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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study is aimed at investigating gender differences in the medical management of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Analyses were based on the ESC EORP EUROASPIRE V (European Survey Of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention And Diabetes) survey. Consecutive patients between 18 and 80 years, hospitalized for a coronary event, were included in the study. Information on cardiovascular medication intake at hospital discharge and at follow-up (≥ 6 months to < 2 years after hospitalization) was collected. RESULTS: Data was available for 8261 patients (25.8% women). Overall, no gender differences were observed in the prescription and use of cardioprotective medication like aspirin, beta-blockers, and ACE-I/ARBs (P > 0.01) at discharge and follow-up respectively. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the use of statins at follow-up, in disfavor of women (82.8% vs. 77.7%; P < 0.001). In contrast, at follow-up, women were more likely to use diuretics (31.5% vs. 39.5%; P < 0.001) and calcium channel blockers (21.2% vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001), whereas men were more likely to use anticoagulants (8.8% vs. 7.0%; P < 0.001). Overall, no gender differences were found in total daily dose intake (P > 0.01). Furthermore, women were less likely than men to have received a CABG (20.4% vs. 13.2%; P < 0.001) or PCI (82.1% vs. 74.9%; P < 0.001) at follow-up. No gender differences were observed in prescribed (P = 0.10) and attended (P = 0.63) cardiac rehabilitation programs. CONCLUSION: The EUROASPIRE V results show only limited gender differences in the medical management of CHD patients. Current findings suggest growing awareness about risk in female CHD patients.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 108488, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035598

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure is a fatal complication of type 2 diabetes but little is known about its incidence in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We used Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial data to identify predictors of hospitalisation for heart failure (hHF) or cardiovascular (CV) death in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and IGT randomised to acarbose or placebo. METHODS: Independent hHF/CV death risk factors were determined using Cox proportional hazards models, with participants censored at first hHF event, CV death, or end of follow-up. RESULTS: During median 5-year follow-up, the composite outcome of hHF/CV death occurred in 393 (6.0%) participants. Significant hHF/CV death multivariate predictors were higher age and plasma creatinine, as and prior heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke. Acarbose, compared with placebo, did not reduce hHF/CV death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.64-1.24, P=0.48) or hHF (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74-1.10, P=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CHD and IGT at greater risk of hHF/CV death were older with higher plasma creatinine, prior HF, MI, AF or stroke. Addition of acarbose to optimised CV therapy to reduce post-prandial glucose excursions did not reduce the risk of hHF/CV death or hHF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00829660, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN91899513.

3.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 22(7): 546-552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903066

RESUMO

The Guideline Workshop 2019, held in October 2019 in Munich, Germany, had the purpose of facilitating discussion on strategies for optimization of guideline processes in diabetes among a group of representatives of renown national and international societies in the field of diabetes, cardiology, and nephrology. Results of this panel's discussions are presented in this article and comprise a variety of suggestions for improving the quality and usability of guidelines, as well as to accelerate the development and responsiveness of guidelines to newly published, relevant data from clinical trials such as cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes mellitus. These include, but are not limited to, recommendations to optimize presentation of content in guidelines, use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to rating the quality of evidence to harmonize guidelines, and utilization of digital health technologies to accelerate, streamline, and optimize communication on relevant data and development of clinical guidelines and necessary updates, while reducing costs. Recognizing that achieving alignment in guideline development among various medical organizations will be a long-term process, representatives from cross-sectional medical organizations relevant to cardio/renal metabolic disease and experts in guideline methodology will work together in the future. Among other activities, it is planned to continue the activity and organize a Guideline Workshop in 2020.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, including arrhythmias. The prevalence of bradyarrhythmia and the subsequent need for treatment with pacemakers (PMs) is less well explored in a contemporary patient population. The current study explores 1) whether patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased demand for PM implantation compared with an age- and sex-matched control population without diabetes and 2) patient characteristics associated with an increased demand for receiving a PM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this population-matched registry study, a total of 416,247 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry and 2,081,235 age- and sex-matched control subjects selected from the general population were included between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2012 and followed until 31 December 2013. Mean follow-up time was 7 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to estimate the demand of PM treatment and the factors identifying patients with such demand. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes was associated with an increased need of PM treatment (hazard ratio 1.65 [95% CI 1.60-1.69]; P < 0.0001), which remained (1.56 [1.51-1.60]; P < 0.0001) after adjustments for age, sex, educational level, marital status, country of birth, and coronary heart disease. Risk factors for receiving a PM included increasing age, HbA1c, BMI, diabetes duration, and lipid- and blood pressure-lowering medication. CONCLUSIONS: The need for PM treatment is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes than in matched population-based control subjects. Age, diabetes duration, and HbA1c seem to be risk factors for PM treatment.

5.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). The aims of the this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence of PAD and suspected PAD in a large population of established CHD patients, and 2) to assess the prevalence and control of risk factors in these patients as well health-related quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the EUROASPIRE V survey, 8243 patients with documented CHD were recruited from 27 ESC member countries and were invited to attend a study visit. Patients were investigated using questionnaires, in-depth interviews and a clinical examination. Intermittent claudication (IC) was assessed using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. Patients without previously diagnosed PAD were suspected of having PAD if they were found to have IC. RESULTS: Overall, 6.4% of the patients had already a confirmed diagnosis of PAD and another 6.3% were suspected of having PAD. Independent of age and gender, patients with previously diagnosed PAD were significantly more frequently current smokers, had the lowest smoking cessation rates, were less physically active, reported more often previously diagnosed diabetes and had significantly higher blood pressure levels, compared to patients without PAD. They had also significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides, lower HDL-C levels, and had more often renal insufficiency. In comparison with patients without PAD, those with suspected PAD demonstrated significantly higher smoking cessation rates but their obesity rates were significantly higher. In CHD patients with a history of PAD, the use of calcium channel blockers and diuretics was significantly higher than in patients without PAD. Compared to the latter group, the use of diuretics, anti-arrhythmics and anti-depressants in patients with suspected PAD was significantly higher. Moreover, patients with previously diagnosed PAD had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression and reported a significantly worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in comparison with those without PAD. HRQoL levels were significantly reduced in patients with suspected PAD as well. CONCLUSION: In CHD patients without a previous diagnosis of PAD, IC is not infrequent. Diagnosed PAD was significantly associated with a worse CHD risk factor profile. Patients with known PAD as well as those with suspected PAD had a considerable loss of health-related quality of life. Therefore, physicians should consider to screen for IC in all their CHD patients.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 43(9): 2242-2247, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, on incident diabetes and regression to normoglycemia in 6,522 Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial participants in China who had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and coronary heart disease (CHD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to acarbose or placebo and followed with four monthly fasting plasma glucose (FPG) tests and annual oral glucose tolerance tests. Incident diabetes was defined as two successive diagnostic FPG levels ≥7 mmol/L or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) levels ≥11.1 mmol/L while taking study medication or a masked adjudicated confirmation of this diagnosis. Regression to normoglycemia was defined as FPG <6.1 mmol/L and 2-h PG <7.8 mmol/L. Intention-to-treat and on-treatment analyses were conducted using Poisson regression models, overall and for subgroups (age, sex, CHD type, HbA1c, FPG, 2-h PG, BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate, for IGT alone, for IGT + impaired fasting glucose, and for use of thiazides, ACE inhibitors [ACEis]/angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs], ß-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or statins). RESULTS: Incident diabetes was less frequent with acarbose compared with placebo (3.2 and 3.8 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.71, 0.94], P = 0.005), with no evidence of differential effects within the predefined subgroups after accounting for multiple testing. Regression to normoglycemia occurred more frequently in those randomized to acarbose compared with placebo (16.3 and 14.1 per 100 person-years, respectively; 1.16 [1.08, 1.25], P < 0.0001). This effect was greater in participants not taking an ACEi or ARB (1.36 [1.21, 1.53], P interaction = 0.0006). The likelihood of remaining in normoglycemic regression did not differ between the acarbose and placebo groups (P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Acarbose reduced the incidence of diabetes and promoted regression to normoglycemia in Chinese people with IGT and CHD.

9.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(3): 1479164120922123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a serious complication in patients with dysglycaemia, defined as either type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Research focusing on the identification of potential markers for atherothrombotic disease in these subjects is warranted. The antiphospholipid syndrome is a common acquired prothrombotic condition, defined by a combination of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity and positivity of specific antiphospholipid antibodies. Available information on antiphospholipid antibodies in dysglycaemia is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the association between antiphospholipid antibodies and dysglycaemia. PATIENTS/METHODS: The PAROKRANK (periodontitis and its relation to coronary artery disease) study included 805 patients, investigated 6-10 weeks after a first myocardial infarction, and 805 matched controls. Participants without known diabetes (91%) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Associations between antiphospholipid antibodies (anti-cardiolipin and anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I IgG, IgM and IgA) and dysglycaemia were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 137 (9%) subjects had previously known type 2 diabetes and 371 (23%) newly diagnosed dysglycaemia. Compared with the normoglycaemic participants, those with dysglycaemia had a higher proportion with first myocardial infarction (61% vs 45%, p < 0.0001) and were more often antiphospholipid antibody IgG positive (8% vs 5%; p = 0.013). HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2-h glucose were significantly associated to antiphospholipid antibody IgG. Odds ratios (ORs) were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), 1.14 (95% CI 1.00 - 1.27) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 - 1.21), respectively, after adjustments for age, gender and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports an association between antiphospholipid antibody IgG positivity and dysglycaemia. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and to investigate if antithrombotic therapy reduces vascular complications in antiphospholipid antibody positive subjects with dysglycaemia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Idoso , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
10.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(7): 582-590, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association between the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist dulaglutide and cognitive impairment as an exploratory analysis within the Researching Cardiovascular Events With a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial. METHODS: REWIND is a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. We included men and women (aged ≥50 years) with either established or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors, glycated haemoglobin of up to 9·5% (80 mmol/mol) on a maximum of two oral glucose-lowering drugs with or without basal insulin, and a body-mass index of at least 23 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) subcutaneous injections once a week of either dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or an equal volume of matching placebo. Randomisation was done using a computer-generated code with stratification by site. Participants and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation until the database was locked. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for the composite primary outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from cardiovascular or unknown causes. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and during follow-up using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). We present here the exploratory primary cognitive outcome, which was the first occurrence of a follow-up score on MoCA or DSST that was 1·5 SDs or more below the baseline mean score in the participant's country. All analyses were done using an intention-to-treat approach. The REWIND trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants were randomly assigned to either dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During median follow-up of 5·4 (IQR 5·1-5·9) years, 8828 participants provided a baseline and one or more follow-up MoCA or DSST scores, of whom 4456 were assigned dulaglutide and 4372 were assigned placebo. The cognitive outcome occurred in 4·05 per 100 patient-years in participants assigned dulaglutide and 4·35 per 100 patient-years in people assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·93, 95% CI 0·85-1·02; p=0·11). After post-hoc adjustment for individual standardised baseline scores, the hazard of substantive cognitive impairment was reduced by 14% in those assigned dulaglutide (HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·79-0·95; p=0·0018). INTERPRETATION: Long-term treatment with dulaglutide might reduce cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes. Further studies of this drug focused on brain health and cognitive function are clearly indicated. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Circulation ; 141(23): 1841-1854, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with established coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events. METHODS: In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies), we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus versus without diabetes mellitus in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major adverse limb events, including amputation). The primary safety end point was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria for major bleeding. RESULTS: There were 10 341 patients with diabetes mellitus and 17 054 without diabetes mellitus in the overall trial. A consistent and similar relative risk reduction was seen for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n=9152) versus placebo plus aspirin (n=9126) in patients both with (n=6922) and without (n=11 356) diabetes mellitus for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio, 0.74, P=0.002; and hazard ratio, 0.77, P=0.005, respectively, Pinteraction=0.77) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81, P=0.05; and hazard ratio, 0.84, P=0.09, respectively; Pinteraction=0.82). However, although the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% versus 1.4% for the primary efficacy end point at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction<0.0001; 1.9% versus 0.6% for all-cause mortality, Pinteraction=0.02; 2.7% versus 1.7% for major vascular events, Pinteraction<0.0001). Because the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes mellitus, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the patients with diabetes mellitus (2.7% versus 1.0%; Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral end points in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes mellitus, including a 3-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320908698, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) V in primary care was carried out by the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme in 2016-2018. The main objective was to determine whether the 2016 Joint European Societies' guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in people at high cardiovascular risk have been implemented in clinical practice. METHODS: The method used was a cross-sectional survey in 78 centres from 16 European countries. Patients without a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease either started on blood pressure and/or lipid and/or glucose lowering treatments were identified and interviewed ≥ 6 months after the start of medication. RESULTS: A total of 3562 medical records were reviewed and 2759 patients (57.6% women; mean age 59.0 ± 11.6 years) interviewed (interview rate 70.0%). The risk factor control was poor with 18.1% of patients being smokers, 43.5% obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and 63.8% centrally obese (waist circumference ≥88 cm for women, ≥102 cm for men). Of patients on blood pressure lowering medication 47.0% reached the target of <140/90 mm Hg (<140/85 mm Hg in people with diabetes). Among treated dyslipidaemic patients only 46.9% attained low density lipoprotein-cholesterol target of <2.6 mmol/l. Among people treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus, 65.2% achieved the HbA1c target of <7.0%. CONCLUSION: The primary care arm of the EUROASPIRE V survey revealed that large proportions of people at high cardiovascular disease risk have unhealthy lifestyles and inadequate control of blood pressure, lipids and diabetes. Thus, the potential to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease throughout Europe by improved preventive cardiology programmes is substantial.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 726-733, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysglycemia, in this survey defined as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes, is common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and associated with an unfavorable prognosis. This European survey investigated dysglycemia screening and risk factor management of patients with CAD in relation to standards of European guidelines for cardiovascular subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Society of Cardiology's European Observational Research Programme (ESC EORP) European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) V (2016-2017) included 8,261 CAD patients, aged 18-80 years, from 27 countries. If the glycemic state was unknown, patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and measurement of glycated hemoglobin A1c. Lifestyle, risk factors, and pharmacological management were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 2,452 patients (29.7%) had known diabetes. OGTT was performed in 4,440 patients with unknown glycemic state, of whom 41.1% were dysglycemic. Without the OGTT, 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes and 70% of those with IGT would not have been detected. The presence of dysglycemia almost doubled from that self-reported to the true proportion after screening. Only approximately one-third of all coronary patients had completely normal glucose metabolism. Of patients with known diabetes, 31% had been advised to attend a diabetes clinic, and only 24% attended. Only 58% of dysglycemic patients were prescribed all cardioprotective drugs, and use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (3%) or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (1%) was small. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent action is required for both screening and management of patients with CAD and dysglycemia, in the expectation of a substantial reduction in risk of further cardiovascular events and in complications of diabetes, as well as longer life expectancy.

14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 162: 108092, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109519

RESUMO

The Guideline Workshop 2019, held in October 2019 in Munich, Germany, had the purpose of facilitating discussion on strategies for optimization of guideline processes in diabetes amongst a group of representatives of renown national and international societies in the field of diabetes, cardiology, and nephrology. Results of this panel's discussions are presented in this manuscript and comprise a variety of suggestions for improving the quality and usability of guidelines, as well as to accelerate the development and responsiveness of guidelines to newly published, relevant data from clinical trials such as cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes mellitus. These include, but are not limited to, recommendations to optimize presentation of content in guidelines, use of the GRADE-approach to rating the quality of evidence to harmonize guidelines, and utilization of digital health technologies to accelerate, streamline, and optimize communication on relevant data and development of clinical guidelines and necessary updates, while reducing costs. Recognizing that achieving alignment in guideline development among various medical organizations will be a long-term process, representatives from cross-sectional medical organizations relevant to cardio-renal metabolic disease and experts in guideline methodology will work together in the future. Among other activities, it is planned to continue the activity and organize a Guideline Workshop in 2020.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Nefropatias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Alemanha , Humanos
15.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(2): 106-114, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcome trials have suggested that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists might reduce strokes. We analysed the effect of dulaglutide on stroke within the researching cardiovascular events with a weekly incretin in diabetes (REWIND) trial. METHODS: REWIND was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women (aged ≥50 years) with established or newly detected type 2 diabetes whose HbA1c was 9·5% or less (with no lower limit) on stable doses of up to two oral glucose-lowering drugs with or without basal insulin therapy were eligible if their body-mass index was at least 23 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to weekly subcutaneous injections of either masked dulaglutide 1·5 mg or the same volume of masked placebo (containing the same excipients but without dulaglutide). Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with an interactive web response system with stratification by site. Participants, investigators, the trial leadership, and all other personnel were masked to treatment allocation until the trial was completed and the database was locked. During the treatment period, participants in both groups were instructed to inject study drug on the same day at around the same time, each week. Strokes were categorised as fatal or non-fatal, and as either ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or undetermined. Stroke severity was assessed using the modified Rankin scale. Participants were seen at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and then every 3 months for drug dispensing and every 6 months for detailed assessments, until 1200 confirmed primary outcomes accrued. The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of any component of the composite outcome, which comprised non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular or unknown causes. All analyses were done according to an intention-to-treat strategy that included all randomly assigned participants, irrespective of adherence. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, we screened 12 133 patients, of whom 9901 with type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to either dulaglutide (n=4949) or an equal volume of placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years, cerebrovascular and other cardiovascular outcomes were ascertained and adjudicated. 158 (3·2%) of 4949 participants assigned to dulaglutide and 205 (4·1%) of 4952 participants assigned to placebo had a stroke during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·62-0·94; p=0·010). Dulaglutide reduced ischaemic stroke (0·75, 0·59-0·94, p=0·012) but had no effect on haemorrhagic stroke (1·05, 0·55-1·99; p=0·89). Dulaglutide also reduced the composite of non-fatal stroke or all-cause death (0·88, 0·79-0·98; p=0·017) and disabling stroke (0·74, 0·56-0·99; p=0·042). The degree of disability after stroke did not differ by treatment group. INTERPRETATION: Long-term dulaglutide use might reduce clinically relevant ischaemic stroke in people with type 2 diabetes but does not affect stroke severity. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 25-32, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722562

RESUMO

The global prevalence of diabetes is predicted to increase dramatically in the coming decades as the population grows and ages, in parallel with the rising burden of overweight and obesity, in both developed and developing countries. Cardiovascular disease represents the principal cause of death and morbidity among people with diabetes, especially in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adults with diabetes have 2-4 times increased cardiovascular risk compared with adults without diabetes, and the risk rises with worsening glycaemic control. Diabetes has been associated with 75% increase in mortality rate in adults, and cardiovascular disease accounts for a large part of the excess mortality. Diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications, including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal disease, diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy are responsible for the impaired quality of life, disability and premature death associated with diabetes. Given the substantial clinical impact of diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor, there has been a growing focus on diabetes-related complications. While some population-based studies suggest that the epidemiology of such complications is changing and that rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with diabetes are decreasing in high-income countries, the economic and social burden of diabetes is expected to rise due to changing demographics and lifestyle especially in middle- and low-income countries. In this review we outline data from population-based studies on recent and long-term trends in diabetes-related complications.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 81-91, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766912

RESUMO

Dysglycaemia (i.e. type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance) is not only common in patients with cardiovascular disease but increases the risk for future cardiovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia, the hallmark of diabetes, has since long been considered to be the link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is, however, a complex, multifactorial disorder to which, for example, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and factors such as increased thrombogenicity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia contribute. Thus, treatment needs to be multifactorial and to take cardiovascular aspects into account. Life-style adjustments are, together with blood pressure, lipid and glucose control, important parts of such management. Recent trial data reveal a beneficial effect on cardiovascular prognosis and mortality of blood glucose lowering agents belonging to the classes: sodium-glucose-transporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists. The precise mechanisms by which certain sodium-glucose-transporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists lead to these beneficial effects are only partly understood. An important impact of the benefits of sodium-glucose-transporter 2 inhibitors is a reduction in heart failure while glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists may retard the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease or stabilising plaques. Although there has been a considerable improvement in the prognosis for people with atherosclerotic diseases over the last decades there is still a gap between those with dysglycaemia, who are at higher risk, than those without dysglycaemia. This residual risk is reasonably related to two major factors: a demand for improved management and a need for new and improved therapeutic opportunities of type 2 diabetes, both routes to an improved prognosis that are at hands. This review is a comprehensive description of the possibilities to improve the prognosis for patients with dysglycaemia by a multifactorial management according to the most recent European guidelines issued in 2019 by the European Society of Cardiology in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 33-46, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766917

RESUMO

A cluster of metabolic factors have been merged into an entity named the metabolic syndrome. Although the characteristics of this syndrome have varied over time the presently used definition was established in 2009. The presence of three abnormal findings out of five components qualifies a person for the metabolic syndrome: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting plasma glucose. Cut points have been defined for all components apart from waist circumference, for which national or regional values are used. The metabolic syndrome predicts cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This associated risk does not exceed its components whereof elevated blood pressure is the most frequent. A successful management should, however, address all factors involved. The management is always based on healthy lifestyle choices but has not infrequently to be supported by pharmacological treatment, especially blood pressure lowering drugs. The metabolic syndrome is a useful example of the importance of multiple targets for preventive interventions. To be successful management has to be individualized not the least when it comes to pharmacological therapy. Frail elderly people should not be over-treated. Knowledge transfer of how risk factors act should be accompanied by continuous trust building and motivation. In complex situations with a mix of biological risk factors, adverse social conditions and unhealthy lifestyle, everything cannot be changed at once. It is better to aim for small steps that are lasting than large, unsustainable steps with relapses to unhealthy behaviours. A person with the metabolic syndrome will always be afflicted by its components, which is the reason that management has to be sustained over a very long time. This review summarizes the knowledge on the metabolic syndrome and its management according to present state of the art.

20.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 73-80, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766918

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, and many patients with diabetes have prevalent cardiovascular complications. Recent cardiovascular outcome clinical trials suggest that certain new glucose-lowering drugs are accompanied by additional cardioprotective properties. Indeed, selected glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have a proved cardiovascular benefit in terms of a reduced incidence of ischaemic events, while sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors have also shown significant protection, with a striking effect on heart failure and renal endpoints. These findings have been integrated in recent guidelines which now recommend prescribing (when initial metformin monotherapy fails) a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist or a sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor with clinical trial-confirmed benefit in patients with diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and a sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor in such patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease at initial stages. Furthermore, the new 2019 European Society of Cardiology guidelines in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist or a sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. Future research will disentangle the mechanisms underpinning these beneficial effects and will also establish to what extent these results are generalisable to the whole diabetes population. In the meantime, available evidence should prompt a wide diffusion of these two classes of drugs among patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we briefly summarise recent findings emerging from cardiovascular outcome clinical trials, discuss their impact on treatment algorithms and propose new possible approaches to improve our knowledge further regarding the cardiovascular effect of glucose-lowering medications.

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