOT-AR), quantitative regurgitation assessment (qRA) index, relative maximum density (relative max), and maximum upslope of the LV time-density curve. The correlation was substantial between videodensitometric parameters (LV-AR, LVOT-AR, qRA index, relative max, and maximum upslope) and RF (r2=0.96, 0.96, 0.93, 0.87, and 0.93; p<0.001 for all). LV-AR (region of interest [ROI]=entire LV) and LVOT-AR (ROI=LVOT) were not different (p=0.51) and were strongly correlated (r2=0.99) with a mean difference of 1.92% (95% limits of agreement: ±2.83). The correlations of LV-AR and LVOT-AR with RF were stronger when more than one cardiac cycle was included in the analysis (one cycle: r2=0.85 and r2=0.83; four cycles: r2=0.96 and r2=0.96, for LV-AR and LVOT-AR, respectively). Including more cycles beyond four did not improve accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative assessment of PVR by videodensitometry of aortograms strongly correlates with the actual RF in a controlled in vitro setting. Accuracy is improved by including more than one cardiac cycle in the analysis.

8.
ASAIO J ; 64(5): 673-679, 2018 Sep/Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076944

RESUMO

The need for mechanical assistance of the failing heart has increased with improvements in medicine and a rapidly aging population. In recent decades, significant progress has been made in the development and refinement of ventricular assist devices (VADs). Such devices operate in mixed laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regime. One tool that assists in the development of VADs by facilitating understanding of the physical and mechanical properties of these flow regimes is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In our investigation, we tested an advanced turbulence model that is a further development from standard Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. From estimated pump flow rates (Q0) and constant rotation speed (n), pressure head (Δp) was calculated and validated with experimental data. An advanced turbulence model called scale adaptive simulation (SAS) was used in the solving of six different working cases comparing numerical SAS-SST and standard SST-kω models to experimental results.

9.
Phys Med Biol ; 62(23): 9112-9126, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053103

RESUMO

In recent years, novel ultrasound functional imaging (UFI) techniques have been introduced to assess cardiac function by measuring, e.g. cardiac output (CO) and/or myocardial strain. Verification and reproducibility assessment in a realistic setting remain major issues. Simulations and phantoms are often unrealistic, whereas in vivo measurements often lack crucial hemodynamic parameters or ground truth data, or suffer from the large physiological and clinical variation between patients when attempting clinical validation. Controlled validation in certain pathologies is cumbersome and often requires the use of lab animals. In this study, an isolated beating pig heart setup was adapted and used for performance assessment of UFI techniques such as volume assessment and ultrasound strain imaging. The potential of performing verification and reproducibility studies was demonstrated. For proof-of-principle, validation of UFI in pathological hearts was examined. Ex vivo porcine hearts (n = 6, slaughterhouse waste) were resuscitated and attached to a mock circulatory system. Radio frequency ultrasound data of the left ventricle were acquired in five short axis views and one long axis view. Based on these slices, the CO was measured, where verification was performed using flow sensor measurements in the aorta. Strain imaging was performed providing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain to assess reproducibility and inter-subject variability under steady conditions. Finally, strains in healthy hearts were compared to a heart with an implanted left ventricular assist device, simulating a failing, supported heart. Good agreement between ultrasound and flow sensor based CO measurements was found. Strains were highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.8). Differences were found due to biological variation and condition of the hearts. Strain magnitude and patterns in the assisted heart were available for different pump action, revealing large changes compared to the normal condition. The setup provides a valuable benchmarking platform for UFI techniques. Future studies will include work on different pathologies and other means of measurement verification.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Coração/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Fisiológico , Suínos
10.
EuroIntervention ; 13(11): 1288-1295, 2017 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691911

RESUMO

AIMS: In the minimalist transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) era, the usage of transoesophageal echocardiography has become restricted. Conversely, aortography has gained clinical ground in quantifying prosthetic valve regurgitation (PVR) during the procedure. In a mock circulation system, we sought to compare the contrast volume required and the accuracy of aortographic videodensitometric PVR assessment using a synchronised diastolic and standard (non-synchronised) injection aortography. METHODS AND RESULTS: Synchronised diastolic injection triggered by the signal stemming from the mock circulation was compared with standard non-synchronised injection. A transcatheter heart valve was implanted and was deformed step by step by advancing a screw perpendicularly to the cage of the valve in order to create increasing PVR. Quantitative measurement of PVR was derived from time-density curves of both a reference area (aortic root) and a region of interest (left ventricle) developed by a videodensitometric software. The volume of contrast required for the synchronised diastolic injection was significantly less than in the non-synchronised injection (8.1 [7.9-8.5] ml vs. 19.4 [19.2-19.9] ml, p<0.001). The correlation between the two methods was substantial (Spearman's coefficient rho ranging from 0.991 to 0.968). Intraobserver intra-class correlation coefficient for both methods of injection was 0.999 (95% CI: 0.996-1.000) for the synchronised diastolic and 0.999 (95% CI: 0.996-1.000) for the non-synchronised injection group. The mean difference in the rating was 0.17% and limits of agreement were ±1.64% for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A short synchronised diastolic injection enables contrast volume reduction during aortography without compromising the accuracy of the quantitative assessment of PVR using videodensitometry.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aortografia/métodos , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Humanos , Injeções , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 313(3): H558-H567, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576835

RESUMO

Arterial pressure is an important diagnostic parameter for cardiovascular disease. However, relative contributions of individual ventricular and arterial parameters in generating and augmenting pressure are not understood. Using a novel experimental arterial model, our aim was to characterize individual parameter contributions to arterial pressure and its amplification. A piston-driven ventricle provided programmable stroke profiles into various silicone arterial trees and a bovine aorta. Inotropy was varied in the ventricle, and arterial parameters modulated included wall thickness, taper and diameter, the presence of bifurcation, and a native aorta (bovine) versus silicone. Wave reflection at bifurcations was measured and compared with theory, varying parent-to-child tube diameter ratios, and branch angles. Intravascular pressure-tip wires and ultrasonic flow probes measured pressure and flow. Increasing ventricular inotropy independently augmented pressure amplification from 17% to 61% between the lower and higher systolic gradient stroke profiles in the silicone arterial network and from 10% to 32% in the bovine aorta. Amplification increased with presence of a bifurcation, decreasing wall thickness and vessel taper. Pulse pressure increased with increasing wall thickness (stiffness) and taper angle and decreasing diameter. Theoretical predictions of wave transmission through bifurcations werre similar to measurements (correlation: 0.91, R2 = 0.94) but underestimated wave reflection (correlation: 0.75, R2 = 0.94), indicating energy losses during mechanical wave reflection. This study offers the first comprehensive investigation of contributors to hypertensive pressure and its propagation throughout the arterial tree. Importantly, ventricular inotropy plays a crucial role in the amplification of peripheral pressure wave, which offers opportunity for noninvasive assessment of ventricular health.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study distinguishes contributions from cardiac and arterial parameters to elevated blood pressure and pressure amplification. Most importantly, it offers the first evidence that ventricular inotropy, an indicator of ventricular function, is an independent determinant of pressure amplification and could be measured with such established devices such as the SphygmoCor.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Pressão Arterial , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Contração Miocárdica , Rigidez Vascular , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Bovinos , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade , Hipertensão/etiologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Silicones , Fatores de Tempo , Transdutores de Pressão
12.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods ; 23(6): 377-387, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28478703

RESUMO

Tissue growth and remodeling are essential processes that should ensure long-term functionality of tissue-engineered (TE) constructs. Even though it is widely recognized that these processes strongly depend on mechanical stimuli, the underlying mechanisms of mechanically induced growth and remodeling are only partially understood. It is generally accepted that cells sense mechanical changes and respond by altering their surroundings, by means of extracellular matrix growth and remodeling, in an attempt to return to a certain preferred mechanical homeostatic state. However, the exact mechanical cues that trigger cells to synthesize and remodel their environment remain unclear. To identify the driving mechanical stimuli of these processes, it is critical to be able to temporarily follow the mechanical state of developing tissues under physiological loading conditions. Therefore, a novel "versatile tissue growth and remodeling" (Vertigro) bioreactor was developed that is capable of tissue culture and mechanical stimulation for a prolonged time period, while simultaneously performing mechanical testing. The Vertigro's unique two-chamber design allows easy, sterile handling of circular 3D TE constructs in a dedicated culture chamber, while a separate pressure chamber facilitates a pressure-driven dynamic loading regime during culture. As a proof-of-concept, temporal changes in the mechanical state of cultured tissues were quantified using nondestructive mechanical testing by means of a classical bulge test, in which the tissue displacement was tracked using ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the successful development of the bioreactor system, compositional, structural, and geometrical changes were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed using a series of standard analysis techniques. With this bioreactor and associated mechanical analysis technique, a powerful toolbox has been developed to quantitatively study and identify the driving mechanical stimuli of engineered tissue growth and remodeling.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Matriz Extracelular/química , Mecanotransdução Celular , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Humanos , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
13.
J Biomed Opt ; 22(4): 41013, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28117865

RESUMO

Assessment of microvasculature and tissue perfusion can provide diagnostic information on local or systemic diseases. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has strong clinical potential because of its sensitivity to hemoglobin. We used a hand-held PA probe with integrated diode lasers and examined its feasibility and validity in the detection of increasing blood volume and (sub) dermal vascularization. Blood volume detection was tested in custom-made perfusion phantoms. Results showed that an increase of blood volume in a physiological range of 1.3% to 5.4% could be detected. The results were validated with power Doppler sonography. Using a motorized scanning setup, areas of the skin were imaged at relatively short scanning times ( < 10 ?? s / cm 2 ) with PA. Three-dimensional visualization of these structures was achieved by combining the consecutively acquired cross-sectional images. Images revealed the epidermis and submillimeter vasculature up to depth of 5 mm. The geometries of imaged vasculature were validated with segmentation of the vasculature in high-frequency ultrasound imaging. This study proves the feasibility of PA imaging in its current implementation for the detection of perfusion-related parameters in skin and subdermal tissue and underlines its potential as a diagnostic tool in vascular or dermal pathologies.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/normas , Estudos Transversais , Epiderme/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ultrassom
14.
J Biomed Opt ; 22(4): 41010, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008447

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) may have the ability to reveal the composition and the anatomical structure of carotid plaques, which determines its mechanical properties and vulnerability. We used PAI and plane wave ultrasound (PUS) imaging to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of endarterectomy samples ex vivo and compared the results with histology to investigate the potential of PAI-based identification of intraplaque hemorrhage. Seven carotid plaque samples were obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and imaged with a fully integrated hand-held photoacoustic (PA) probe, consisting of a pulsed diode laser ( t pulse = 130 ?? ns , E pulse = 1 ?? mJ , ? = 808 ?? nm ) and a linear array transducer ( f c = 7.5 ?? MHz ). The samples were rotated 360 deg with 10 deg steps, and data were spatially compounded to obtain complete 3-D images of the plaques. Areas of high absorption in the 3-D datasets were identified and compared to histological data of the plaques. Data in six out of seven endarterectomy samples revealed the presence of intraplaque hemorrhages that were not visible in the PUS images. Due to the noninvasive nature of PAI, this ex vivo study may elucidate preclinical studies toward the in vivo, noninvasive, vulnerability assessment of the atherosclerotic carotid plaque.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Humanos
15.
Biomed Mater Eng ; 27(5): 451-460, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27885993

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to understand whether the phasic Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device (CF-LVAD) support would increase the arterial pulsatility. A Micromed DeBakey CF-LVAD was used to apply phasic support in an ex-vivo experimental platform. CF-LVAD was operated over a cardiac cycle by phase-shifting the pulsatile pump control with respect to the heart cycle, in 0.05 s increments in each experiment. The pump flow rate was selected as the control variable and a reference model was used to operate the CF-LVAD at a pulsatile speed. Arterial pulse pressure was the highest (9 mmHg) when the peak pump flow is applied at the peak systole under varying speed CF-LVAD support over a cardiac cycle while it was the lowest (2 mmHg) when the peak pump flow was applied in the diastolic phase. The mean arterial pressure and mean CF-LVAD output were the same in each experiment while arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility index varied depending on the phase of reference pump flow rate signal. CF-LVAD speed should be synchronized considering the timing of peak systole over a cardiac cycle to increase the arterial pulsatility. Moreover, it is possible to decrease the arterial pulsatility under counter-pulsating CF-LVAD support.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Fluxo Pulsátil , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Diástole , Suínos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824559

RESUMO

Conventional color Doppler imaging is limited, since it only provides velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction for a restricted field of view at a limited frame rate. High-frame-rate speckle tracking, using plane wave transmits, has shown potential for 2-D blood velocity estimation. However, due to the lack of focusing in transmit, image quality gets reduced, which hampers speckle tracking. Although ultrafast imaging facilitates improved clutter filtering, it still remains a major challenge in blood velocity estimation. Signal dropouts and poor velocity estimates are still present for high beam-to-flow angles and low blood flow velocities. In this paper, ultrafast plane wave imaging was combined with multiscale speckle tracking to assess the 2-D blood velocity vector in a common carotid artery (CCA) flow field. A multiangled plane wave imaging sequence was used to compare the performance of displacement compounding, coherent compounding, and compound speckle tracking. Zero-degree plane wave imaging was also evaluated. The performance of the methods was evaluated before and after clutter filtering for the large range of velocities (0-1.5 m/s) that are normally present in a healthy CCA during the cardiac cycle. An extensive simulation study was performed, based on a sophisticated model of the CCA, to investigate and evaluate the performance of the methods at different pulse repetition frequencies and signal-to-noise levels. In vivo data were acquired of a healthy carotid artery bifurcation to support the simulation results. In general, methods utilizing compounding after speckle tracking, i.e., displacement compounding and compound speckle tracking, were least affected by clutter filtering and provided the most robust and accurate estimates for the entire velocity range. Displacement compounding, which uses solely axial information to estimate the velocity vector, provided most accurate velocity estimates, although it required sufficiently high pulse repetition frequencies in high blood velocity phases and reliable estimates for all acquisition angles. When this latter requirement was not met, compound speckle tracking was most accurate, because it uses the possibility to discard angular velocity estimates corrupted by clutter filtering. Similar effects were observed for in vivo data obtained at the carotid artery bifurcation. Investigating a combination of these two compounding techniques is recommended for future research.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Humanos
17.
EuroIntervention ; 12(6): 701-7, 2016 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542781

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to validate a novel monorail infusion catheter for thermodilution-based quantitative coronary flow measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the principles of thermodilution, volumetric coronary flow can be determined from the flow rate of a continuous saline infusion, the temperature of saline when it enters the coronary artery, and the temperature of the blood mixed with the saline in the distal part of the coronary artery. In an in vitro set-up of the systemic and coronary circulation at body temperature, coronary flow values were varied from 50-300 ml/min in steps of 50 ml/min. At each coronary flow value, thermodilution-based measurements were performed at infusion rates of 15, 20, and 30 ml/min. Temperatures and pressures were simultaneously measured with a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire. Agreement of the calculated flow and the measured flow as well as repeatability were assessed. A total of five catheters were tested, with a total of 180 measurements. A strong correlation (ρ=0.976, p<0.0001) and a difference of -6.5±15.5 ml/min were found between measured and calculated flow. The difference between two repeated measures was 0.2%±8.0%. CONCLUSIONS: This novel infusion catheter used in combination with a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire allows accurate and repeatable absolute coronary flow measurements. This opens a window to a better understanding of the coronary microcirculation.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Cateteres Cardíacos , Circulação Coronária , Humanos
18.
J Med Biol Eng ; 36: 308-315, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27441034

RESUMO

Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) generally operate at a constant speed, which reduces pulsatility in the arteries and may lead to complications such as functional changes in the vascular system, gastrointestinal bleeding, or both. The purpose of this study is to increase the arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility by controlling the CF-LVAD flow rate. A MicroMed DeBakey pump was used as the CF-LVAD. A model simulating the flow rate through the aortic valve was used as a reference model to drive the pump. A mock circulation containing two synchronized servomotor-operated piston pumps acting as left and right ventricles was used as a circulatory system. Proportional-integral control was used as the control method. First, the CF-LVAD was operated at a constant speed. With pulsatile-speed CF-LVAD assistance, the pump was driven such that the same mean pump output was generated. Continuous and pulsatile-speed CF-LVAD assistance provided the same mean arterial pressure and flow rate, while the index of pulsatility increased significantly for both arterial pressure and pump flow rate signals under pulsatile speed pump support. This study shows the possibility of improving the pulsatility of CF-LVAD support by regulating pump speed over a cardiac cycle without reducing the overall level of support.

19.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 59: 185-196, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766329

RESUMO

Non-invasive assessment of the elastic properties of the arterial wall is often performed with ultrasound (US) imaging. The purpose of this study is to estimate mechanical properties of the vascular wall using in vitro inflation testing on biological tissue and two-dimensional (2-D) US elastography, and investigate the performance of the proposed methodology for physiological conditions. An inflation experiment was performed on 12 porcine aortas for (a) a large pressure range (0-140mmHg); and (b) physiological pressures (70-130mmHg) to mimic in vivo hemodynamic conditions. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired for one longitudinal and two transverse cross-sections for both experiments, and were analyzed to obtain the geometry and diameter-time behavior. The shear modulus (G) was estimated from these data for each pressure range applied. In addition, an incremental study based on the static data was performed to (1) investigate the changes in G for increasing mean arterial pressure (MAP) for a certain pressure difference (30, 40, 50 and 60mmHg); (2) compare the results with those from the dynamic experiment, for the same pressure range. The resulting stress-strain curves and shear moduli G (94±16kPa) for the static experimentare in agreement with literature and previous work. A linear dependency on MAP was found for G, yet the effect of the pulse pressure difference was negligible. The dynamic data revealed a G of 250±20kPa, whereas the incremental shear modulus (Ginc) was 240±39kPa. For all experiments, no significant differences in the values of G were found between different image planes. This study shows that 2-D US elastography of aortas during inflation testing is feasible and reproducible under controlled and physiological circumstances. In future studies, the in vivo, dynamic experiment should be repeated for a range of MAPs, and pathological vessels should be examined.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Pressão , Suínos , Ultrassonografia
20.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 42(2): 574-85, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26598396

RESUMO

Knowledge of the intrinsic material properties of healthy and diseased arterial tissue components is of great importance in diagnostics. This study describes an in vitro comparison of 13 porcine carotid arteries using inflation testing combined with functional ultrasound and bi-axial tensile testing. The measured tissue behavior was described using both a linear, but geometrically non-linear, one-parameter (neo-Hookean) model and a two-parameter non-linear (Demiray) model. The shear modulus estimated using the linear model resulted in good agreement between the ultrasound and tensile testing methods, GUS = 25 ± 5.7 kPa and GTT = 23 ± 5.4 kPa. No significant correspondence was observed for the non-linear model aUS = 1.0 ± 2.7 kPa vs. aTT = 17 ± 8.8 kPa, p âˆ¼ 0); however, the exponential parameters were in correspondence (bUS = 12 ± 4.2 vs. bTT = 10 ± 1.7, p > 0.05). Estimation of more complex models in vivo is cumbersome considering the sensitivity of the model parameters to small changes in measurement data and the absence of intraluminal pressure data, endorsing the use of a simple, linear model in vivo.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Técnicas In Vitro , Pressão , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estresse Mecânico , Suínos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
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