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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769566

RESUMO

The longitudinal quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 survivors, especially those with post-acute sequelae (PASC) is not well described. We evaluated QoL in our COVID-19 survivor cohort over 6 months using the RAND SF-36 survey. From July 2020-March 2021 we enrolled 110 adults from the United States with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) into the Northern Colorado Coronavirus Biobank (NoCo-COBIO). Demographic data and symptom surveillance were collected from 62 adults. In total, 42% were hospitalized, and 58% were non-hospitalized. The Rand SF-36 consists of 36 questions and 8 scales, and questions are scored 0-100. A lower-scale score indicates a lower QoL. In conclusion, hospitalization, PASC, and disease severity were associated with significantly lower scores on the RAND SF-36 in Physical Functioning, Role Limitation due to Physical Health, Energy/Fatigue, Social Functioning, and General Health. Long-term monitoring of COVID-19 survivors is needed to fully understand the impact of the disease on QoL and could have implications for interventions to alleviate suffering during recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Colorado/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 751225, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659185

RESUMO

Dietary fiber and flavonoids have substantial influence on the human gut microbiota composition that significantly impact health. Recent studies with dietary supplements such as quercetin and rice bran have shown beneficial impacts on the host alongside a positive influence of the gut microbiota. The specific bacterial species impacted by quercetin or rice bran in the diet is not well understood. In this study, we used a minibioreactor array system as a model to determine the effect of quercetin and rice bran individually, as well as in combination, on gut microbiota without the confounding host factors. We found that rice bran exerts higher shift in gut microbiome composition when compared to quercetin. At the species level, Acidaminococcus intestini was the only significantly enriched taxa when quercetin was supplemented, while 15 species were enriched in rice bran supplementation and 13 were enriched when quercetin and rice bran were supplemented in combination. When comparing the short chain fatty acid production, quercetin supplementation increased isobutyrate production while propionate dominated the quercetin and rice bran combined group. Higher levels of propionate were highly correlated to the lower abundance of the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae family. These findings suggest that the combination of quercetin and rice bran serve to enrich beneficial bacteria and reduce potential opportunistic pathogens. In vivo studies are necessary to determine how this synergy of quercetin and rice bran on microbiota impact host health.

3.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(11): 1404-1411, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenomatous polyps are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Physical activity (PA) and spending less time sedentary may reduce risk of polyp recurrence and cancer incidence. This study examined associations between PA, sedentary time, and stool metabolites in adults at high risk for developing colorectal cancer. METHODS: Participants were ≥18 years old with ≥1 adenomatous polyps removed in the previous 3 years. PA and sedentary time were assessed using an activPAL™ accelerometer. Stool samples were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, and primary/secondary bile acid metabolites by mass spectrometry. Linear regression models examined associations between PA, sedentary time, and stool parameters, with dietary fiber as a covariate. RESULTS: Participants (N = 21) were 59 (9) years old and had a body mass index of 28.1 (3.35 kg/m2). Light-intensity PA was associated with butyrate (ß = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.477 to 3.291) and propionate (ß = 1.79; 95% CI, 0.862 to 2.724). Moderate to vigorous PA was associated with deoxycholic acid (ß = -6.13; 95% CI, -12.14 to -0.11) and ursodeoxycholic acid (ß = -0.45; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.12) abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Both light and moderate to vigorous PA were associated with gut microbial metabolite production. These findings suggest the importance of examining PA intensity alongside stool metabolites for colorectal cancer prevention.

4.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 5(9): nzab101, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514286

RESUMO

Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is associated with chronic gut inflammation affecting nutrient absorption and development of children, primarily in low- and middle-income countries. Several studies have shown that rice bran (RB) supplementation provides nutrients and modulates gut inflammation, which may reduce risk for undernutrition. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of daily RB dietary supplementation for 6 mo on serum biomarkers in weaning infants and associated changes in serum and stool metabolites. Methods: A 6-mo randomized-controlled dietary intervention was conducted in a cohort of weaning 6-mo-old infants in León, Nicaragua. Anthropometric indices were obtained at 6, 8, and 12 mo. Serum and stool ionomics and metabolomics were completed at the end of the 6-mo intervention using inductively coupled plasma MS and ultra-high performance LC-tandem MS. The ɑ1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) serum EED biomarkers were measured by ELISA. Results: Twenty-four infants in the control group and 23 in the RB group successfully completed the 6-mo dietary intervention with 90% dietary compliance. RB participants had higher concentrations of GLP-2 as compared with control participants at 12 mo [median (IQR): 743.53 (380.54) pg/mL vs. 592.50 (223.59) pg/mL; P = 0.04]. Metabolite profiles showed significant fold differences of 39 serum metabolites and 44 stool metabolites from infants consuming RB compared with control, and with significant metabolic pathway enrichment scores of 4.7 for the tryptophan metabolic pathway, 5.7 for polyamine metabolism, and 5.7 for the fatty acid/acylcholine metabolic pathway in the RB group. No differences were detected in serum and stool trace elements or heavy metals following daily RB intake for 6 mo. Conclusions: RB consumption influences a suite of metabolites associated with growth promotion and development, while also supporting nutrient absorption as measured by changes in serum GLP-2 in Nicaraguan infants. This clinical trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02615886.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 117962, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418860

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) exposure is a global public health concern affecting millions worldwide and stems from drinking water and foods containing As. Here, we assessed how agronomic practices and postharvest fermentation techniques influence As concentrations in rice bran, and calculated health risks from consumption. A global suite of 53 rice brans were tested for total As and speciation. Targeted quantification of inorganic As (iAs) concentrations in rice bran were used to calculate Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCR) across the lifespan. Mean iAs was highest in Thailand rice bran samples (0.619 mg kg-1) and lowest in Guatemala (0.017 mg kg-1) rice bran samples. When comparing monosodium-methanearsonate (MSMA) treated and the Native-soil counterpart under the irrigation technique Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) management, the MSMA treatment had significantly higher total As (p = 0.022), and iAs (p = 0.016). No significant differences in As concentrations were found between conventional and organic production, nor between fermented and non-fermented rice bran. Health risk assessment calculations for the highest iAs-rice bran dosage scenario for adults, children and infants exceeded THQ and LCR thresholds, and LCR was above threshold for median iAs-rice bran. This environmental exposure investigation into rice bran provides novel information with food safety guidance for an emerging global ingredient.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Adulto , Arsênio/análise , Criança , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Longevidade , Medição de Risco
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 677, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has swept across the globe, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Though most survive, many experience symptoms of COVID-19 for months after acute infection. Successful prevention and treatment of acute COVID-19 infection and its associated sequelae is dependent on in-depth knowledge of viral pathology across the spectrum of patient phenotypes and physiologic responses. Longitudinal biobanking provides a valuable resource of clinically integrated, easily accessed, and quality-controlled samples for researchers to study differential multi-organ system responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), and vaccination. METHODS: Adults with a history of a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal PCR are actively recruited from the community or hospital settings to enroll in the Northern Colorado SARS-CoV-2 Biorepository (NoCo-COBIO). Blood, saliva, stool, nasopharyngeal specimens, and extensive clinical and demographic data are collected at 4 time points over 6 months. Patients are assessed for PASC during longitudinal follow-up by physician led symptom questionnaires and physical exams. This clinical trial registration is NCT04603677 . RESULTS: We have enrolled and collected samples from 119 adults since July 2020, with 66% follow-up rate. Forty-nine percent of participants assessed with a symptom surveillance questionnaire (N = 37 of 75) had PASC at any time during follow-up (up to 8 months post infection). Ninety-three percent of hospitalized participants developed PASC, while 23% of those not requiring hospitalization developed PASC. At 90-174 days post SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, 67% of all participants had persistent symptoms (N = 37 of 55), and 85% percent of participants who required hospitalization during initial infection (N = 20) still had symptoms. The most common symptoms reported after 15 days of infection were fatigue, loss of smell, loss of taste, exercise intolerance, and cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 were significantly more likely to have PASC than those not requiring hospitalization, however 23% of patients who were not hospitalized also developed PASC. This patient-matched, multi-matrix, longitudinal biorepository from COVID-19 survivors with and without PASC will allow for current and future research to better understand the pathophysiology of disease and to identify targeted interventions to reduce risk for PASC. Registered 27 October 2020 - Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04603677 .


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/complicações , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671946

RESUMO

Rice bran (RB) corresponds to the outer layers of whole grain rice and contains several phenolic compounds (PCs) that make it an interesting functional food ingredient. PC richness is enhanced in pigmented RB varieties and requires effective ways of extraction of these compounds. Therefore, we investigated conventional and deep eutectic solvents (DES) extraction methods to recover a wide array of PCs from red and black RB. The RB were extracted with ethanol/water (60:40, v/v) and two DES (choline chloride/1.2-propanediol/water, 1:1:1 and choline chloride/lactic acid, 1:10, mole ratios), based on Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) components. Besides the quantification of the most typical phenolic acids of cereals, nontargeted metabolomic approaches were applied to PCs profiling in the extracts. Globally, metabolomics revealed 89 PCs belonging to flavonoids (52%), phenolic acids (33%), other polyphenols (8%), lignans (6%) and stilbenes (1%) classes. All extracts, whatever the solvents, were highly concentrated in the main phenolic acids found in cereals (37-66 mg/100 g in black RB extracts vs. 6-20 mg/100 g in red RB extracts). However, the PC profile was highly dependent on the extraction solvent and specific PCs were extracted using the acidic DES. The PC-enriched DES extracts demonstrated interesting DPPH scavenging activity, which makes them candidates for novel antioxidant formulations.

8.
Biomedicines ; 9(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546192

RESUMO

Rice bran, removed from whole grain rice for white rice milling, has demonstrated efficacy for the control and suppression of colitis and colon cancer in multiple animal models. Dietary rice bran intake was shown to modify human stool metabolites as a result of modifications to metabolism by gut microbiota. In this study, human stool microbiota from colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors that consumed rice bran daily was examined by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for protection from azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) induced colon carcinogenesis in germ-free mice. Mice transfaunated with rice bran-modified microbiota communities (RMC) harbored fewer neoplastic lesions in the colon and displayed distinct enrichment of Flavonifractor and Oscillibacter associated with colon health, and the depletion of Parabacteroides distasonis correlated with increased tumor burden. Two anti-cancer metabolites, myristoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine were increased in the colon of RMC transplanted mice. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and tartarate that are implicated in CRC development were reduced in murine colon tissue after FMT with rice bran-modified human microbiota. Findings from this study show that rice bran modified gut microbiota from humans confers protection from colon carcinogenesis in mice and suggests integrated dietary-FMT intervention strategies should be tested for colorectal cancer control, treatment, and prevention.

9.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(4): 497-508, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361317

RESUMO

Navy beans contain bioactive phytochemicals with colon cancer prevention properties as demonstrated in carcinogen-induced animal models. Human studies support that dietary navy bean intake modulates metabolism by the gut microbiome. This study investigated the effect of navy bean ingestion on plasma and urine metabolite profiles of overweight and obese colorectal cancer survivors. Twenty participants completed a single-blinded, randomized-controlled dietary intervention with precooked navy beans (35 g bean powder/day) or control (0 g/day) for 4 weeks. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks following consumption. Nontargeted metabolomics was applied to study meals and snacks, navy beans, plasma, and urine. Increased navy bean consumption was hypothesized to (i) delineate dietary biomarkers and (ii) promote metabolic shifts relevant for cancer protection in the plasma and urine metabolome. At 4 weeks, 16 plasma and 16 urine metabolites were significantly different in the navy bean intervention group compared with placebo control (P < 0.05). Increased plasma 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (1.34-fold), S-methylcysteine (1.92-fold), and pipecolate (3.89-fold), and urine S-adenosylhomocysteine (2.09-fold) and cysteine (1.60-fold) represent metabolites with cancer-protective actions following navy bean consumption. Diet-derived metabolites were detected in plasma or urine and confirmed for presence in the navy bean intervention meals and snacks. These included 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, betaine, pipecolate, S-methylcysteine, choline, eicosapentaenoate (20:5n3), benzoate, S-adenosylhomocysteine, N-delta-acetylornithine, cysteine, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate, gentisate, hippurate, 4-hydroxyhippurate, and salicylate. The navy bean dietary intervention for 4 weeks showed changes to pathways of metabolic importance to colorectal cancer prevention and merit continued attention for dietary modulation in future high-risk cohort investigations. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This clinical study suggests that increased consumption of navy beans would deliver bioactive metabolites to individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer recurrence and produce metabolic shifts in plasma and urine profiles.

10.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420967101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111581

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Examine the feasibility and preliminary effects of a lifestyle intervention of rice bran plus navy bean supplementation, and physical activity (PA) education on intake of fiber and whole grains, and PA levels. DESIGN: Randomized-controlled, single-blinded. SETTING: Academic institution and free-living. SUBJECTS: Adults >18 years, with ≥1 adenomatous polyp removed within 3 years. INTERVENTION: Participants received powder and pre-prepared meals and snacks that contained either rice bran (30 g/day) plus navy bean (30 g/day), or Fibersol-2® (10 g/day), for 12-weeks. All participants received a 1-hour (PA) education session. MEASURES: Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates, and compliance to the study foods and procedures. Three-day food logs were analyzed using Nutritionist Pro™ to estimate fiber intake, and the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24®) Dietary Assessment Tool calculated Healthy Eating Index (HEI) whole grain and total scores. PA was measured using an ActivPAL™ accelerometer. ANALYSIS: Continuous data were summarized as median, range, and percent change from baseline to post-intervention. RESULTS: N = 20 (86.9%) completed the intervention. Compliance was 92% in the rice bran plus navy bean versus 89% in Fibersol-2®. Navy bean consumption increased from 2 g/day to 30 g/day, and rice bran from 0 g/day to 30 g/day. Fiber intake (g/day) increased by 73% versus 82%, HEI whole grain improved by 270% versus 37%, and HEI total improved by 10% versus 9.1% in rice bran plus navy bean and Fibersol-2®, respectively. Total PA (MET-hours/day) showed minimal change for intervention (+0.04%) and control (+4%). CONCLUSION: Findings merit a larger trial of rice bran plus navy bean and PA to evaluate efficacy for dietary and cancer prevention-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Longevidade , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Estudos de Viabilidade , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(3): 335-352, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, yet metabolic distinctions between healthy right and left colon tissue, before cancer is diagnosed, remains largely unknown. This study compared right-ascending and left-descending colon tissue metabolomes to identify differences from the stool metabolome in normal weight, overweight, and obese adults. AIM: To examine right and left colon tissue metabolites according to body mass index that may serve as mechanistic targets for interventions and biomarkers for colon cancer risk. METHODS: Global, non-targeted metabolomics was applied to assess right-ascending and left-descending colon tissue collected from healthy adults undergoing screening colonoscopies to test the hypothesis that BMI differentially impacts colon tissue metabolite profiles. The colon tissue and stool metabolome of healthy adults (n = 24) was analyzed for metabolite signatures and metabolic pathway networks implicated in progression of colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Ascending and descending colon contained 504 host, food, and microbiota-derived metabolites from normal weight, overweight and obese adults grouped according to body mass index. Amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides were among the chemical types that further differentiated from the stool metabolite profiles. Normal weight adults had 46 significantly different metabolites between ascending and descending colon tissue locations, whereas there were 37 metabolite differences in overweight and 28 metabolite differences for obese adults (P < 0.05). Obese adults had trimethylamine N-oxide, endocannabinoids and monoacylglycerols with different relative abundances identified between ascending and descending colon. Primary and secondary bile acids, vitamins, and fatty acids also showed marked relative abundance differences in colon tissue from overweight/obese adults. CONCLUSION: There were metabolite profile differences between right-ascending and left-descending colon tissue in healthy adults. Colon lipids and other metabolites in obese and overweight adults were distinguished from normal weight participants and associated with gut inflammation, nutrient absorption, and products of microbiota metabolism.


Assuntos
Colo Ascendente/metabolismo , Colo Descendente/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal/fisiologia , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores de Risco
12.
Violence Against Women ; 26(11): 1445-1466, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397217

RESUMO

Female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal are vulnerable to an array of occupational risks, which may compromise their psychosocial health and ability to engage in protective behaviors. A peer education (PE) intervention designed to empower and promote the psychosocial health of FSWs was pilot tested in Kathmandu, Nepal. FSWs who were exposed to the PE intervention (n = 96) had significantly higher scores on psychosocial health knowledge, perceived self-efficacy and ability to access resources, happiness, and job control compared with those who were not (n = 64). PE may be a promising way to promote psychosocial health and empowerment among FSWs.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Grupo Associado , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Empoderamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Felicidade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nepal , Projetos Piloto , Autoeficácia , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225842, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830087

RESUMO

The potential role of probiotic bacteria as adjuvants in vaccine trials led to their use as nonparenteral live mucosal vaccine vectors. Yet, interactions between these vectors, the host and the microbiome are poorly understood. This study evaluates impact of three probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus, vector strains, and their interactions with the host's immune response, on the gut microbiome. One strain expressed the membrane proximal external region from HIV-1 (MPER). The other two expressed MPER and either secreted interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) or expressed the surface flagellin subunit C (FliC) as adjuvants. We also used MPER with rice bran as prebiotic supplement. We observed a strain dependent, differential effect suggesting that MPER and IL-1ß induced a shift of the microbiome while FliC had minimal impact. Joint probiotic and prebiotic use resulted in a compound effect, highlighting a potential synbiotic approach to impact efficacy of vaccination. Careful consideration of constitutive adjuvants and use of prebiotics is needed depending on whether or not to target microbiome modulation to improve vaccine efficacy. No clear associations were observed between total or MPER-specific IgA and the microbiome suggesting a role for other immune mechanisms or a need to focus on IgA-bound, resident microbiota, most affected by an immune response.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Vacinas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Camundongos , Filogenia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Vacinação
14.
Nutr Metab Insights ; 12: 1178638819869597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488950

RESUMO

An emerging body of literature has highlighted the significance of breastmilk oligosaccharides and dietary fibers in complementary weaning foods for the development of the infant's microbiome that has both short- and long-term health implications. This review highlights the newborns' consumption of fiber and oligosaccharides as directly linked to the mother's diet, and that current dietary recommendations for pregnant mothers in the United States and globally fall short in both addressing the importance of dietary fiber intake for enhancing mother's health and establishing the developing infant microbiome. Although limited in data, there is suggestion for maternal dietary interventions to include healthy fibers as an effective means of promoting infant health via modification of breast milk composition. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for a two-fold national policy that addresses the significance of fiber in breastfeeding mothers' diets and modifies the dietary recommendations accordingly, and provides a paid parental leave, which would enable mothers to not only breastfeed for at least six months, but to also effectively follow the dietary recommendations needed to support breast milk quality that is linked to their infants' health.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13919, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558739

RESUMO

Rice bran supplementation provides nutrients, prebiotics and phytochemicals that enhance gut immunity, reduce enteric pathogens and diarrhea, and warrants attention for improvement of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in children. EED is a subclinical condition associated with stunting due to impaired nutrient absorption. This study investigated the effects of rice bran supplementation on weight for age and length for age z-scores (WAZ, LAZ), EED stool biomarkers, as well as microbiota and metabolome signatures in weaning infants from 6 to 12 months old that reside in Nicaragua and Mali. Healthy infants were randomized to a control (no intervention) or a rice bran group that received daily supplementation with increasing doses at each month (1-5 g/day). Stool microbiota were characterized using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Stool metabolomes were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Statistical comparisons were completed at 6, 8, and 12 months of age. Daily consumption of rice bran was safe and feasible to support changes in LAZ from 6-8 and 8-12 months of age in Nicaragua and Mali infants when compared to control. WAZ was significantly improved only for Mali infants at 8 and 12 months. Mali and Nicaraguan infants showed major differences in the overall gut microbiota and metabolome composition and structure at baseline, and thus each country cohort demonstrated distinct microbial and metabolite profile responses to rice bran supplementation when compared to control. Rice bran is a practical dietary intervention strategy that merits development in rice-growing regions that have a high prevalence of growth stunting due to malnutrition and diarrheal diseases. Rice is grown as a staple food, and the bran is used as animal feed or wasted in many low- and middle-income countries where EED and stunting is prevalent.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Desmame , Grãos Integrais/efeitos adversos , Tamanho Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mali , Nicarágua , Oryza/efeitos adversos
16.
Integr Food Nutr Metab ; 6(3)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396400

RESUMO

Rice bran has bioactive phytochemicals with cancer protective actions that involve metabolism by the host and the gut microbiome. Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death and the increased incidence is largely attributed to poor dietary patterns, including low daily fiber intake. A dietary intervention trial was performed to investigate the impact of rice bran consumption on the plasma and urine metabolome of CRC survivors. Nineteen CRC survivors participated in a randomized-controlled trial that included consumption of heat-stabilized rice bran (30 g/day) or a control diet without rice bran for 4 weeks. A fasting plasma and first void of the morning urine sample were analyzed by non-targeted metabolomics using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After 4 weeks of either rice bran or control diets, 12 plasma and 16 urine metabolites were significantly different between the groups (p≤0.05). Rice bran intake increased relative abundance of plasma mannose (1.373-fold) and beta-citrylglutamate (BCG) (1.593-fold), as well as increased urine N-formylphenylalanine (2.191-fold) and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (4.488-fold). Diet affected metabolites, such as benzoate, mannose, eicosapentaenoate (20:5n3) (EPA), and N-formylphenylalanine have been previously reported for cancer protection and were identified from the rice bran food metabolome. Nutritional metabolome changes following increased consumption of whole grains such as rice bran warrants continued investigation for colon cancer control and prevention attributes as dietary biomarkers for positive effects are needed to reduce high risk for colorectal cancer recurrence.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human intestines contain a heterogeneous collection of cells that include immune, neural and epithelial elements interacting in a highly complex physiology that is challenging to maintain ex vivo. There is an extreme oxygen gradient across the intestinal wall due in part to microbiota in the lumen and close to the gut wall, which complicates the design of tissue culture systems. The current study established the use of an organotypic slice model of human intestinal tissue derived from colonoscopy biopsies to study host-microbial interactions after antibiotic treatment, and the influence of oxygen concentration on gut wall function. METHODS: Organotypic slices from human colon biopsies collected during routine colonoscopy provided three-dimensional environments that maintained cellular morphology ex vivo. Biopsy slices were used to study impacts of oxygen concentrations and antibiotic treatments on epithelial proliferation rates, and metabolites from tissue culture supernatants. RESULTS: Immune function was validated via demonstration of a T lymphocyte response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Following 24 h of Salmonella exposure there was a significant increase in CD3+ T-lymphocytes in biopsy slices. Metabolite profiling of tissue culture supernatants validated the influence of antibiotic treatment under varied oxygen culture conditions on both host and microbiome-mediated metabolism. Epithelial health was influenced by oxygen and antibiotic. Increased epithelial proliferation was measured in lowered oxygen conditions (1% = 5.9 mmHg) compared to atmospheric conditions standard at 5000 feet above sea level in Colorado (~17% = 100 mmHg). Antibiotic treatment reduced epithelial proliferation only in 5.9 mmHg oxygen cultured slices. CONCLUSIONS: A human colon organotypic slice model was established for applications ranging from gut epithelial proliferation to enteric pathogen influence on mucosal immune functions ex vivo. The results further support the need to account for oxygen concentration in primary tissue cultures, and that antibiotic use impacts gut-microbe-immune interactions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colo/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 3862949, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906330

RESUMO

Waterborne Escherichia coli are a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), including but not limited to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) mechanisms. This study quantified and described ESBL- and KPC-producing E. coli in Northern Colorado from sewer water, surface water, and influent and effluent wastewater treatment sources. Total detected bacteria and E. coli abundances, and the percentages that contain ESBL and/or KPC, were compared between water sources. Seventy E. coli isolates from the various waters had drug resistance validated with a panel of 17 antibiotics using a broth microdilution assay. The diverse drug resistance observed across E. coli isolates was further documented by polymerase chain reaction of common ESBL genes and functional relatedness by PhenePlate assay-generated dendrograms (n=70). The total E. coli abundance decreased through the water treatment process as expected, yet the percentages of E. coli harboring ESBL resistance were increased (1.70%) in surface water. Whole-genome sequencing analysis was completed for 185 AMR genes in wastewater E. coli isolates and confirmed the presence of diverse AMR gene classes (e.g., beta-lactams and efflux pumps) in isolate genomes. This study completed surveillance of AMR patterns in E. coli that reside in environmental water systems and suggests a role for integrating both phenotypic and genotypic profiling beyond ESBL and KPC mechanisms. AMR screening via multiple approaches may assist in the prevention of drug-resistant E. coli spread from waters to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Colorado , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 53, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first month of life possess significant challenges for dairy calves due to high susceptibility to digestive diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation with stabilized rice bran (SRB) in milk on health, immunity, and performance of pre-weaned organic dairy calves. Holstein heifer calves (n = 90) were enrolled at 6 ± 1 days old and monitored for 28 days, from July to August 2017. Calves were randomly assigned to a control (CTR; n = 45) or a treatment group (SRB; n = 45). The CTR group received milk alone and the SRB group received 120 g of SRB per day in milk to achieve a 10% w/w dose of the total calories. Daily health evaluations were conducted to score health status and disease severity (healthy, slightly affected, moderately or severely sick) of calves, through integrated assessment of diarrhea, dehydration, attitude, and milk intake. Body weights and fecal IgA quantification were completed on the first and last day of the study. RESULTS: Overall, weight gain and fecal IgA concentrations were not affected by the dietary addition of SRB. The total number of calf-days classified as healthy or sick were not different between treatment groups. Similarly, the number of calf-days categorized as slightly affected, moderately sick, or severely sick did not differ between treatment groups. Time to event analyses indicated a tendency for a treatment effect in the time to the first moderate case of diarrhea (P = 0.08), as well as in the time to recovery from diarrhea (P = 0.052), favoring control calves. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the dietary addition of SRB in milk did not have an effect in health, immunity or performance of pre-weaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oryza , Prebióticos , Ração Animal , Animais , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Ganho de Peso
20.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 33(4): 126-135, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502863

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare fecal microbiome, plasma, fecal and urine metabolomes, and serum biochemistry of adult companion dogs according to body condition scores. Blood, serum/plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy, adult companion dogs of either normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), or obese dogs (OB). analyses included fecal microbiome analyses via 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon; sequencing, nontargeted plasma, fecal, and urine metabolomics using liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass; spectrometry, and serum biochemistry for each dog. Few significant differences in serum biochemistry and fecal microbiome Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) were found between weight groups and there was high OTU variation between individual dogs. NW dogs had higher relative abundance of the genus Eubacterium (log-fold change 4.3, adjusted P value = .003) and lower relative abundance of the family Bifidobacteriaceae (log-fold change -3.6, adjusted P value = .02) compared to OB dogs. The microbiome of NW dogs had higher OTU richness compared with OB dogs. Metabolome analysis showed 185 plasma, 37 fecal, and 45 urine metabolites that significantly differed between NW and OW or OB dogs. There were notable significant differences in relative abundance of several plasma phospholipid moieties and fecal volatile fatty acids between weight phenotypes. The combinations of host and gut microbiota and metabolic shifts suggest a pattern that could help detection of early metabolic changes in overweight dogs before the development of obesity related disease. The results of this study support the need for continued investigation into sensitive measures of metabolic aberrancies in overweight dogs.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Cães/metabolismo , Cães/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Microbiota , Animais , Cães/sangue , Cães/urina , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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