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1.
JAMA ; 324(16): 1640-1650, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107944

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend ticagrelor as the preferred P2Y12 platelet inhibitor for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), primarily based on a single large randomized clinical trial. The benefits and risks associated with ticagrelor vs clopidogrel in routine practice merits attention. Objective: To determine the association of ticagrelor vs clopidogrel with ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ACS in clinical practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of patients with ACS who underwent PCI and received ticagrelor or clopidogrel was conducted using 2 United States electronic health record-based databases and 1 nationwide South Korean database from November 2011 to March 2019. Patients were matched using a large-scale propensity score algorithm, and the date of final follow-up was March 2019. Exposures: Ticagrelor vs clopidogrel. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was net adverse clinical events (NACE) at 12 months, composed of ischemic events (recurrent myocardial infarction, revascularization, or ischemic stroke) and hemorrhagic events (hemorrhagic stroke or gastrointestinal bleeding). Secondary outcomes included NACE or mortality, all-cause mortality, ischemic events, hemorrhagic events, individual components of the primary outcome, and dyspnea at 12 months. The database-level hazard ratios (HRs) were pooled to calculate summary HRs by random-effects meta-analysis. Results: After propensity score matching among 31 290 propensity-matched pairs (median age group, 60-64 years; 29.3% women), 95.5% of patients took aspirin together with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. The 1-year risk of NACE was not significantly different between ticagrelor and clopidogrel (15.1% [3484/23 116 person-years] vs 14.6% [3290/22 587 person-years]; summary HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.00-1.10]; P = .06). There was also no significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality (2.0% for ticagrelor vs 2.1% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.81-1.16]; P = .74) or ischemic events (13.5% for ticagrelor vs 13.4% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.98-1.08]; P = .32). The risks of hemorrhagic events (2.1% for ticagrelor vs 1.6% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.61]; P = .001) and dyspnea (27.3% for ticagrelor vs 22.6% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.17-1.26]; P < .001) were significantly higher in the ticagrelor group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS who underwent PCI in routine clinical practice, ticagrelor, compared with clopidogrel, was not associated with significant difference in the risk of NACE at 12 months. Because the possibility of unmeasured confounders cannot be excluded, further research is needed to determine whether ticagrelor is more effective than clopidogrel in this setting.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Isquemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Metanálise em Rede , Pontuação de Propensão , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Recidiva , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(11): 1914-1925, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052725

RESUMO

Physiological and pathological roles for R-loop structures continue to be discovered, and studies suggest that R-loops could contribute to human disease. R-loops are nucleic acid structures characterized by a DNA:RNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA that occur in connection with transcription. R-loops form naturally and have been shown to be important for a number of physiological processes such as mitochondrial replication initiation, class switch recombination, DNA repair, modulating DNA topology, and regulation of gene expression. However, subsets of R-loops or persistent R-loops lead to DNA breaks, chromosome rearrangement, and genome instability. In addition, R-loops have been linked to human diseases, specifically neurological disorders and cancer. Of the large amount of research produced recently on R-loops, this review covers evidence for R-loop involvement in normal cellular physiology and pathophysiology, as well as describing factors that contribute to R-loop regulation.

4.
J Crit Care ; 60: 230-234, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prone positioning improves mortality in moderate-to-severe ARDS. Strategies to increase prone positioning under crisis conditions are needed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe the development of a mobile prone team during the height of the crisis in New York City and describe characteristics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients who received prone positioning between April 2, 2020 and April 30, 2020. RESULTS: Ninety patients underwent prone positioning for moderate-to-severe ARDS. Sixty-six patients (73.3%) were men, with a median age of 64 years (IQR 53-71), and the median PaO2:FiO2 ratio was 107 (IQR 85-140) prior to prone positioning. Patients required an average of 3 ± 2.2 prone sessions and the median time of each prone session was 19 h (IQR 17.5-20.75). By the end of the study period, proning was discontinued in sixty-seven (65.1%) cases due to clinical improvement, twenty (19.4%) cases due to lack of clinical improvement, six (5.8%) cases for clinical worsening, and ten (9.7%) cases due to a contraindication. CONCLUSION: The rapid development of a mobile prone team safely provided prone positioning to a large number of COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS.

5.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931874

RESUMO

The Society for Vascular Surgery Alternative Payment Model Taskforce document explores the drivers and implications for developing objective value-based reimbursement plans for the care of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The Alternative Payment Model (APM) is a payment approach that highlights high-quality and cost-efficient care and is a financially incentivized pathway for participation in the Quality Payment Program (QPP), which aims to replace the traditional fee-for-service payment methodology. Currently, the participation of vascular specialists in APMs is hampered due to the absence of dedicated models. The increasing prevalence of PAD diagnosis, technological advances in therapeutic devices and the rising cost of care of the impacted patients has financial consequences on care delivery models and population health. The document summarizes the existing measurement methods of cost, care processes, and outcomes using payor data, patient reported outcomes, and registry participation. The document also evaluates the existing challenges in the evaluation of PAD care including intervention overuse, treatment disparities, varying clinical presentations, and the effects of multiple comorbid conditions on the cost that is potentially attributable to the vascular interventionalists. Medicare reimbursement data analysis also confirmed the prolonged need for additional healthcare services after vascular interventions. The Society for Vascular Surgery proposes that a PAD APM should provide patients with comprehensive care using a longitudinal approach with integration of multiple key medical and surgical services. It should maintain appropriate access to diagnostic and therapeutic advancements while eliminating unnecessary interventions. It should also decrease variability in care but must consider the varying complexity of the presenting PAD conditions. Enhanced quality of care and physician innovation should be rewarded. In addition, provisions should be made within an APM for high risk patients who carry the risk of exclusion from care due to naturally associated high costs. Although the document demonstrates clear opportunities for quality improvement and cost savings in PAD care, continued PAD APM development requires assessment of more granular data for accurate risk adjustment in addition to large scale testing before public release. Collaboration between payors and physician specialty societies remains key.

6.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(8): 1331-1337, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909033

RESUMO

Evidence derived from existing health-care data, such as administrative claims and electronic health records, can fill evidence gaps in medicine. However, many claim such data cannot be used to estimate causal treatment effects because of the potential for observational study bias; for example, due to residual confounding. Other concerns include P hacking and publication bias. In response, the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics international collaborative launched the Large-scale Evidence Generation and Evaluation across a Network of Databases (LEGEND) research initiative. Its mission is to generate evidence on the effects of medical interventions using observational health-care databases while addressing the aforementioned concerns by following a recently proposed paradigm. We define 10 principles of LEGEND that enshrine this new paradigm, prescribing the generation and dissemination of evidence on many research questions at once; for example, comparing all treatments for a disease for many outcomes, thus preventing publication bias. These questions are answered using a prespecified and systematic approach, avoiding P hacking. Best-practice statistical methods address measured confounding, and control questions (research questions where the answer is known) quantify potential residual bias. Finally, the evidence is generated in a network of databases to assess consistency by sharing open-source analytics code to enhance transparency and reproducibility, but without sharing patient-level information. Here we detail the LEGEND principles and provide a generic overview of a LEGEND study. Our companion paper highlights an example study on the effects of hypertension treatments, and evaluates the internal and external validity of the evidence we generate.

7.
Indoor Air ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969526

RESUMO

Respiratory microbiome is an understudied area of research compared to other microbiomes of the human body. The respiratory tract is exposed to an array of environmental pollutants, including microbes. Yet, we know very little about the relationship between environmental and respiratory microbiome. The primary aim of our study was to compare the mycobiomes and bacteriomes between three sample types from the same participants, including home dust, saliva, and sputum. Samples were collected from 40 adolescents in a longitudinal cohort. We analyzed the samples using 16s bacterial rDNA and ITS fungal rDNA gene sequencing, as well as quantitative PCR with universal fungal and bacterial primers. Results showed that home dust had the greatest alpha diversity between the three sample types for both bacteria and fungi. Dust had the highest total fungal load and the lowest total bacterial load. Sputum had greater bacterial diversity than saliva, but saliva had greater fungal diversity than sputum. The distribution of major bacterial phyla differed between all sample types. However, the distribution of major fungal classes differed only between sputum and saliva. Future research should examine the biological significance of the taxa found in each sample type based on microbial ecology and associations with health effects.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 131: 77-84, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947205

RESUMO

The use of antipsychotic medications (APMs) could be different among countries due to availability, approved indications, characteristics and clinical practice. However, there is limited literature providing comparisons of APMs use among countries. To examine trends in antipsychotic prescribing in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States, we conducted a cross-national study from 2002 to 2014 b y using the distributed network approach with common data model. We included all patients who had at least a record of antipsychotic prescription in this study, and defined patients without previous exposure of antipsychotics for 6 months before the index date as new users for incidence estimation. We calculated the incidence, prevalence, and prescription rate of each medication by calendar year. Among older patients, sulpiride was the most incident [incidence rate (IR) 11.0-23.3) and prevalent [prevalence rate (PR) 11.9-14.3) APM in Taiwan, and most prevalent (PR 2.5-3.9) in Japan. Quetiapine and haloperidol were most common in the United States (IR 8.1-9.5; PR 18.0-18.4) and Hong Kong (PR 8.8-13.7; PR 10.6-12.7), respectively. The trend of quetiapine use was increasing in Taiwan, Hong Kong and the United States. As compared to older patients, the younger patients had more propensity to be prescribed second-generation APM for treatment in four countries. Trends in antipsychotic prescribing varied among countries. Quetiapine use was most prevalent in the United States and increasing in Taiwan and Hong Kong. The increasing use of quetiapine in the elderly patients might be due to its safety profile compared to other APMs.

10.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(4): e101, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832840

RESUMO

Background: Previous epidemiologic studies of dampness and mold relied on metrics that did not fully assess exposure-response relationships. Our objective was to examine quantitative metrics of dampness and mold during infancy and respiratory health outcomes during childhood. Methods: In-home visits were conducted before age 1 for children in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Respiratory outcomes included age 3 wheeze and age 7 asthma and wheeze. The associations between home exposure and respiratory outcomes were evaluated for 779 children using logistic regression adjusting for household income, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and the presence of pests. Results: Children residing in homes with ≥0.29 m2 of moisture damage were significantly more likely to have wheezing at age 3 and persistent wheeze through age 7 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 4.3 and aOR = 3.2; CI = 1.3, 7.5, respectively). Additionally, homes having ≥0.19 m2 of mold damage were associated with wheezing at age 3 and early transient wheeze assessed at age 7 (aOR = 2.9; CI = 1.3, 6.4 and aOR = 3.5; CI = 1.5, 8.2, respectively). Mold damage <0.19 m2 and moisture damage <0.29 m2 were not associated with health outcomes. Mold and moisture damage were also not associated with asthma. Conclusion: Our data indicate that only the highest categories analyzed for mold (≥0.19 m2) and moisture damage (≥0.29 m2) in homes at age 1 were significantly associated with wheeze at ages 3 and 7; however, data below these levels were too sparse to assess the shape of the relationship or explore potential health-relevant thresholds.

11.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(8): 1268-1277, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the application of the Large-scale Evidence Generation and Evaluation across a Network of Databases (LEGEND) principles described in our companion article to hypertension treatments and assess internal and external validity of the generated evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LEGEND defines a process for high-quality observational research based on 10 guiding principles. We demonstrate how this process, here implemented through large-scale propensity score modeling, negative and positive control questions, empirical calibration, and full transparency, can be applied to compare antihypertensive drug therapies. We assess internal validity through covariate balance, confidence-interval coverage, between-database heterogeneity, and transitivity of results. We assess external validity through comparison to direct meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS: From 21.6 million unique antihypertensive new users, we generate 6 076 775 effect size estimates for 699 872 research questions on 12 946 treatment comparisons. Through propensity score matching, we achieve balance on all baseline patient characteristics for 75% of estimates, observe 95.7% coverage in our effect-estimate 95% confidence intervals, find high between-database consistency, and achieve transitivity in 84.8% of triplet hypotheses. Compared with meta-analyses of RCTs, our results are consistent with 28 of 30 comparisons while providing narrower confidence intervals. CONCLUSION: We find that these LEGEND results show high internal validity and are congruent with meta-analyses of RCTs. For these reasons we believe that evidence generated by LEGEND is of high quality and can inform medical decision-making where evidence is currently lacking. Subsequent publications will explore the clinical interpretations of this evidence.

12.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The U.S. healthcare system is undergoing a broad transformation from the traditional fee-for-service model to value-based payments. The changes introduced by the Medicare Quality Payment Program, including the establishment of Alternative Payment Models, ensure that the practice of vascular surgery is likely to face significant reimbursement changes as payments transition to favor these models. The Society for Vascular Surgery Alternative Payment Model taskforce was formed to explore the opportunities to develop a physician-focused payment model that will allow vascular surgeons to continue to deliver the complex care required for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: A financial analysis was performed based on Medicare beneficiaries who had undergone qualifying index procedures during fiscal year 2016 through the third quarter of 2017. Index procedures were defined using a list of Healthcare Common Procedural Coding (HCPC) procedure codes that represent open and endovascular PAD interventions. Inpatient procedures were mapped to three diagnosis-related group (DRG) families consistent with PAD conditions: other vascular procedures (codes, 252-254), aortic and heart assist procedures (codes, 268, 269), and other major vascular procedures (codes, 270-272). Patients undergoing outpatient or office-based procedures were included if the claims data were inclusive of the HCPC procedure codes. Emergent procedures, patients with end-stage renal disease, and patients undergoing interventions within the 30 days preceding the index procedure were excluded. The analysis included usage of postacute care services (PACS) and 90-day postdischarge events (PDEs). PACS are defined as rehabilitation, skilled nursing facility, and home health services. PDEs included emergency department visits, observation stays, inpatient readmissions, and reinterventions. RESULTS: A total of 123,180 cases were included. Of these 123,180 cases, 82% had been performed in the outpatient setting. The Medicare expenditures for all periprocedural services provided at the index procedure (ie, professional, technical, and facility fees) were higher in the inpatient setting, with an average reimbursement per index case of $18,755, $34,600, and $25,245 for DRG codes 252 to 254, DRG codes 268 and 269, and DRG codes 270 to 272, respectively. Outpatient facility interventions had an average reimbursement of $11,458, and office-based index procedures had costs of $11,533. PACS were more commonly used after inpatient index procedures. In the inpatient setting, PACS usage and reimbursement were 58.6% ($5338), 57.2% ($4192), and 55.9% ($5275) for DRG codes 252 to 254, DRG codes 268 and 269, and DRG codes 270 to 272, respectively. Outpatient facility cases required PACS for 13.7% of cases (average cost, $1352), and office-based procedures required PACS in 15% of cases (average cost, $1467). The 90-day PDEs were frequent across all sites of service (range, 38.9%-50.2%) and carried significant costs. Readmission was associated with the highest average PDE expenditure (range, $13,950-$18.934). The average readmission Medicare reimbursement exceeded that of the index procedures performed in the outpatient setting. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of PAD interventions extends beyond the index procedure and includes relevant spending during the long postoperative period. Despite the analysis challenges related to the breadth of vascular procedures and the site of service variability, the data identified potential cost-saving opportunities in the management of costly PDEs. Because of the vulnerability of the PAD patient population, alternative payment modeling using a bundled value-based approach will require reallocation of resources to provide longitudinal patient care extending beyond the initial intervention.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11115, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632237

RESUMO

Alendronate and raloxifene are among the most popular anti-osteoporosis medications. However, there is a lack of head-to-head comparative effectiveness studies comparing the two treatments. We conducted a retrospective large-scale multicenter study encompassing over 300 million patients across nine databases encoded in the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). The primary outcome was the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture, while secondary outcomes were vertebral fracture, atypical femoral fracture (AFF), osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), and esophageal cancer. We used propensity score trimming and stratification based on an expansive propensity score model with all pre-treatment patient characteritistcs. We accounted for unmeasured confounding using negative control outcomes to estimate and adjust for residual systematic bias in each data source. We identified 283,586 alendronate patients and 40,463 raloxifene patients. There were 7.48 hip fracture, 8.18 vertebral fracture, 1.14 AFF, 0.21 esophageal cancer and 0.09 ONJ events per 1,000 person-years in the alendronate cohort and 6.62, 7.36, 0.69, 0.22 and 0.06 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively, in the raloxifene cohort. Alendronate and raloxifene have a similar hip fracture risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94-1.13), but alendronate users are more likely to have vertebral fractures (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14). Alendronate has higher risk for AFF (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23-1.84) but similar risk for esophageal cancer (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.53-1.70), and ONJ (HR 1.62, 95% CI 0.78-3.34). We demonstrated substantial control of measured confounding by propensity score adjustment, and minimal residual systematic bias through negative control experiments, lending credibility to our effect estimates. Raloxifene is as effective as alendronate and may remain an option in the prevention of osteoporotic fracture.

14.
Drug Saf ; 43(9): 927-942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Observational studies estimating severe outcomes for paracetamol versus ibuprofen use have acknowledged the specific challenge of channeling bias. A previous study relying on negative controls suggested that using large-scale propensity score (LSPS) matching may mitigate bias better than models using limited lists of covariates. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether using LSPS matching would enable the evaluation of paracetamol, compared to ibuprofen, and increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, or acute renal failure. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In a new-user cohort study, we used two propensity score model strategies for confounder controls. One replicated the approach of controlling for a hand-picked list. The second used LSPSs based on all available covariates for matching. Positive and negative controls assessed residual confounding and calibrated confidence intervals. The data source was the Clinical Practices Research Datalink (CPRD). RESULTS: A substantial proportion of negative controls were statistically significant after propensity score matching on the publication covariates, indicating considerable systematic error. LSPS adjustment was less biased, but residual error remained. The calibrated estimates resulted in very wide confidence intervals, indicating large uncertainty in effect estimates once residual error was incorporated. CONCLUSIONS: For paracetamol versus ibuprofen, when using LSPS methods in the CPRD, it is only possible to distinguish true effects if those effects are large (hazard ratio > 2). Due to their smaller hazard ratios, the outcomes under study cannot be differentiated from null effects (represented by negative controls) even if there were a true effect. Based on these data, we conclude that we are unable to determine whether paracetamol is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, GI bleeding, and acute renal failure compared to ibuprofen, due to residual confounding.

15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 102, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To demonstrate how the Observational Healthcare Data Science and Informatics (OHDSI) collaborative network and standardization can be utilized to scale-up external validation of patient-level prediction models by enabling validation across a large number of heterogeneous observational healthcare datasets. METHODS: Five previously published prognostic models (ATRIA, CHADS2, CHADS2VASC, Q-Stroke and Framingham) that predict future risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation were replicated using the OHDSI frameworks. A network study was run that enabled the five models to be externally validated across nine observational healthcare datasets spanning three countries and five independent sites. RESULTS: The five existing models were able to be integrated into the OHDSI framework for patient-level prediction and they obtained mean c-statistics ranging between 0.57-0.63 across the 6 databases with sufficient data to predict stroke within 1 year of initial atrial fibrillation diagnosis for females with atrial fibrillation. This was comparable with existing validation studies. The validation network study was run across nine datasets within 60 days once the models were replicated. An R package for the study was published at https://github.com/OHDSI/StudyProtocolSandbox/tree/master/ExistingStrokeRiskExternalValidation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the ability to scale up external validation of patient-level prediction models using a collaboration of researchers and a data standardization that enable models to be readily shared across data sites. External validation is necessary to understand the transportability or reproducibility of a prediction model, but without collaborative approaches it can take three or more years for a model to be validated by one independent researcher. In this paper we show it is possible to both scale-up and speed-up external validation by showing how validation can be done across multiple databases in less than 2 months. We recommend that researchers developing new prediction models use the OHDSI network to externally validate their models.

17.
J Pediatr ; 222: 52-58.e1, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To categorize newborn infants in Hamilton County, Ohio by late pregnancy fetal opioid exposure status and to assess their first-year healthcare utilization. STUDY DESIGN: We used a population-based cohort of 41 136 live births from 2014-2017 and analyzed healthcare encounters in the first year of life from electronic health records. We prospectively assessed for the presence of opioids in maternal urine collected at delivery and for a diagnosis of newborn neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). At birth, infants were classified as unexposed to opioids, exposed to opioids and diagnosed with NAS, or subclinically exposed to opioids (exposure that did not result in NAS). RESULTS: The prevalence of newborn opioid exposure was 37 per 1000 births. The duration of the hospital birth encounter was significantly longer for infants with subclinical exposure compared with unexposed infants (10% increase; 95% CI, 7%-13%). However, duration for infants with subclinical exposure was shorter compared to those with NAS. Neither subclinical exposure nor NAS was associated with total emergency department visits. Subclinical exposure was associated with increased odds of having at least 1 hospitalization in the first year. However, the total length of stay for hospitalizations was 82% that of the unexposed group (95% CI, 75%-89%). Infants with NAS had a 213% longer total length of stay compared with the unexposed group (95% CI, 191%-237%). CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical and overt opioid exposure among newborn infants was associated with increased first-year healthcare utilization. From 2014 to 2017, this cost the Hamilton County healthcare system an estimated $1 109 452 for longer birth encounters alone.

18.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 36(7): 1117-1124, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338068

RESUMO

Objective: Observational evidence suggests that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for acute pancreatitis (AP) versus those without T2DM. A small number of AP events were reported in clinical trials of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin, though no imbalances were observed between treatment groups. This observational study evaluated risk of AP among new users of canagliflozin compared with new users of six classes of other antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs).Methods: Three US claims databases were analyzed based on a prespecified protocol approved by the European Medicines Agency. Propensity score adjustment controlled for imbalances in baseline covariates. Cox regression models estimated the hazard ratio of AP with canagliflozin compared with other AHAs using on-treatment (primary) and intent-to-treat approaches. Sensitivity analyses assessed robustness of findings.Results: Across the three databases, there were between 12,023-80,986 new users of canagliflozin; the unadjusted incidence rates of AP (per 1000 person-years) were between 1.5-2.2 for canagliflozin and 1.1-6.6 for other AHAs. The risk of AP was generally similar for new users of canagliflozin compared with new users of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, insulin, and other AHAs, with no consistent between-treatment differences observed across databases. Intent-to-treat and sensitivity analysis findings were qualitatively consistent with on-treatment findings.Conclusions: In this large observational study, incidence rates of AP in patients with T2DM treated with canagliflozin or other AHAs were generally similar, with no evidence suggesting that canagliflozin is associated with increased risk of AP compared with other AHAs.

19.
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 39(3): 155-162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common, underdetected problem that has short- and long-term negative sequelae for critically ill patients. Prompt and accurate delirium identification by nurses can ensure early intervention and treatment to help minimize adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between an educational program and the accuracy of registered nurses' (RNs') documentation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), a delirium screening tool. METHODS: In a medical ICU at a tertiary academic medical center from September 2015 to March 2016, RNs were reinstructed on use of the CAM-ICU. Registered nurse assessment data were collected retrospectively for 12 months before and after intervention and were compared against the CAM-ICU algorithm using χ analysis. RESULTS: A total of 10 736 RN assessments in 1020 patients preintervention and 11 068 in 951 patients postintervention were evaluated. Overall RN accuracy improved from 78% to 80% (P = .054). The algorithm determined delirium to be present in 32% versus 30% of all patients preintervention and postintervention, respectively; there was no difference in rate of nurse detection of delirium preintervention and postintervention (54% vs 55%, not statistically significant). The percentage of "inappropriate unable to assess" ratings by nurses decreased from 42% to 37% postintervention (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: After a comprehensive training initiative, there was no significant improvement in CAM-ICU documentation and no improvements in patient delirium identification. Future quality improvement efforts should target reducing the number of assessments that RNs judge to be "unable to assess." Clinical practice must evolve to routinely incorporate RN delirium assessments into the patient's plan of care.

20.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 14(7): 737-748, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Natural, social, and constructed environments play a critical role in the development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases. However, less is known regarding the influence of these environmental/community risk factors on the health of individuals living with cystic fibrosis (CF), compared to other pulmonary disorders. AREAS COVERED: Here, we review current knowledge of environmental exposures related to CF, which suggests that environmental/community risk factors do interact with the respiratory tract to affect outcomes. Studies discussed in this review were identified in PubMed between March 2019 and March 2020. Although the limited data available do not suggest that avoiding potentially detrimental exposures other than secondhand smoke could improve outcomes, additional research incorporating novel markers of environmental exposures and community characteristics obtained at localized levels is needed. EXPERT OPINION: As we outline, some environmental exposures and community characteristics are modifiable; if not by the individual, then by policy. We recommend a variety of strategies to advance understanding of environmental influences on CF disease progression.

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