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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116251

RESUMO

This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.

2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(4): e00092918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994739

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a dialogue between decision-makers and experts in Latin America and the Caribbean on priority-setting for interventions and studies on Aedes aegypti control. The article is part of a project that included a systematic review of mosquito control strategies and a qualitative study with key informants from the region. Using a collective deliberative process assisted by the results of the above-mentioned projects, a list of priorities was developed by consensus for the implementation of vector control strategies and the development of key regional research lines. It was agreed that the best strategy is integrated vector management, divided into: (a) chemical control; (b) biological control; (c) environmental management; (d) community participation; and (e) integrated surveillance. The workshop highlighted the crucial role of government leadership and inter-sector coordination between government agencies and civil society stakeholders. The proposed priorities for research lines were: Ae. aegypti vector competence and associated factors; community components of interventions; incorporation of technology into vector control and monitoring; most efficient modalities of integrated surveillance; entomological indicators with the best predictive capacity; and resistance to insecticides. The policy dialogue methodology allowed validating and enriching the results of other levels of research, besides establishing priorities for regional research and control strategies.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 24(5): 530-552, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and degree of implementation of interventions for the control of Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as reported in scientific literature. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, SOCINDEX, and LILACS, for experimental and observational studies, economic assessments and qualitative experiences carried out in LAC from 2000 to 2016. We assessed incidence and morbimortality of Aedes aegypti-related diseases and entomological indices: Breteau (containers), House, and Pupae per Person. We used GRADE methodology for assessing quality of evidence. RESULTS: Of 1826 records retrieved, 75 were included and 9 cluster randomised clinical trials could be meta-analysed. We did not identify any intervention supported by a high certainty of evidence. In consistency with qualitative evidence, health education and community engagement probably reduces the entomological indices, as do the use of insecticide-treated materials, indoor residual spraying and the management of containers. There is low certainty of evidence supporting the use of ovitraps or larvitraps, and the integrated epidemiological surveillance strategy to improve indices and reduce the incidence of dengue. The reported degree of implementation of these vector control interventions was variable and most did not extend to whole cities and were not sustained beyond 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: We found a general lack of evidence on effectiveness of vector control in the region, despite a few interventions that showed moderate to low certainty of evidence. It is important to engage and educate the community, apart from achieving the implementation of integrated actions between the health and other sectors at national and regional level.

4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001661

RESUMO

El objetivo fue describir experiencias, barreras y facilitadores en la implementación de intervenciones de control del Aedes aegypti en América Latina y Caribe. Fue realizado un abordaje cualitativo con entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a expertos en implementación de programas (19 participantes de nueve países). Se utilizó un software para la codificar los datos y se confeccionaron matrices para su comparación. En base a los hallazgos desarrollamos una representación gráfica de dimensiones teóricas que agrupan las barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de intervenciones. A nivel global, el ambiente natural y construido contribuye a la reproducción del mosquito. En el sistema de salud, la falta de priorización del problema y la escasez de recursos materiales y humanos representan los obstáculos más importantes. Se necesita que otros sectores diferentes al de salud se responsabilicen de las acciones para mejorar los determinantes sociales de la salud. Existen barreras transversales relacionadas con la gobernanza, como la descoordinación entre los niveles centrales y locales, falta de continuidad de las intervenciones y de los grupos técnicos. La comunidad enfrenta problemas como la falta de información, pobreza o resistencias a recomendaciones. La opinión pública puede tener un impacto positivo o negativo, influyendo indirectamente en las decisiones políticas. Este estudio propone un marco de dimensiones de análisis construido desde los hallazgos; describe factores influyentes en la implementación de políticas que pueden orientar las acciones futuras desde un enfoque integrado.


This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.


O objetivo foi descrever experiências, barreiras e facilitadores na implementação de intervenções de controle do Aedes aegypti na América Latina e no Caribe. Uma abordagem qualitativa foi realizada com entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com especialistas na implementação do programa (19 participantes de nove países). Foi usado um software para codificar os dados e foram feitas matrizes para comparação. Com base nos resultados, desenvolvemos uma representação gráfica das dimensões teóricas que agruparam as barreiras e facilitadores para a implementação das intervenções. Em nível global, o ambiente natural e construído contribui para a reprodução do mosquito. No sistema de saúde, a falta de priorização do problema e a escassez de recursos materiais e humanos representam os obstáculos mais importantes. É necessário que outros setores, além do setor saúde, assumam ações de melhoria dos determinantes sociais da saúde. Existem barreiras transversais relacionadas à governança, como a falta de coordenação entre os níveis central e local e a falta de continuidade das intervenções e dos grupos técnicos. A comunidade enfrenta problemas como falta de informação, pobreza ou resistência a recomendações. A opinião pública pode ter um impacto positivo ou negativo, influenciando indiretamente as decisões políticas. Este estudo propõe um quadro de dimensões de análise construído a partir dos resultados; descreve fatores influentes na implementação de políticas que podem orientar ações futuras a partir de uma abordagem integrada.

5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00092918, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1001645

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a dialogue between decision-makers and experts in Latin America and the Caribbean on priority-setting for interventions and studies on Aedes aegypti control. The article is part of a project that included a systematic review of mosquito control strategies and a qualitative study with key informants from the region. Using a collective deliberative process assisted by the results of the above-mentioned projects, a list of priorities was developed by consensus for the implementation of vector control strategies and the development of key regional research lines. It was agreed that the best strategy is integrated vector management, divided into: (a) chemical control; (b) biological control; (c) environmental management; (d) community participation; and (e) integrated surveillance. The workshop highlighted the crucial role of government leadership and inter-sector coordination between government agencies and civil society stakeholders. The proposed priorities for research lines were: Ae. aegypti vector competence and associated factors; community components of interventions; incorporation of technology into vector control and monitoring; most efficient modalities of integrated surveillance; entomological indicators with the best predictive capacity; and resistance to insecticides. The policy dialogue methodology allowed validating and enriching the results of other levels of research, besides establishing priorities for regional research and control strategies.


Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um diálogo entre tomadores de decisão e expertos da América Latina e do Caribe sobre a priorização de intervenções e pesquisas para o controle do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Faz parte de um projeto que compreendeu uma revisão sistemática sobre estratégias e controle do mosquito e um estudo qualitativo com informantes chave da região. Através de um processo deliberativo em instâncias coletivas, assistido pelos resultados dos mencionados projetos, foi elaborada uma listagem consensuada de prioridades de implementação de estratégias de controle vetorial e de desenvolvimento regional de linhas essenciais de pesquisa. Foi acordado que a melhor estratégia é a gestão integrada de vetores ou Estratégia de Gestão Integrada, desagregada em: (a) controle químico; (b) controle biológico; (c) gestão ambiental; (d) participação comunitária; (e) vigilância integrada. Foi destacado o rol fundamental e indelegável da direção do estado e a coordenação intersetorial entre agências estaduais com atores da sociedade civil. Foi proposto priorizar como linhas de pesquisa: a capacidade vetorial do Ae. aegypti e fatores associados; componentes comunitários das intervenções; a incorporação de tecnologia para o controle vetorial e para o monitoramento; modos mais eficientes de vigilância integrada; indicadores entomológicos com melhor capacidade preditiva e resistência a pesticidas. A metodologia do diálogo de políticas permitiu validar e enriquecer os resultados de outras áreas de pesquisa, possibilitou estabelecer prioridades a propósito da pesquisa, além de estratégias para o controle regional.


Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un diálogo entre tomadores de decisión y expertos de América Latina y el Caribe sobre la priorización de intervenciones e investigaciones para el control del mosquito Aedes aegypti. Forma parte de un proyecto que comprendió una revisión sistemática sobre estrategias control del mosquito y un estudio cualitativo con informantes clave de la región. Mediante un proceso deliberativo en instancias colectivas, asistido por los resultados de los mencionados proyectos, se elaboró un listado consensuado de prioridades de implementación de estrategias de control vectorial y de desarrollo regional de líneas clave de investigación. Se convino en que la mejor estrategia es el manejo integrado de vectores o Estrategia de Gestión Integrada, desagregada en: (a) control químico; (b) control biológico; (c) manejo ambiental; (d) participación comunitaria; y (e) vigilancia integrada. Se destacó el fundamental e indelegable rol de rectoría del estado y la coordinación intersectorial entre agencias estatales y con actores de la sociedad civil. Se propuso priorizar como líneas de investigación: la capacidad vectorial del Ae. aegypti y factores asociados; componentes comunitarios de las intervenciones; la incorporación de tecnología al control vectorial y al monitoreo; los modos más eficientes de vigilancia integrada; indicadores entomológicos con mejor capacidad predictiva y resistencia a insecticidas. La metodología del diálogo de políticas permitió validar y enriquecer los resultados de otras instancias de investigación, y permitió establecer prioridades sobre investigación y estrategias para el control regional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
6.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2019. 160 p. ilus, tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026447

RESUMO

Las consultas pediátricas por temas infectológicos son frecuentes y relevantes durante toda la infancia, desde la etapa neonatal hasta la adolescencia. En este nuevo volumen de las Series Garrahan: El ñino y las infecciones, se han seleccionado temas específicos, sobre la base de la actualización del conocimiento, los cambios epidemiológicos y de las conductas clínicas ocurridos en los últimos años y la necesidad del manejo adecuado de estas afecciones, ya sea ambulatorio o durante la internación. Entre sus aspectos sobresalientes se incluyen: El estudio de temas destacados como el abordaje del niño febril; las infecciones de piel y partes blandas, incluidas las asociadas con mordeduras; las infecciones en el recién nacido; las infecciones respiratorias bajas, incluida la tuberculosis; y las infecciones osteoarticulares, del sistema nervioso central e intraabdominales. La inclusión de un capítulo especial sobre la prevención de infecciones para ayudar a reducir su incidencia. El enfoque práctico, con discusión de casos clínicos y definición de conductas, y ubicando al pediatra en un papel central como coordinador de la atención interdisciplinaria. Aspectos clave y lecturas recomendadas en el cierre de cada capítulo. Una obra actualizada que aporta información científica y la experiencia de los profesionales del Hospital Garrahan, dedicada a todos los miembros del equipo de salud que atienden y cuidan niños dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud infantil


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Osteomielite , Peritonite , Pneumonia , Febre Recorrente , Dermatopatias Infecciosas , Tuberculose , Mordeduras e Picadas , Artrite Infecciosa , Coqueluche , Vacinação , Meningites Bacterianas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Febre , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Encefalite Infecciosa , Sepse Neonatal
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(4): 616-620, ago. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950054

RESUMO

La hidatidosis es una zoonosis producida por el parásito Echinococcus granulosus. En el ciclo zoonótico del parásito, el hombre es un huésped intermediario y sufre la enfermedad tras la ingesta de alimentos y agua contaminados por la materia fecal de animales infectados. En Argentina, la enfermedad constituye un problema importante de salud pública. Suele manifestarse con compromiso hepático y pulmonar. La afectación de otros órganos, que incluyen el corazón, es infrecuente.


Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the Echinococcus granulosus larvae, transmitted by the ingestion of infected food, characterized by the formation of cysts in vital organs. In Argentina, the disease is spread throughout the territory, constituting an important public health issue. The disease usually affects the liver and lungs. The affection of other organs is rare, and even more uncommon the affection of the heart. We present the case of a disseminated hydatidosis in a pediatric patient, whose initial clinical manifestation was an acute arterial embolism of the right limb caused by the rupture of a hydatidic cardiac cyst.

8.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 116(4): e616-e620, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016043

RESUMO

Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the Echinococcus granulosus larvae, transmitted by the ingestion of infected food, characterized by the formation of cysts in vital organs. In Argentina, the disease is spread throughout the territory, constituting an important public health issue. The disease usually affects the liver and lungs. The affection of other organs is rare, and even more uncommon the affection of the heart. We present the case of a disseminated hydatidosis in a pediatric patient, whose initial clinical manifestation was an acute arterial embolism of the right limb caused by the rupture of a hydatidic cardiac cyst.

9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 93-97, abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887453

RESUMO

Las infecciones asociadas a catéteres (IAC) conllevan elevada morbimortalidad, con el aumento del uso de recursos hospitalarios. Objetivo. Describir los resultados de un programa para disminuir la tasa de IAC en las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio colaborativo multicéntrico, clínico-epidemiológico, cuasi experimental, de intervención antes y después. Se incluyen niños con catéter venoso central internados en 9 unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, conurbano y otras provincias desde junio de 2011 a abril de 2012. Se implementó un paquete de medidas basado en la educación del personal de salud para inserción de catéteres e higiene de manos y uso de listas de verificación con monitoreo de las medidas implementadas. Se compararon el número y la tasa anual de IAC y la tasa de uso de catéter venoso central previa y posterior a la implementación del programa (Stata 8.0). Resultados. El total de IAC preintervención fue de 117 vs. 74 en el pos. La tasa previa fue 8,6/1000 días de uso y la posintervención, de 5,8/1000 días, RR 0,82 (IC 95%: 0,68-0,98), p= 0,015. La tasa de uso de catéter venoso central se redujo de 54% a 49%, diferencia no significativa. Conclusiones. El programa logró un descenso significativo de las tasas de IAC. A partir de él, se implementó la vigilancia de las IAC en todas las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos participantes. La educación y la vigilancia continua son necesarias para mantener y mejorar los resultados alcanzados.


Catheter-related infections (CRIs) cause a high level of morbidity and mortality with the increasing use of hospital resources. Objective. To describe the outcomes of a program implemented to reduce the rate of CRIs in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Population and methods. Collaborative, multi center, clinical-epidemiological, quasiexperimental, before-and-after intervention study. Children who had a central venous catheter during hospitalization in 9 pediatric intensive care units in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Greater Buenos Aires, and other provinces between June 2011 and April 2012 were included. A bundle of measures based on health care staff training on catheter insertion, hand hygiene, and checklists was put into practice and implemented measures were monitored. The number and annual rate of CRIs and the rate of central venous catheter use before and after the program implementation were compared (Stata 8.0). Results. The total number of CRIs was 117 and 74 before and after the intervention, respectively. The rate of CRIs was 8.6/1000 days of central venous catheter use and 5.8/1000 days before and after the intervention, respectively; RR: 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.98), p= 0.015. The rate of central venous catheter use decreased from 54% to 49%, a non-significant difference. Conclusions. The program achieved a significant reduction in CRI rates. Based on the program, CRI surveillance was implemented in all participating pediatric intensive care units. Training and continuous surveillance are necessary to maintain and improve the outcomes accomplished with the program.

10.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 116(2): 93-97, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) cause a high level of morbidity and mortality with the increasing use of hospital resources. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of a program implemented to reduce the rate of CRIs in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: Collaborative, multi center, clinical-epidemiological, quasiexperimental, before-and-after intervention study. Children who had a central venous catheter during hospitalization in 9 pediatric intensive care units in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Greater Buenos Aires, and other provinces between June 2011 and April 2012 were included. A bundle of measures based on health care staff training on catheter insertion, hand hygiene, and checklists was put into practice and implemented measures were monitored. The number and annual rate of CRIs and the rate of central venous catheter use before and after the program implementation were compared (Stata 8.0). RESULTS: The total number of CRIs was 117 and 74 before and after the intervention, respectively. The rate of CRIs was 8.6/1000 days of central venous catheter use and 5.8/1000 days before and after the intervention, respectively; RR: 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.98), p= 0.015. The rate of central venous catheter use decreased from 54% to 49%, a non-significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: The program achieved a significant reduction in CRI rates. Based on the program, CRI surveillance was implemented in all participating pediatric intensive care units. Training and continuous surveillance are necessary to maintain and improve the outcomes accomplished with the program.

11.
CABA; Argentina. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación. Dirección de Investigación para la salud; 2018. 180 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-994330

RESUMO

La dirección de investigación para la salud (ex comisión nacional salud investiga) tiene dentro de sus objetivos el fomento a investigaciones éticas y de calidad, así como la promoción de la gestión del conocimiento en función de estos fines y en ocasión de cumplir el décimo aniversario de su creación, en 2012 se instituyeron los Premios salud investiga; destinados a distinguir a aquellos profesionales e instituciones que hayan obtenido becas de investigación ôcarrillo û oñativiaö, cuyos resultados hayan constituido un aporte para la toma de decisiones clínicas o sanitarias del nivel local, regional o nacional. En esta edición del total de postulaciones recibidas se preseleccionaron doce postulaciones por cumplir íntegramente con los requisitos solicitados para el concurso, de los cuales seis correspondieron a la categoría de estudio individual y el resto a la categoría multicentrico


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo , Ciências da Saúde , Cuidados Críticos , Pesquisa , Neonatologia , Pediatria
12.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2018. 180 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-882735

RESUMO

La patología respiratoria presenta un gran desafío para las instituciones de salud, por su frecuencia, su complejidad diagnóstica y terapéutica y la carga que representa en costos económicos y vitales. Estos conceptos se extienden a todos los grupos etarios y sus características han ido cambiando a lo largo del tiempo ante los avances producidos en las inmunizaciones, los métodos diagnósticos y los tratamientos. Aún así, las infecciones respiratorias bajas son todavía la causa más frecuente de consulta, internación, morbilidad crónica, discapacidad y mortalidad en pediatría. Este nuevo volumen aborda esta temática especial y entre sus características se destacan: El estudio de las patologías más frecuentes en los diferentes ámbitos de atención pero en particular en el primer nivel, con una exposición centrada en los aspectos que facilitan el diagnóstico rápido y el tratamiento adecuado, con el menor uso de recursos y con pautas que fijan la derivación oportuna hacia el especialista o hacia una institución de mayor complejidad. El desarrollo de importantes temas, como la patología obstructiva de la vía aérea superior, su estudio diagnóstico y sus formas recurrentes; bronquiolitis; las intercurrencias respiratorias en pacientes con condiciones clínicas especiales; y la supuración pleuropulmonar. La inclusión, en todos los capítulos, de casos clínicos con su evolución y desenlace, textos destacados con los principales conceptos y puntos claves para recordar. Una obra sólida y práctica, que transmite la experiencia de los profesionales de una institución del prestigio internacional del Hospital dePediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan, dedicada a todos los pediatras, dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud de los niños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Argentina , Asma , Bronquiolite , Hemoptise , Laringe/anormalidades , Doenças Neuromusculares , Oxigenoterapia , Derrame Pleural , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sons Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Traqueostomia
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(4): 364-369, ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887348

RESUMO

Introducción: La asociación entre enterovirus D68 y cuadros de mielitis aguda fláccida ha sido descrita en Estados Unidos, en 2014. Desde ese año, se han reportado casos esporádicamente en Canadá y Europa. Se describe, en este estudio, una serie de casos con mielitis aguda fláccida en el Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" en Buenos Aires, Argentina, en 2016. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes internados desde el 1/04/2016 al 1/07/2016 con mielitis fláccida aguda con lesiones en la médula espinal que comprometieran la sustancia gris en la resonancia magnética nuclear. Se procesaron, para la búsqueda etiológica, muestras de secreciones nasofaríngeas, hisopados de materia fecal y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 10 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue 4 años (rango de 3 meses a 5 años). Ocho pacientes tuvieron una enfermedad febril autolimitada antes del inicio de los síntomas neurológicos. Los hallazgos neurológicos fueron debilidad fláccida de, al menos, un miembro, cervicoplejia (n= 2) y parálisis facial (n= 2). Todos los pacientes presentaron lesiones longitudinales en la médula espinal, con compromiso de sustancia gris, predominantemente, en el asta anterior. En todos los casos, se realizó una punción lumbar. En 7 pacientes, se observó pleocitosis. En cuatro niños, se identificó enterovirus D68 en secreciones nasofaríngeas y, en uno, se identificó el enterovirusD68 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Todos los pacientes persistieron con déficits neurológicos al momento del alta. Conclusiones: Se reporta el primer brote de mielitis aguda fláccida asociada a enterovirusD68 en Argentina. La vigilancia epidemiológica activa permitirá conocer la verdadera incidencia, epidemiología y etiología de esta enfermedad.


Introduction: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study. Samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, fecal swabs and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and processed to look for the causative agent. Results: Ten patients were included. The median age was 4 years old (range from 3 months to 5 years old). Eight patients had a self-limiting febrile condition before the onset of neurological symptoms. Neurological findings were flaccid weakness in, at least, one limb, cervical paralysis (n= 2) and facial paralysis (n= 2). All patients had longitudinal lesions in the spinal cord, with gray matter involvement, mainly in the anterior horn. In all cases, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) was performed. Pleocytosis was observed in 7 patients. In four children, enterovirus D68 was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions, and in one, it was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological deficit persisted in all patients at the time of discharge. Conclusions: The first outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis associated to enterovirus D68 is reported in Argentina. Active epidemiological surveillance will help to determine the true incidence, epidemiology and etiology of this disease.

14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(4): 230-232, ago. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887352

RESUMO

El absceso cerebral es una infección focal, que se presenta con una frecuencia de 0,3-1,3 casos cada 100000 personas/año.¹ Se describe la epidemiología, clínica y microbiología de 38 niños con diagnóstico de absceso cerebral internados entre el 1/4/2005 y el 31/12/2015 en el Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Veinticuatro pacientes fueron varones. La mediana de edad fue de 132 meses. Se detectaron factores predisponentes en 25 niños. La mediana de evolución entre el inicio de los síntomas y la consulta fue de 7 días. Hubo 27 casos con lesiones únicas. Se realizó un drenaje quirúrgico en 34 pacientes. Las bacterias más frecuentes fueron anaerobios, Streptococcus viridans y Staphylococcus aureus. La mediana de tratamiento antibiótico fue de 56 días y la mediana de internación fue de 43 días. La letalidad fue del 3%.


Brain abscess is a focal infection that occurs with a frequency of 0.3-1.3 cases per 100,000 people/year. We describe the epidemiology, clinical and microbiology characteristics of 38 children diagnosed with brain abscess hospitalized between 4/1/2005 and 12/31/2015 at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" in Buenos Aires City. Twenty-four patients were male. The median age was 132 months. Predisposing factors were detected in 25 children. The median evolution from onset of symptoms to the visit was 7 days. There were 27 cases with single lesions. Surgical drainage was performed in 34 patients. The most frequent bacteria were anaerobes, Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus. The median of antibiotic treatment was 56 days and the median of hospitalization was 43 days. The lethality was 3%.

15.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 115(4): 364-369, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study. Samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, fecal swabs and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and processed to look for the causative agent. RESULTS: Ten patients were included. The median age was 4 years old (range from 3 months to 5 years old). Eight patients had a self-limiting febrile condition before the onset of neurological symptoms. Neurological findings were flaccid weakness in, at least, one limb, cervical paralysis (n= 2) and facial paralysis (n= 2). All patients had longitudinal lesions in the spinal cord, with gray matter involvement, mainly in the anterior horn. In all cases, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) was performed. Pleocytosis was observed in 7 patients. In four children, enterovirus D68 was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions, and in one, it was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological deficit persisted in all patients at the time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The first outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis associated to enterovirus D68 is reported in Argentina. Active epidemiological surveillance will help to determine the true incidence, epidemiology and etiology of this disease.


Assuntos
Mielite/epidemiologia , Mielite/virologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mielite/diagnóstico , Mielite/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 115(4): e230-e232, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737874

RESUMO

Brain abscess is a focal infection that occurs with a frequency of 0.3-1.3 cases per 100,000 people/year. We describe the epidemiology, clinical and microbiology characteristics of 38 children diagnosed with brain abscess hospitalized between 4/1/2005 and 12/31/2015 at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" in Buenos Aires City. Twenty-four patients were male. The median age was 132 months. Predisposing factors were detected in 25 children. The median evolution from onset of symptoms to the visit was 7 days. There were 27 cases with single lesions. Surgical drainage was performed in 34 patients. The most frequent bacteria were anaerobes, Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus. The median of antibiotic treatment was 56 days and the median of hospitalization was 43 days. The lethality was 3%.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-33877

RESUMO

Antecedentes. Al momento no se ha logrado sintetizar toda la información cualicuantitativa relacionada al control de Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Objetivo. Describir la existencia y el grado de ejecución de los programas específicos o actividades de control vectorial en ALC como parte de programas sanitarios, establecer los costos y/o costoefectividad de las estrategias de control vectorial e identificar barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de las estrategias. Métodos. El estudio se llevará a cabo en dos fases complementarias. La primera fase será cuantitativa en la forma de una revisión sistemática, cuyos detalles han sido publicados en la base PROSPERO (CRD42016038067). La segunda fase será cualitativa y consistirá en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a informants clave como investigadores, responsables programáticos,referentes nacionales, agentes del sistema sanitario y representantes de organizaciones no gubernamentales. Discusión. El abordaje cualicuantitativo permitirá describir las estrategias y el nivel de implementación para el control de vector y su efectividad, sus costos programáticos y costo-efectividad. Permitirá también analizar factores influyent es en la implementación de programas.


Assuntos
Controle de Vetores , Aedes , Análise Qualitativa , Revisão , América Latina
18.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-961699

RESUMO

RESUMEN Antecedentes Al momento no se ha logrado sintetizar toda la información cuali-cuantitativa relacionada al control de Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Objetivo Describir la existencia y el grado de ejecución de los programas específicos o actividades de control vectorial en ALC como parte de programas sanitarios, establecer los costos y/o costoefectividad de las estrategias de control vectorial e identificar barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de las estrategias. Métodos El estudio se llevará a cabo en dos fases complementarias. La primera fase será cuantitativa en la forma de una revisión sistemática, cuyos detalles han sido publicados en la base PROSPERO (CRD42016038067). La segunda fase será cualitativa y consistirá en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a informantes clave como investigadores, responsables programáticos,referentes nacionales, agentes del sistema sanitario y representantes de organizaciones no gubernamentales. Discusión El abordaje cualicuantitativo permitirá describir las estrategias y el nivel de implementación para el control de vector y su efectividad, sus costos programáticos y costo-efectividad. Permitirá también analizar factores influyentes en la implementación de programas.


Assuntos
Análise Qualitativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Aedes , América Latina
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(6): 549-552, dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-838301

RESUMO

Los regímenes de quimioterapia y los avances en el soporte clínico han mejorado la supervivencia de los niños con leucemia linfoblástica aguda. Son temas de preocupación las secuelas del tratamiento, entre ellas, el daño inmunológico inducido por la terapia inmunosupresora, que se refleja en la pérdida de niveles protectores de anticuerpos provistos por inmunizaciones previas. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de títulos protectores de anticuerpos para sarampión, rubéola y tétanos en pacientes con leucemia linfoblástica aguda luego de haber finalizado el tratamiento quimioterápico. Se incluyeron 61 niños con leucemia linfoblástica aguda asistidos en el Hospital Garrahan, que habían finalizado el tratamiento, como mínimo, 6 meses antes y con vacunación completa previa al diagnóstico. Las tasas de anticuerpos protectores fueron sarampión: 46% (IC 32-59); tétanos: 53% (IC 40-67); rubéola: 60% (IC 47-63). Estos resultados refuerzan la necesidad de reconsiderar la revacunación en este grupo de pacientes.


Chemotherapy regimens and clinical support advances have improved survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The after-effects of treatment are a reason for concern, including damage to the immune system induced by immunosuppressive therapy which is reflected in the loss of antibody protection provided by prior immunizations. Our goal was to assess the presence of measles, rubella, and tetanus protective antibody titers among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after completing chemotherapy. Sixty-one children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia seen at the Hospital Garrahan were included; patients had finished their chemotherapy at least 6 months earlier and had a complete immunization schedule before diagnosis. The rates of protective antibodies were 46% (CI: 32-59) for measles, 53% (CI 40-67) for tetanus, and 60% (CI 47-63) for rubella. These results strengthen the need to reconsider revaccination in this group of patients.

20.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 114(6): 549-552, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869413

RESUMO

Chemotherapy regimens and clinical support advances have improved survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The after-effects of treatment are a reason for concern, including damage to the immune system induced by immunosuppressive therapy which is reflected in the loss of antibody protection provided by prior immunizations. Our goal was to assess the presence of measles, rubella, and tetanus protective antibody titers among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after completing chemotherapy. Sixty-one children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia seen at the Hospital Garrahan were included; patients had finished their chemotherapy at least 6 months earlier and had a complete immunization schedule before diagnosis. The rates of protective antibodies were 46% (CI: 32-59) for measles, 53% (CI 40-67) for tetanus, and 60% (CI 47-63) for rubella. These results strengthen the need to reconsider revaccination in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral , Sarampo/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Tétano/imunologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Tétano/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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