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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African countries have the highest number of people living with HIV (PWH). The continent is home to 12% of the global population, but accounts for 71% of PWH globally. Antiretroviral therapy has played an important role in the reduction of the morbidity and mortality rates for HIV, which necessitates increased surveillance of the threats from pernicious risks to which PWH who live longer remain exposed. This includes cardiopulmonary comorbidities, which pose significant public health and economic challenges. A significant contributor to the cardiopulmonary comorbidities is tobacco smoking. Indeed, globally, PWH have a 2-4-fold higher utilization of tobacco compared to the general population, leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis that result in cardiopulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery disease. In the context of PWH, we discuss (1) the current trends in cigarette smoking and (2) the lack of geographically relevant data on the cardiopulmonary conditions associated with smoking; we then review (3) the current evidence on chronic inflammation induced by smoking and the potential pathways for cardiopulmonary disease and (4) the multifactorial nature of the syndemic of smoking, HIV, and cardiopulmonary diseases. This commentary calls for a major, multi-setting cohort study using a syndemics framework to assess cardiopulmonary disease outcomes among PWH who smoke. CONCLUSION: We call for a parallel program of implementation research to promote the adoption of evidence-based interventions, which could improve health outcomes for PWH with cardiopulmonary diseases and address the health inequities experienced by PWH in African countries.

2.
Global Health ; 17(1): 20, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of sickle cell disease (SCD) is greatest among African nations. Effective scalability of evidence-based interventions (e.g., newborn screening, health education, prophylaxis for infection, optimal nutrition and hydration, hydroxyurea therapy, blood transfusions, and transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening) is urgently needed particularly in these settings for disease management. However, Africa is constrained by limited resources and the lack of capacity to conduct implementation science research for proper understanding of context, and assessment of barriers and facilitators to the uptake and scalability of evidence-based interventions (EBI) for SCD management. MAIN BODY: We outline implementation science approaches to embed EBI for SCD within the African context and highlight key implementation research programs for SCD management. Building implementation research capacity will meet the major need of developing effective life-long and accessible locally-tailored interventions for patients with SCD in Africa. CONCLUSION: This commentary communicates the importance of the application of implementation science methodology to scale-up evidence-based interventions for the management of SCD in order to reduce pain, prevent other morbidities and premature death experienced by people with SCD in Africa, and improve their overall quality of life.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addressing the problem of maternal mortality in Nigeria requires proper identification of maternal deaths and their underlying causes in order to focus evidence-based interventions to decrease mortality and avert morbidity. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to classify maternal deaths that occurred at a Nigerian teaching hospital using the WHO International Classification of Diseases Maternal mortality (ICD-MM) tool. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all maternal deaths that occurred in a tertiary Nigerian hospital from 1st January 2014 to 31st December,2018. The WHO ICD-MM classification system for maternal deaths was used to classify the type, group, and specific underlying cause of identified maternal deaths. Descriptive analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Categorical and continuous variables were summarized respectively as proportions and means (standard deviations). RESULTS: The institutional maternal mortality ratio was 831/100,000 live births. Maternal deaths occurred mainly amongst women aged 25-34 years;30(57.7%), without formal education; 22(42.3%), married;47(90.4%), unbooked;24(46.2%) and have delivered at least twice;34(65.4%). The leading causes of maternal death were hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium (36.5%), obstetric haemorrhage (30.8%), and pregnancy related infections (17.3%). Application of the WHO ICD-MM resulted in reclassification of underlying cause for 3.8% of maternal deaths. Postpartum renal failure (25.0%), postpartum coagulation defects (17.3%) and puerperal sepsis (15.4%) were the leading final causes of death. Among maternal deaths, type 1, 2, and 3 delays were seen in 30(66.7%), 22(48.9%), and 6(13.3%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our institutional maternal mortality ratio remains high. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium and obstetric haemorrhage are the leading causes of maternal deaths. Implementation of evidence-based interventions both at the hospital and community levels may help in tackling the identified underlying causes of maternal mortality in Nigeria.

4.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 104, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death in Ghana. Evidence-based interventions for stroke prevention have been successful in the US; however, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such interventions are scarce. The "Discharge Education Strategies for Reduction of Vascular Events" (DESERVE) intervention led to a 10-mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) among Hispanic survivors of mild/moderate stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) at 1-year follow-up. Our objectives were to capture the perceptions of a diverse set of stakeholders in an urban community in Ghana regarding (1) challenges to optimal hypertension management and (2) facilitators and barriers to implementation of an evidence-based, skills-based educational tool for hypertension management in this context. METHODS: This exploratory study used purposive sampling to enroll diverse stakeholders in Accra (N = 38). To identify facilitators and barriers, we conducted three focus group discussions: one each with clinical nurses (n = 5), community health nurses (n = 20), and hypertensive adults (n = 10). To further examine structural barriers, we conducted three key informant interviews with medical leadership. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was carried out via deductive coding based on Proctor's implementation outcomes taxonomy, which conceptualizes constructs that shape implementation, such as acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, and feasibility. RESULTS: Findings highlight facilitators, such as a perceived fit (appropriateness) of the core intervention components across stakeholders. The transferable components of DESERVE include: (1) a focus on risk knowledge, medication adherence, and patient-physician communication, (2) facilitation by lay workers, (3) use of patient testimonials, (4) use of a spirituality framework, and (5) application of a community-based approach. We report potential barriers that suggest adaptations to increase appropriateness and feasibility. These include addressing spiritual etiology of disease, allaying mistrust of biomedical intervention, and tailoring for gender norms. Acceptability may be a challenge among individuals with hypertension, who perceive relative advantage of alternative therapies like herbalism. Key informant interviews highlight structural barriers (high opportunity costs) among physicians, who perceive they have neither time nor capacity to educate patients. CONCLUSIONS: Findings further support the need for theory-driven, evidence-based interventions among hypertensive adults in urban, multiethnic Ghana. Findings will inform implementation strategies and future research.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e038685, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) is high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hydroxyurea, a medicine to effectively manage SCD, is not widely available in resource-constrained settings. We identified and synthesised the reported implementation outcomes for the therapeutic use of hydroxyurea for SCD in these settings. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science Plus, Global Health, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched February through May 2019 without any restrictions on publication date. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included empirical studies of hydroxyurea for management of SCD that were carried out in LMICs and reported on implementation outcomes. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, carried out data extraction using Proctor et al.'s implementation and health service outcomes, and assessed the risk of bias using ROBINS-I (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions). RESULTS: Two cross-sectional surveys (n=2) and one cohort study (n=1) reported implementation of hydroxyurea for SCD management, namely regarding outcomes of adoption (n=3), cost (n=3) and acceptability (n=1). These studies were conducted exclusively among paediatric and adults populations in clinical settings in Nigeria (n=2) or Jamaica (n=1). Adoption is low, as observed through reported provider practices and patient adherence, in part shaped by misinformation and fear of side effects among patients, provider beliefs regarding affordability and organisational challenges with procuring the medicine. There was no difference in the cost of hydroxyurea therapy compared with blood transfusion in the paediatric population in urban Jamaica. Risk of bias was low or moderate across the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review rigorously and systematically assessed the evidence on implementation of hydroxyurea in resource-constrained settings such as LMICs. Findings suggest that knowledge regarding implementation is low. To address the know-do gap and guide clinical practice, implementation research is needed. Integrating effective interventions into existing health systems to improve hydroxyurea uptake is essential to reducing SCD-associated mortality. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020155953.

6.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878568

RESUMO

Female genital fistula results in severe physical, psychological, and social sequelae. Qualitative research confirms stigma pervasiveness; however, no quantitative instrument exists to measure fistula-related stigma. We adapted an existing HIV-related stigma instrument to fistula-related stigma and assessed its reliability and validity. We recruited 60 Ugandan women seeking genital fistula surgery (December 2014-June 2015). We used exploratory factor analysis to explore the scale's latent structure and evaluated internal consistency reliability with Raykov's ρ statistic. We assessed construct validity through linear regression of stigma with quality of life, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. We retained 15 items across factors 'enacted stigma' and 'internalised stigma' (ρ = 0.960 and ρ = 0.748, respectively). Stigma was inversely associated with all quality of life domains; effect sizes were largest for environmental (enacted stigma, 0.69-point reduction) and psychological (internalised stigma, 0.67-point reduction) domains. Both stigma domains were associated positively with depressive symptoms and inversely with self-esteem, with 0.75 and 1.05-point increases in depressive symptoms and 0.45 and 0.77-point decreases in self-esteem for enacted and internalised stigma, respectively. Results suggest the reliability and validity of the adapted fistula stigma instrument. This instrument may help us understand stigma levels, compare stigma across individuals and communities, prioritise stigma-reduction strategies, and assess intervention impact.

7.
Health Policy Plan ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995854

RESUMO

Globally, obstetric haemorrhage (OH) remains the leading cause of maternal mortality. Much of the associated mortality is ascribed to challenges surrounding deployment of innovations rather than lack of availability. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the burden is highest, there is a growing interest in implementation research as a means to bridge the 'know-do' gap between proven interventions and their reliable implementation at scale. In this systematic review, we identified and synthesized qualitative and quantitative data across the implementation outcomes of OH prevention innovations in LMICs using a taxonomy developed by Proctor et al. We also identified service outcomes for the included innovations, as well as implementation strategies and implementation facilitators and barriers. Eligible studies were empirical, focused on the implementation of OH prevention programmes or policies and occurred in an LMIC. Eight databases were searched. Two authors independently assessed studies for selection and extracted data; the first author resolved discrepancies. Narrative synthesis was used to analyse and interpret the findings. Studies were predominantly focused in Africa and on primary prevention. Interventions included prophylactic use of uterotonics (n = 7), clinical provider skills training (n = 4) and provision of clinical guidelines (n = 1); some (n = 3) were also part of a multi-component quality improvement bundle. Various barriers were reported, including challenges among intervention beneficiaries, providers and within the health system; however, studies reported the development and testing of practical implementation solutions. These included training and monitoring of implementers, community and stakeholder engagement and guidance by external mentors. Some studies linked successful delivery to implementation outcomes, most commonly adoption and acceptability, but also feasibility, penetration and sustainability. Findings suggest that innovations to prevent OH can be acceptable, appropriate and feasible in LMIC settings; however, more research is needed to better evaluate these and other under-reported implementation outcomes.

8.
Glob Public Health ; 15(9): 1404-1412, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633628

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbates existing health inequities, including gender disparities, and we must learn from previous global public health threats to build a gender-responsive, intersectional approach to address immediate and long-term consequences. While a narrow gender focus alone can reinforce binary and competing understandings of disease burden by gender, an intersectionality approach encourages understanding of the dimensions of power, historical structural inequalities, and the role of social determinants and lived experience to inform a multidimensional, gender-informed response to this and future emerging infectious diseases. We provide specific, actionable recommendations for critical healthcare, public health, and policy to use an intersectional approach to COVID-19 pandemic preparedness, response and resiliency.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sexismo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Contraception ; 100(2): 101-105, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the expulsion rate at 6 months after postplacental insertion by intrauterine device (IUD) type. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective cohort included participants with a postplacental IUD inserted after vaginal or cesarean delivery, aged 18-45 and ≥24 weeks' gestation. Study enrollment took place after IUD selection and insertion. Participants returned for a postpartum visit and received a short message service survey regarding IUD expulsion, removal, vaginal bleeding and breastfeeding weekly from weeks 0 to 5 and on weeks 12 and 24 postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression examined 6-month expulsion rate by IUD type adjusting for variables that differed between the groups at baseline and in the bivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 114 participants, 75 (65.8%) chose a levonorgestrel 52-mg IUD and 39 (34.2%) chose a copper IUD; 58 (50.9%) had a vaginal delivery, and 56 (49.1%) had a cesarean delivery. Groups were similar except that copper IUD users had a higher median parity (3 vs. 2, p=.03) and a higher proportion of senior residents compared to junior residents had performed insertion (46.2% vs. 22.7%, p=.02). The expulsion rate at 6 months was similar between the levonorgestrel and copper groups (26.7% and 20.5%, respectively; p=.38). Multivariable logistic regression also demonstrated that the odds of expulsion did not differ by IUD type (adjusted odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.22-4.48). CONCLUSION: The expulsion rate at 6 months after postplacental insertion did not differ between the levonorgestrel and copper IUD type. IMPLICATIONS: Prior studies demonstrate a wide range of expulsion after postplacental insertion, and recent data suggest a higher expulsion rate for the levonorgestrel compared to the copper intrauterine device. However, many studies did not control for patient-level factors or delivery route. We found that when controlling for these confounding variables, the expulsion rate at 6 months postpartum did not differ by intrauterine device type.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Expulsão de Dispositivo Intrauterino/etiologia , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre/efeitos adversos , Levanogestrel/efeitos adversos , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Expulsão de Dispositivo Intrauterino/tendências , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207925, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of the menstrual cup for short-term management of urinary leakage among women with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF). METHODS: A repeated measures design compared volume of leakage with and without the cup via a 2-hr pad test among women with VVF seeking surgical repair at a health facility in Ghana. Subsequently a gynecological exam was administered to assess safety outcomes, followed by a questionnaire to assess acceptability and perceived efficacy. A paired t-test was used to analyze reduction of leakage in ml, and percent reduction was reported. Study limitations include observer bias while evaluating adverse outcomes and the possibility of social desirability bias during questionnaire administration that might overestimate the effect of the cup and women's acceptability. RESULTS: Of the 32 patients screened, 11 were eligible (100% consent rate). At baseline, mean (±SD) leakage in ml was 63.2 (±49.2) (95% CI: 30.2-96.3) over two hours, while the mean leakage over two hours of use of the cup was 16.8 (±16.5) (95% CI: 5.7-27.9). The mean difference of 46.4 (±52.1) ml with use of the cup (95% CI: 11.4-81.4) was statistically significant (p = 0.02). With the cup, women experienced an average 61.0% (±37.4) (95% CI: 35.9-86.2) leakage reduction, a difference 10/11 users (91.0%) perceived in reduced leakage. One participant, reporting four previous surgical attempts, experienced a 78.7% leakage reduction. Acceptability was high-women could easily insert (8/11), remove (8/11), and comfortably wear (11/11) the cup and most (10/11) would recommend it. No adverse effects attributable to the intervention were observed on exam, although some women perceived difficulties with insertion and removal. Data collection tools were appropriate with slight modification advised. CONCLUSION: A larger trial is warranted for a more robust evaluation of the menstrual cup for management of urinary leakage due to VVF among women who have not yet accessed surgery or for whom surgery was not successful.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Incontinência Urinária/terapia , Fístula Vesicovaginal/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gana , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Behav Med ; 44(3): 219-233, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020867

RESUMO

This article reviews studies examining health issues associated with commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking (CSE/ST) of children in the United States. We searched five health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 1990 and April 2017. After independent screening of the records, we identified 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Descriptions of the included studies and their definitions of CSE/ST are provided. Most of the studies sampled children and youth in urban, metropolitan areas and employed cross-sectional surveys or reviewed case files and medical records of convenience samples. Studies differed widely in their operationalization of CSE/ST, which limit systematic comparison across studies and the generalizability of findings. Qualitative analysis of the included studies shows that among commercially sexually exploited/trafficked children, there are elevated burdens of substance use and abuse, mental health disorders such as depression, PTSD, suicidal behaviors, and sexual and reproductive health issues including STIs, HIV, and pregnancy. This review underscores the need for more empirical studies, to guide an evidence-based understanding of and response to the range and complexity of the health issues in this population. Of particular utility are studies that address some of the methodological limitations of prior research in this field (e.g., cross-sectional, convenience samples) and those that assess overlooked health issues (e.g., malnutrition, eating disorders, post-trauma growth, and long-term health consequences).


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Tráfico de Pessoas , Trabalho Sexual , Criança , Humanos
12.
Contraception ; 96(4): 261, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716468
14.
Contraception ; 95(2): 190-197, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinicians and researchers need an accurate tool assessing contraceptive knowledge in order to understand the effectiveness of teaching efforts. However, most widely used indices are outdated. The objective of this study is to create an evidence-based assessment tool and determine its validity and reliability for measuring contraceptive knowledge. STUDY DESIGN: The study team developed the 25-question multiple-choice tool entitled the Contraceptive Knowledge Assessment (CKA). Expert reviewers examined content validity and semistructured patient interviews acquired feedback on subject matter and comprehension. A two-tiered approach explored criterion validity via (1) comparison with the gold standard (Contraceptive Knowledge Inventory) and (2) comparison between groups with lower and higher contraceptive knowledge. Repeat testing after 2-4 weeks evaluated test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Six experts and seven patients provided feedback on the initial CKA. One hundred two reproductive-aged male and female patients and 27 medical students completed the final CKA with an overall mean patient score of 9/25 (36%). The mean score on the CKA was higher than the mean score on the gold standard (9.1 vs. 5.8, p<.001). Patients scored lower on the CKA than did medical students (9.1 [36.4%] vs.19.4 [77.6%], p<.005). There were no differences within patients' results with repeat testing over time (p=.667). CONCLUSIONS: The CKA is a valid and reliable tool to measure a patient's level of knowledge regarding contraception. This research tool may allow for the assessment of baseline knowledge, educational gaps, and improvement after an intervention. Knowledge may be lower than previous studies suggest, signifying need for improved education on contraception and better understanding of the relationship between knowledge and behavior change. IMPLICATIONS: The CKA provides an evidence-based, reliable, and validated assessment of contraceptive knowledge. This modern tool may help to determine the effectiveness of interventions to improve education on contraception.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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