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1.
Int Endod J ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561889

RESUMO

AIM: To study the association between endodontic inflammatory disease and a first myocardial infarction (MI). METHODOLOGY: The study comprised 805 patients with recent experience of a first MI, each gender, age and geographically matched with a control. Panoramic radiographs were available for 797 patients and 796 controls. Endodontic inflammatory disease was assessed radiographically. The sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was calculated, and the number of root filled teeth and teeth with periapical lesions were recorded. The associated risk of a first MI was expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), unadjusted and adjusted for confounders (family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking habits, marital status, education and diabetes). RESULTS: Patients who had suffered a first MI had higher DMFT (mean 22.5 vs. 21.9, p = .013) and more missing teeth (mean 7.5 vs. 6.3; p < .0001) than the healthy controls. The number of missing teeth was associated with an increased risk of a first MI (adjusted OR 1.04; CI 1.02-1.06). Conversely, decay-free, filled teeth were associated with decreased risk (adjusted OR 0.98; CI 0.96-1.00). Analysis based on age disclosed the following variables to be associated with an increased risk of a first MI: number of decayed teeth (adjusted OR 1.18; CI 1.02-1.37, in patients <60 years), any primary periapical lesion (adjusted OR 1.57; CI 1.08-2.29, in patients <65 years) and the proportion of root filled teeth (adjusted OR 1.18; CI 1.03-1.36, in patients ≥65 years). CONCLUSIONS: More missing teeth was independently associated with an increased risk of a first MI. In addition, endodontic inflammatory disease may contribute as an independent risk factor to cardiovascular disease since untreated caries, periapical lesions and root fillings, depending on age, were significantly associated with a first MI.

2.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(10): 136, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410520

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the INTERASPIRE scientific protocol-an international survey of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). RECENT FINDINGS: This international survey is being conducted through National Societies of Cardiology in selected countries from each of the six WHO regions and has the following overall aims: (i) describe prevalence of cardiometabolic and renal risk factors together with biomarkers in CHD patients; (ii) describe current risk factor management through lifestyle changes and cardioprotective drug therapies; (iii) provide an objective assessment of clinical implementation of preventive care by comparison with the lifestyle and risk factor targets defined in international and national guidelines; (iv) investigate the reasons for variation in preventive cardiology practice between regions and countries; and (v) promote the principles of best preventive cardiology practice. This international survey will provide a unique picture of CHD patients; their cardiometabolic, renal and biomarker status; lifestyle and therapeutic management; and the quality of preventive care provided in all WHO regions.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Doença das Coronárias , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293121

RESUMO

AIMS : Despite the high use of cardioprotective medications, the risk factor control in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is still inadequate. Guidelines identify healthy lifestyles as equally important in secondary prevention as pharmacotherapy. Here, we describe reasons for poor lifestyle adherence from the patient's perspective. METHODS AND RESULTS : In the EUROASPIRE IV and V surveys, 16 259 CHD patients were examined and interviewed during a study visit ≥6 months after hospital discharge. Data gathering was fully standardized. The Brief Illness Perception questionnaire was completed by a subsample of 2379 patients. Half of those who were smoking prior to hospital admission, were still smoking; 37% of current smokers had not attempted to quit and 51% was not considering to do so. The prevalence of obesity was 38%. Half of obese patients tried to lose weight in the past month and 61% considered weight loss in the following month. In relation to physical activity, 40% was on target with half of patients trying to do more everyday activities. Less than half had the intention to engage in planned exercise. Only 29% of all patients was at goal for all three lifestyle factors. The number of adverse lifestyles was strongly related to the way patients perceive their illness as threatening. Lifestyle modifications were more successful in those having participated in a cardiac rehabilitation and prevention programme. Patients indicated lack of self-confidence as the main barrier to change their unhealthy behaviour. CONCLUSION : Modern secondary prevention programmes should target behavioural change in all patients with adverse lifestyles.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315174

RESUMO

AIMS: Prevention guidelines have identified the management of obese patients as an important priority to reduce the burden of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease. Still, studies have demonstrated that over 80% of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) fail to achieve their weight target. Here, we describe advice received and actions reported by overweight CHD patients since being discharged from hospital and how weight changes relate to their risk profile. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on data from 10 507 CHD patients participating in the EUROASPIRE IV and V studies, we analysed weight changes from hospital admission to the time of a study visit ≥6 and <24 months later. At hospitalization, 34.9% were obese and another 46.0% were overweight. Obesity was more frequent in women and associated with more comorbidities. By the time of the study visit, 19.5% of obese patients had lost ≥5% of weight. However, in 16.4% weight had increased ≥5%. Weight gain in those overweight was associated with physical inactivity, non-adherence to dietary recommendations, smoking cessation, raised blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia, and lower levels of quality of life. Less than half of obese patients was considering weight loss in the coming month. CONCLUSIONS: The management of obesity remains a challenge in the secondary prevention of CHD despite a beneficial effect of weight loss on risk factor prevalences and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes should include weight loss interventions as a specific component and the incremental value of telehealth intervention as well as recently described pharmacological interventions need full consideration.

5.
Drugs ; 81(12): 1373-1379, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302636

RESUMO

For many years, clinical studies could not show that lowering glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes leads to better macrovascular outcomes. In the past few years, new data have shown that treatment with two classes of dugs developed as "glucose-lowering agents," SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists, can reduce macrovascular and renal complications. These studies have prompted debate about the main aim of type 2 diabetes management. In this review, three eras of diabetes management are described according to the treatment recommendations, such as the ADA/EASD consensus, moving from a pure glucocentric view into the present cardio-renal outcome-oriented approach, this has been endorsed by major diabetes and cardiology societies. While in the first era normalizing HbA1c was the only focus (e.g., UK Prospective Diabetes Study), failing to show a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, further studies analyzing the pros and cons of intensified control such as ACCORD, VADT, ADVANCE recognized that treatment intensification was associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, thereby potentially reducing the benefits of glycemic control. Therefore, the focus in the second area was on controlling HbA1c without these unwanted effects. The consistent beneficial results of several cardiovascular outcome trials with SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists showing significantly improved cardio-renal outcomes, induced a paradigm shift: a change from (only) control of HbA1c to an organ-protective approach with the main focus now on cardio-renal risk; this is now considered as the third era. Recent data indicating beneficial effects of glucose-lowering agents in particular SGLT2 inhibitors even in subjects without diabetes, improving hospitalization for heart failure and renal outcomes might reveal another new era, which could then be considered a fourth era. While current international guidelines call for this paradigm shift, registry data show that we are still far from translating this objective into real-world practice.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether estimates of risk of future cardiovascular events and death and established or unknown diabetes are significantly associated with calcified carotid artery atheromas (CCAAs) on panoramic radiographs (PRs). The main focus was on men and women without previous myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: The PAROKRANK (Periodontitis and its Relation to Coronary Artery Disease) study included patients with a first MI and matched control subjects. In this substudy, 738 patients (138 women) and 744 control subjects (144 women) with available PRs were assessed for CCAA. Cardiovascular risk estimates were determined according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Established and previously unknown diabetes was also determined. RESULTS: CCAA was detected on PRs in 206 control subjects (28%) and 251 patients (34%). FRS was significantly associated with CCAA among control subjects (P = .04) and patients (P = .001). SCORE was associated with CCAA among control subjects (P < .01) but not patients (P = .07). Among men, FRS and SCORE were associated with CCAA in both control subjects and patients. Diabetes was not significantly associated with CCAA after adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated cardiovascular risk scores were associated with CCAA on PRs among control subjects. Diabetes was not independently associated with CCAA, possibly owing to selection bias.

7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(8): 484-490, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, however, the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on erectile dysfunction is unknown. We aimed to assess the incidence, prevalence, and progression of erectile dysfunction in men treated with dulaglutide compared with placebo, and to determine whether dulaglutide's effect on erectile dysfunction was consistent with its effect on other diabetes-related outcomes. METHODS: The Researching Cardiovascular Events with a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial of the effect of dulaglutide on cardiovascular outcomes. REWIND was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged older than 50 years with type 2 diabetes, who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either dulaglutide or placebo. Participating men were offered the opportunity to complete the standardised International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire at baseline, 2 years, 5 years, and study end. We did an exploratory analysis, in which we included participants who completed a baseline and at least 1 follow-up IIEF questionnaire. The primary outcome for these analyses was the first occurrence of moderate or severe erectile dysfunction following randomisation, assessed by the erectile function subscores on IIEF. This analysis was part of the REWIND trial, which is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 3725 (70·1%) of 5312 male participants with a mean age of 65·5 years (SD 6·4 years) were analysed, of whom 1487 (39·9%) had a history of cardiovascular disease, and 2104 (56·5%) had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction at baseline. The incidence of erectile dysfunction following randomisation was 21·3 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and 22·0 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (HR 0·92, 95% CI 0·85-0·99, p=0·021). Men in the dulaglutide group also had a lesser fall in erectile function subscore compared with the placebo group, with a least square mean difference of 0·61 (95% CI 0·18-1·05, p=0·006). INTERPRETATION: Long-term use of dulaglutide might reduce the incidence of moderate or severe erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
8.
9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(4): 370-379, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) V in primary care was carried out by the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme in 2016-2018. The main objective was to determine whether the 2016 Joint European Societies' guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in people at high cardiovascular risk have been implemented in clinical practice. METHODS: The method used was a cross-stional survey in 78 centres from 16 European countries. Patients without a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease either started on blood pressure and/or lipid and/or glucose lowering treatments were identified and interviewed ≥ 6 months after the start of medication. RESULTS: A total of 3562 medical records were reviewed and 2759 patients (57.6% women; mean age 59.0 ± 11.6 years) interviewed (interview rate 70.0%). The risk factor control was poor with 18.1% of patients being smokers, 43.5% obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and 63.8% centrally obese (waist circumference ≥88 cm for women, ≥102 cm for men). Of patients on blood pressure lowering medication 47.0% reached the target of <140/90 mm Hg (<140/85 mm Hg in people with diabetes). Among treated dyslipidaemic patients only 46.9% attained low density lipoprotein-cholesterol target of <2.6 mmol/l. Among people treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus, 65.2% achieved the HbA1c target of <7.0%. CONCLUSION: The primary care arm of the EUROASPIRE V survey revealed that large proportions of people at high cardiovascular disease risk have unhealthy lifestyles and inadequate control of blood pressure, lipids and diabetes. Thus, the potential to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease throughout Europe by improved preventive cardiology programmes is substantial.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 177: 108870, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044026

RESUMO

In June 2020, the Taskforce of the Guideline Workshop 2019 convened via teleconferencing to initiate a pilot project that demonstrates the various processes and considerations involved in developing high-quality, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its associated comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The goal of the pilot project was to create evidence-based guidelines for use of sodium-glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) when managing very high risk T2D patients, evidenced by the presence of both CVD and CKD. For this purpose the Taskforce represented a guideline panel and made use of synthesized evidence from an ongoing BMJ Rapid Recommendations project on SGLT2-I and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Results from the Taskforce pilot project demonstrated the value, feasibility and utility of using a step-wise approach to identifying and grading evidence and then developing actionable recommendations for utilizing SGLT2-I in this at-risk T2D population. This report describes the various steps involved in the process and explains how it can be utilized to rapidly develop recommendations in a format that is easy to use and can be quickly updated as new evidence becomes available, also within the emerging concept of living guidelines.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Projetos Piloto , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108796, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845051

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), originally launched as glucose-lowering drugs, have been studied in large cardiovascular outcome trials to ascertain safety. Surprisingly, these compounds reduced the risk of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial and non-fatal stroke) and total mortality. The mechanisms behind this benefit are only partly understood, but a major contributor is the reduction of heart failure hospitalisations, evident already within weeks after the initiation of the SGLT2i. SGLT2 inhibition increases urinary glucose excretion, thereby improving glycaemic control in an insulin-independent manner. Moreover, SGLT2i potentially impact the cardiovascular system both indirectly via weight loss and blood pressure lowering and directly through osmotic diuresis and increased sodium excretion and presumably by improving myocardial energetics. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence from all major outcome trials investigating SGLT2i in patients with diabetes, as well as recent evidence from trials in heart failure patients without glucose perturbations, which pave the way for novel treatment of large groups of patients. The results of these studies have been taken into account in recently issued guidelines for the management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An important task for diabetologists, cardiologists and general practitioners is to incorporate them into clinical practice to the benefit of many patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108819, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865917

RESUMO

In 2021 we are celebrating the 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin, which 1923 was awarded with a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Banting and MacLeod. The development of insulin was foregone by an interesting piece of medical history starting with the first known mentioning of a disease resembling diabetes about 1550 BCE in Ebers papyrus. The Indian physician Charaka made the first reference to the sweetness of the urine about 280 BCE while the connection of the sweet taste of urine with an excess of sugar in the blood remained undescribed until 1776 when Dobson published his first experience on this subject. Langerhans description of "islands of clear cells" in the pancreatic gland was of great importance when published 1869. The first connection of pancreas to diabetes was made by Lancereaux 1877. The experiments 1890 by Minkowski and von Mering, depriving dogs of pancreas, noting that they died with symptoms of diabetes was another step forward. A first attempt to isolate pancreatic extract by means of which blood glucose could be normalized in dogs with diabetes was described by Paulescu, but his experiments, interrupted by the First World War, never became acknowledged to the extent that they probably should have been. Instead, it was Banting, who supported by Best, made the experiments that proved that an extract from the Langerhans' islands could keep dogs with diabetes alive for several months in the laboratory of MacLeod. This extract, purified by Collip, saved the life of people dying by diabetes for the first time in January 1922. The discovery of insulin was made in 1921 and the Nobel prize was awarded to Banting and MacLeod already 1923. The correct choice of laureates has, however, been debated. Banting shared his prize money with Best who helped him with the experiments and MacLeod shared his part with Collip who purified the extract. The question arises, who was actually the person discovering insulin and did the right person get the prize? Further insights on this question are revealed via the archives of the Nobel Assembly of the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/química , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Prêmio Nobel
14.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 18(2): 14791641211002475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752449

RESUMO

AIMS: Total and free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin may affect cardiovascular prognosis in women. The objective was to study the association between sex hormones and prognosis in women with dysglycemia and high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: This epidemiological report included dysglycemic women from the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention trial (n = 2848) with baseline total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. Free testosterone was calculated with the Vermeulen formula. Cox regression analyses adjusted for variables including age, previous diseases and pharmacological treatments were used to estimate the association between these levels and the composite cardiovascular outcome (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke) and all-cause mortality per one standard deviation. RESULTS: Patients (73% post-menopausal) were followed for a median of 6.1 years during which 377 cardiovascular events and 389 deaths occurred. In Cox analyses, total and free testosterone were not associated with any outcomes, but sex hormone-binding globulin was related to all-cause mortality in age adjusted (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24; p < 0.01) and fully adjusted analyses (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.05-1.24; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of baseline sex hormone-binding globulin were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in dysglycemic women at high cardiovascular risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00069784.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(7): 1677-1680, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606902

RESUMO

In the REWIND trial, dulaglutide reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes in both the "established CV disease" (CVD) and "CV risk factor" subgroups. The SUSTAIN 6 and PIONEER 6 trials of semaglutide used different criteria for established CVD from those used in REWIND. The present post hoc analysis assessed the effect of semaglutide on major adverse CV events (MACE) in a pooled population of SUSTAIN 6 and PIONEER 6 patients, re-categorized into CV risk subgroups using the REWIND CVD criteria. In the pooled analysis (n = 6480), a lower percentage of patients were in the established CVD subgroup, when using the REWIND CVD criteria, compared with the original trial CVD criteria (66.5% vs. 83.8%, respectively). After re-categorization, the risk of MACE was significantly lower with semaglutide versus placebo in the established CVD subgroup (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59, 0.92) and nonsignificantly lower in the CV risk factor subgroup (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.55, 1.28) (P-interaction = 0.60). These results suggest that the CV effects of semaglutide may extend to patients with type 2 diabetes across the CV risk continuum.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13516, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated copeptin, a marker for vasopressin release, has been associated with impaired prognosis in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The aim was to investigate whether this association extends beyond the acute phase and whether it is related to markers of stress (cortisol) and heart failure (NTproBNP). METHODS: Copeptin, cortisol and NTproBNP were measured in 926 participants (age: 76.0; male: 48.5%) in the ICELAND MI study whereof 246 had a previous MI (91 recognizable (RMI) and 155 previously unrecognizable (UMI) detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). The primary endpoint was cardiovascular events (CVEs), and secondary endpoints were total mortality, heart failure and MI (median follow-up was 9.1 years). The relation between copeptin and prognosis was assessed with the Cox proportional hazard regression (unadjusted, adjusted for cortisol and NTproBNP, respectively, and a multiple model: copeptin, cortisol, NTproBNP, age, sex, serum creatinine, heart failure). RESULTS: Copeptin was higher in participants with MI (8.9 vs. 6.4 pmol/L; P < .01), with no difference between RMI vs. UMI. Increased copeptin correlated with evening cortisol (r = .11; P < .01) and NTproBNP (r = .07; P = .04). Copeptin was associated with CVE and total mortality after adjusting for cortisol and NTproBNP separately, and remained significantly associated with total mortality in the multiple model. CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin was higher in subjects with previous MI regardless whether previously recognized or not. Copeptin correlated weakly with cortisol and NTproBNP, and was independently associated with total mortality. This indicates that the prognostic implications of copeptin are not only mediated by heart failure or stress, supporting the assumption that copeptin is a marker of general vulnerability.

18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 38, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender disparities in the management of dysglycaemia, defined as either impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients are a medical challenge. Recent data from two nationwide cohorts of patients suggested no gender difference as regards the risk for diabetes-related CV complications but indicated the presence of a gender disparity in risk factor management. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in screening for dysglycaemia, cardiovascular risk factor management and prognosis in dysglycemic CAD patients. METHODS: The study population (n = 16,259; 4077 women) included 7998 patients from the ESC-EORP EUROASPIRE IV (EAIV: 2012-2013, 79 centres in 24 countries) and 8261 patients from the ESC-EORP EUROASPIRE V (EAV: 2016-2017, 131 centres in 27 countries) cross-sectional surveys. In each centre, patients were investigated with standardised methods by centrally trained staff and those without known diabetes were offered an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The first of CV death or hospitalisation for non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or revascularization served as endpoint. Median follow-up time was 1.7 years. The association between gender and time to the occurrence of the endpoint was evaluated using Cox survival modelling, adjusting for age. RESULTS: Known diabetes was more common among women (32.9%) than men (28.4%, p < 0.0001). OGTT (n = 8655) disclosed IGT in 17.2% of women vs. 15.1% of men (p = 0.004) and diabetes in 13.4% of women vs. 14.6% of men (p = 0.078). In both known diabetes and newly detected dysglycaemia groups, women were older, with higher proportions of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity. HbA1c was higher in women with known diabetes. Recommended targets of physical activity, blood pressure and cholesterol were achieved by significantly lower proportions of women than men. Women with known diabetes had higher risk for the endpoint than men (age-adjusted HR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04-1.43). CONCLUSIONS: Guideline-recommended risk factor control is poorer in dysglycemic women than men. This may contribute to the worse prognosis in CAD women with known diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/mortalidade , Intolerância à Glucose/terapia , Controle Glicêmico , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 322: 227-232, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). The aims of the this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence of PAD and suspected PAD in a large population of established CHD patients, and 2) to assess the prevalence and control of risk factors in these patients as well health-related quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the EUROASPIRE V survey, 8243 patients with documented CHD were recruited from 27 ESC member countries and were invited to attend a study visit. Patients were investigated using questionnaires, in-depth interviews and a clinical examination. Intermittent claudication (IC) was assessed using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. Patients without previously diagnosed PAD were suspected of having PAD if they were found to have IC. RESULTS: Overall, 6.4% of the patients had already a confirmed diagnosis of PAD and another 6.3% were suspected of having PAD. Independent of age and gender, patients with previously diagnosed PAD were significantly more frequently current smokers, had the lowest smoking cessation rates, were less physically active, reported more often previously diagnosed diabetes and had significantly higher blood pressure levels, compared to patients without PAD. They had also significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides, lower HDL-C levels, and had more often renal insufficiency. In comparison with patients without PAD, those with suspected PAD demonstrated significantly higher smoking cessation rates but their obesity rates were significantly higher. In CHD patients with a history of PAD, the use of calcium channel blockers and diuretics was significantly higher than in patients without PAD. Compared to the latter group, the use of diuretics, anti-arrhythmics and anti-depressants in patients with suspected PAD was significantly higher. Moreover, patients with previously diagnosed PAD had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression and reported a significantly worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in comparison with those without PAD. HRQoL levels were significantly reduced in patients with suspected PAD as well. CONCLUSION: In CHD patients without a previous diagnosis of PAD, IC is not infrequent. Diagnosed PAD was significantly associated with a worse CHD risk factor profile. Patients with known PAD as well as those with suspected PAD had a considerable loss of health-related quality of life. Therefore, physicians should consider to screen for IC in all their CHD patients.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 199, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes (REWIND) double blind randomized trial demonstrated that weekly subcutaneous dulaglutide 1.5 mg, a glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist, versus matched placebo reduced the first outcome of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke (594 versus 663 events) in 9901 persons with type 2 diabetes and either chronic cardiovascular disease or risk factors, and followed during 5.4 years. These findings were based on a time-to-first-event analysis and preclude relevant information on the burden of total major events occurring during the trial. This analysis reports on the total cardiovascular or fatal events in the REWIND participants METHODS: We compared the total incidence of MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths, and the total incidence of expanded MACE (MACE, unstable angina, heart failure or revascularization) or non-cardiovascular deaths between participants randomized to dulaglutide and those randomized to placebo. Incidences were expressed as number per 1000 person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the conditional time gap and proportional means models. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 66.2 years, 46.3% were women and 31% had previous cardiovascular disease. During the trial there were 1972 MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths and 3673 expanded MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths. The incidence of total MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths in the dulaglutide and placebo groups was 35.8 and 40.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively [absolute reduction = 4.5 per 1000 person-years; conditional time gap HR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.98) p = 0.020, and proportional means HR 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.98) p = 0.022]. The incidence of total expanded MACE or non-cardiovascular deaths in the dulaglutide and placebo groups was 67.1 and 74.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively [absolute reduction = 7.6 per 1000 person-years; conditional time gap HR 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.99) p = 0.023, and proportional means HR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99) p = 0.028]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that weekly subcutaneous dulaglutide reduced total cardiovascular or fatal event burden in people with type 2 diabetes at moderate cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gouv . Unique Identifier NCT01394952).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/efeitos adversos , Incretinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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