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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 259: 112843, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380246

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruit of Vitex rotundifolia L. (Verbenaceae) has been used in traditional medicine as sedative or analgesic agent for headache. Recent population-based cohort studies have shown that headache including migraines is a risk factor for dementia. Thus, the fruit of V. rotundifolia may be useful for treating cognitive dysfunction observed in dementia. AIM OF THE STUDY: We had previously found that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of V. rotundifolia ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and isolated casticin as an active compound. In the present study, we studied the effect of casticin on a mouse model of cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were treated with the ethanolic extract of the fruit of V. rotundifolia (EEVR; 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o.) or casticin (0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg, p.o.). We examined the effect of casticin or EEVR using the passive avoidance test, the Morris water maze test and the novel object recognition test. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce cognitive impairment by blocking cholinergic neurotransmitter system. We investigated the effects of casticin on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). RESULTS: EEVR (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the latency in the passive avoidance test, and casticin (1 and 3 mg/kg, p.o.) also significantly improved the latency in the passive avoidance test, novel object preference in the novel object recognition test, and swimming time in the target quadrant of the Morris water maze test. Casticin also decreased AChE activity in ex vivo analysis and increased the phosphorylation levels of memory-related signaling molecules, such as ERK, CREB and BDNF in the cortex. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that casticin ameliorates cholinergic blockade-induced cognitive impairment, in part, through the inhibition of AChE and the activation of the ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway. Taken together, the results suggest that casticin may be useful for treating the cognitive dysfunction observed during cholinergic impairment.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 258: 112923, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360798

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Green tea has been used as a traditional medicine to control brain function and digestion. Recent works suggest that drinking green tea could prevent cognitive function impairment. During tea manufacturing processes, such as brewing and sterilization, green tea catechins are epimerized. However, the effects of heat-epimerized catechins on cognitive function are still unknown. To take this advantage, we developed a new green tea extract, high temperature processed-green tea extract (HTP-GTE), which has a similar catechin composition to green tea beverages. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of HTP-GTE on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuronal differentiation, and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The neuronal differentiation promoting effects of HTP-GTE in SH-SY5Y cells was assessed by evaluating neurite length and the expression level of synaptophysin. The DNA methylation status at the synaptophysin promoter was determined in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and in the hippocampi of mice. HTP-GTE was administered for 10 days at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg (p.o.) to mice, and its effects on cognitive functions were measured by Y-maze and passive avoidance tests under scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade state. RESULTS: HTP-GTE induced neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth via the upregulation of synaptophysin gene expression. These beneficial effects of HTP-GTE resulted from reducing DNA methylation levels at the synaptophysin promoter via the suppression of DNMT1 activity. The administration of HTP-GTE ameliorated cognitive impairments in a scopolamine-treated mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HTP-GTE could alleviate cognitive impairment by regulating synaptophysin expression and DNA methylation levels. Taken together, HTP-GTE would be a promising treatment for the cognitive impairment observed in dysfunction of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414166

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine whether rubrofusarin, an active ingredient of the Cassia species, has an antidepressive effect in chronic restraint stress (CRS) mouse model. Although acute treatment using rubrofusarin failed, chronic treatment using rubrofusarin ameliorated CRS-induced depressive symptoms. Rubrofusarin treatment significantly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells and caspase-3 activation within the hippocampus of CRS-treated mice. Moreover, rubrofusarin treatment significantly increased the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of CRS-treated mice. CRS induced activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß and regulated development and DNA damage responses, and reductions in the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway activity were also reversed by rubrofusarin treatment. Microglial activation and inflammasome markers, including nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 and adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD, which were induced by CRS, were ameliorated by rubrofusarin. Synaptic plasticity dysfunction within the hippocampus was also rescued by rubrofusarin treatment. Within in vitro experiments, rubrofusarin blocked corticosterone-induced long-term potentiation impairments. These were blocked by LY294002, which is an Akt inhibitor. Finally, we found that the antidepressant effects of rubrofusarin were blocked by an intracerebroventricular injection of LY294002. These results suggest that rubrofusarin ameliorated CRS-induced depressive symptoms through PI3K/Akt signaling.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428535

RESUMO

The γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor, which contains a chloride channel, is a typical inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor in the central nervous system. Although the GABAergic neurotransmitter system has been discovered to be involved in various psychological behaviors, such as anxiety, convulsions, and cognitive function, its functional changes under conditions of ischemic pathological situation are still uncovered. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the functional changes in the GABAergic system after transient forebrain ischemia in mice. A bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min was used to establish a model of transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (tI/R). Delayed treatment with diazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, increased locomotor activity in the open field test and spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze test in tI/R mice, but not in shams. Delayed treatment with diazepam did not alter neuronal death or the number of GABAergic neurons in tI/R mice. However, tI/R induced changes in the protein levels of GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus. In particular, the most marked increase in the tI/R group was found in the level of α5 subunit of the GABAA receptor. Similar to delayed treatment with diazepam, delayed treatment with imidazenil, an α5-sensitive benzodiazepine, increased spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze in tI/R mice, whereas zolpidem, an α5-insensitive benzodiazepine, failed to show such effects. These results suggest that tI/R-induced changes in the level of the α5 subunit of the GABAA receptor can alter the function of GABAergic drugs in a mouse model of forebrain ischemia.

5.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(14): 3197-3209, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent disease associated with cognitive dysfunction. Current AD therapeutic agents have several gastrointestinal or psychological adverse effects and therefore, novel therapeutic agents with fewer adverse effects must be developed. Previously, we demonstrated that oleanolic acid, which is similar in chemical structure to maslinic acid, ameliorates cognitive impairment through the activation of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TrkB)-ERK-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In the present study, we investigate the effect of maslinic acid on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. METHODS AND KEY RESULTS: Maslinic acid reversed scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as determined by the Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. In addition, we also observed that ERK-CREB, PI3K and PKB (Akt) phosphorylation levels were increased by maslinic acid administration in the mouse hippocampus. Moreover, we determined that the effects of maslinic acid on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance test were abolished by a specific TrkB receptor antagonist (ANA-12). Additionally, we observed similar temporal changes in the expression levels between BDNF and tissue plasminogen activator in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that maslinic acid enhances cognitive function through the activation of BDNF and its downstream pathway signalling in the hippocampus and that it might be a potential therapeutic agent for cognitive decline, such as that observed in AD.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3197, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081992

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex brain development disorder characterized by hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A major hypothesis of ADHD is a lag of maturation, which is supported mainly by anatomical studies evaluating cortical thickness. Here, we analyzed changes of topological characteristics of whole-brain metabolic connectivity in twelve SHR rats selected as ADHD-model rats by confirming behavior abnormalities using the marble burying test, open field test, and delay discounting task and 12 Wistar Kyoto rats as the control group, across development from 4 weeks old (childhood) and 6 weeks old (entry of puberty). A topological approach based on graph filtrations revealed a lag in the strengthening of limbic-cortical/subcortical connections in ADHD-model rats. This in turn related to impaired modularization of memory and reward-motivation associated regions. Using mathematical network analysis techniques such as single linkage hierarchical clustering and volume entropy, we observed left-lateralized connectivity in the ADHD-model rats at 6 weeks old. Our findings supported the maturational delay of metabolic connectivity in the SHR model of ADHD, and also suggested the possibility of impaired and compensative reconfiguration of information flow over the brain network.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 253: 112651, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035879

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dracocephalum moldavica (Moldavian balm) has been traditionally used for the treatment of intellectual disabilities, migraines and cardiovascular problems in East Asia. Recent scientific studies have demonstrated the usefulness of this plant to treat neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ethanolic extract of D. moldavica leaves (EEDM) on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice and the underlying mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The behavioral effects of EEDM were examined using the step-through passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we tested whether EEDM affects acetylcholinesterase activity and the expression of memory-related signaling molecules including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus. RESULTS: EEDM (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced step-through latency reduction in the passive avoidance task in mice. In the Morris water maze task, EEDM (50 mg/kg) significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Furthermore, the administration of EEDM increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus but did not alter acetylcholinesterase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EEDM significantly attenuates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving memory impairment.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 954-964, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730956

RESUMO

Botanical polysaccharides have been widely known to possess immunological activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunostimulatory properties of polysaccharides isolated from barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L.) (BLE0) in splenocytes and cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced immunosuppressed mice. BLE0 showed cell proliferative activity and markedly increased the secretion of both Th1-cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) and Th2-cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in CD3/CD28-activated splenocytes. Molecular data revealed that BLE0 up-regulated the expression of T-bet with enhanced phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 signaling pathway. BLE0 also increase the phosphorylation of GATA3 via toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-mediated signaling pathway with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation. Oral administration of BLE0 effectively improved CYP-induced decrease of body weight, splenocyte proliferation, and natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity and significantly increased Th1 and Th2 cytokines, T-bet, and GATA3 mRNA expression. Dietary intake of BLE0 improves the immunological manifestations by stimulating both Th1 and Th2 responses via JAK/STAT1/T-bet and TLR2/GATA3, respectively.

9.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 28(2): 131-136, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791115

RESUMO

Hippocampal synaptic dysfunction is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many agents regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity show an ameliorative effect on AD pathology, making them potential candidates for AD therapy. In the present study, we investigated spinosin as a regulating agent of synaptic plasticity in AD. Spinosin attenuated amyloid ß (Aß)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment, and improved plasmin activity and protein level in the hippocampi of 5XFAD mice, a transgenic AD mouse model. Moreover, the effect of spinosin on hippocampal LTP in 5XFAD mice was prevented by 6-aminocaproic acid, a plasmin inhibitor. These results suggest that spinosin improves synaptic function in the AD hippocampus by regulating plasmin activity.

10.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(2): 130-137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium (EHDF) on physical stress, changes in the whole-body cortisol level and behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio). METHODS: One hundred and seventy-four fish were randomly divided into 4 [adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) challenge test: 4 fish per group] or 6 groups (behavioural test: 10-12 fish per group, whole-body cortisol: 4 fish per group). Net handling stress (NHS) was used to induce physical stress. Fish were treated with vehicle or EHDF (5-20 mg/L) for 6 min before they were exposed to stress. And then, fish were sacrificed for collecting body fluid from whole-body or conducted behavioural tests, including novel tank test and open field test, and were evaluated to observe anxiety-like behaviours and locomotion. In addition, to elucidate the mode of action of the anti-stress effects of EHDF, ACTH (0.2 IU/g, i.p.) challenge test was performed. RESULTS: The increased anxiety-like behaviours in novel tank test and open field test under stress were prevented by treatment with EHDF at 5-20 mg/L (P <0.05). Moreover, compared with the unstressed group, which was not treated with NHS, the whole-body cortisol level was significantly increased by treatment with NHS (P <0.05). Compared with the NHS-treated stressed control group, pre-treatment with EHDF at concentrations of 5-20 mg/L for 6 min significantly prevented the NHS-increased whole-body cortisol level (<0.05). In addition, ACTH challenge test showed that EHDF completely blocked the effects of ACTH on cortisol secretion (P <0.05). CONCLUSION: EHDF may be a good antistress candidate and its mechanism of action may be related to its positive effects on cortisol release.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Hydrangea/química , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Flores/química , Peixe-Zebra
11.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(1): 149-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A botanical drug derived from the ethanolic extract composed of Clematis chinensis Osbeck (Ranunculaceae), Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz (Cucurbitaceae) and Prunella vulgaris Linné (Lamiaceae) has been used to ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis as an ethical drug in Korea. In our study, we investigated the effect of this herbal complex extract (HCE) on schizophrenia-like behaviours induced by MK-801. METHODS: HCE (30, 100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o) was orally administered to male ICR mice to a schizophrenia-like animal model induced by MK-801. We conducted an acoustic startle response task, an open-field task, a novel object recognition task and a social novelty preference task. KEY FINDINGS: We found that a single administration of HCE (100 or 300 mg/kg) ameliorated MK-801-induced abnormal behaviours including sensorimotor gating deficits and social or object recognition memory deficits. In addition, MK-801-induced increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3ß expression levels in the prefrontal cortex were reversed by HCE (30, 100 or 300 mg/kg). CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that HCE ameliorates MK-801-induced dysfunctions in prepulse inhibition, social interactions and cognitive function, partly by regulating the Akt and GSK-3ß signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/prevenção & controle , Filtro Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clematis , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Maleato de Dizocilpina , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/psicologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fosforilação , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Prunella , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Social , Trichosanthes
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 178: 112919, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654856

RESUMO

Spinosin, which is traditionally used for sedation and sleep disorders, has recently shown potential effects in alleviating memory loss. As spinosin is the main bioactive component in a standardized dried 50% ethanol extract of the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, a Phase IIb clinical trial is ongoing, in Korea for the combination of the above extract formulated in a tablet (DHP1401 tablet) with donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept® tablet) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, to promote safety and efficacy evaluations, a reliable method for the simultaneous detection and analysis of the two drugs is needed. Toward this end, in this study, we established and validated a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of donepezil, its pharmacologically active metabolite 6-O-desmethyl donepezil, and spinosin in beagle dog plasma (50 µL). After optimization of the system, we used methanol for simple protein precipitation. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (100 × 2.0 mm, 3 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in distilled water (2:8, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.65 mL/min. All analytes were detected and quantified in selected reaction monitoring mode. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.9965) over the concentration range of 0.02-20, 0.02-10, and 0.5-250 ng/mL for donepezil, for 6-O-desmethyl donepezil, and spinosin, respectively. This validated method was then successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs with no evidence for potential drug-drug interactions between DHP1401 and donepezil hydrochloride. This information and optimized assay can be useful for the anticipated co-administration of these two drugs in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Donepezila/sangue , Flavonoides/sangue , Indanos/sangue , Piperidinas/sangue , Plasma/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cães , Interações Medicamentosas , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Ziziphus/química
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 943, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819047

RESUMO

In the current study we present evidence suggesting that PARP-1 regulates neurogenesis and its deficiency may result in schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits in mice. PARP-1 knockout neural stem cells exhibited a marked upregulation of embryonic stem cell phosphatase that can suppress the proliferative signaling of PI3K-Akt and ERK. The suppressed activity of Akt and ERK in the absence of PARP-1 results in the elevation of FOXO1 activity and its downstream target genes p21 and p27, leading to the inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. Moreover, expression of neurogenic factors and neuronal differentiation were decreased in the PARP-1 knockout neural stem cells whereas glial differentiation was increased. In accordance with the in vitro data, PARP-1 knockout mice exhibited reduced brain weight with enlarged ventricle as well as decreased adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, PARP-1 knockout mice exhibited schizophrenia-like symptoms such as anxiety, depression, social interaction deficits, cognitive impairments, and prepulse inhibition deficits. Taken together, our results suggest that PARP-1 regulates neurogenesis during development and in adult and its absence may lead to the schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormality in mice.

14.
Neurochem Int ; 131: 104537, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425745

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important chronic neurodegenerative disorder and is mainly associated with cognitive dysfunction. At present, bioactive compounds from traditional medicinal plants have received much attention for the enhancement of cognitive function. Danshensu, a phenolic acid isolated from herbal medicines, has various pharmacological activities in the central nervous system, including anxiolytic-like and neuroprotective properties. The present study aimed to investigate the ameliorating effects of danshensu on scopolamine- and amyloid-ß (Aß) protein-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Danshensu (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) effectively ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction in mice, as measured in passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks. In a mechanistic study, danshensu inhibited monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activity but not MAO-B. Additionally, danshensu treatment increased the dopamine level and the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), in the cortex of the brain. Furthermore, the ameliorating effect of danshensu against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment was fully blocked by H89, a PKA inhibitor. Finally, danshensu also ameliorated Aß-induced cognitive impairments in an animal model of AD. The results revealed that danshensu treatment significantly improved scopolamine and Aß-induced cognitive impairments in mice by facilitation of dopamine signaling cascade such as PKA and CREB due to MAO-A inhibition. Thus, danshensu could be used as a promising therapeutic agent for preventing and treating AD.

15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110698, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348966

RESUMO

The misfolding and aggregation of amyloid ß (Aß) peptide is a common histopathologic characteristic in patients with Alzheimer's disease, so is considered to play an critical role. In the present study, we examined the effect of rubrofusarin, an ingredient of Cassiae semen, on Aß aggregation and memory loss in an AD mouse model. Rubrofusarin inhibited Aß aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, rubrofusarin dis-aggregated preformed Aß fibrils in a concentration-dependent manner. Although aggregated Aß induced memory loss, Aß pre-incubated with rubrofusarin failed to induce memory loss. Moreover, rubrofusarin administration ameliorated Aß aggregates-induced memory loss. Finally, rubrofusarin reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein or Iba-1-positive area, markers of neuroinflammation, in the hippocampus of Aß-treated mice. These results suggest that rubrofusarin can decrease Aß fibril formation and ameliorate memory loss in the AD mouse model.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pironas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7289-7296, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244195

RESUMO

The flower buds of Rosa rugosa Thunb. have been commonly used as a source of rose oil and as an ingredient in tea in eastern Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Repeated chromatography of a hot water extract from the flower buds of R. rugosa led to the isolation and characterization of three new depside glucosides, rosarugosides A-C (1-3), along with three phenolic compounds, one ionone glucoside, four flavonoids, and two tannins having known chemical structures. Linarionoside A and 2-phenylethyl-(6- O-galloyl)-ß-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from R. rugosa for the first time in this study. The structures of the new compounds 1-3 were elucidated by interpreting one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Among the isolates, a new depside glucoside (1) and two major phenolic glucosides (4 and 5) improved MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficits, which were measured via an acoustic startle response test in mice.


Assuntos
Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/química , Depsídeos/química , Flores/química , Glucosídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosa/química , Animais , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Filtro Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Med Food ; 22(7): 685-695, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225769

RESUMO

The leaves of Aster glehni Fr. Schm. (Asteraceae) have been used to treat insomnia in Korea. Insomnia is a common adverse effect of therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the control of sleep disturbance may prevent dementia. We hypothesized that the leaves of A. glehni can attenuate cognitive dysfunctions observed in AD. We observed the ameliorating effects of the ethanolic extract of leaves of A. glehni (AG-D) on memory dysfunction through the Morris water maze test, the passive avoidance test, and the Y-maze test. We performed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity assay and Western blotting to determine the mechanism of action of AG-D. AG-D significantly attenuated memory dysfunction observed in the above behavior studies and inhibited the activity of AChE. AG-D also increased the levels of phosphorylation extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampi. These results suggest that AG-D ameliorates memory impairments by AChE inhibition and activation of ERK-CREB-BDNF and PI3K-Akt-GSK-3ß signaling pathways. Taken together, this study suggests that AG-D could be used as a potential treatment for cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Aster/química , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 27(3): 327-335, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006181

RESUMO

As the elderly population is increasing, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a global issue and many clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate treatments for AD. As these clinical trials have been conducted and have failed, the development of new theraphies for AD with fewer adverse effects remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the effects of Theracurmin on cognitive decline using 5XFAD mice, an AD mouse model. Theracurmin is more bioavailable form of curcumin, generated with submicron colloidal dispersion. Mice were treated with Theracurmin (100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg) for 12 weeks and were subjected to the novel object recognition test and the Barnes maze test. Theracurmin-treated mice showed significant amelioration in recognition and spatial memories compared those of the vehicle-treated controls. In addition, the antioxidant activities of Theracurmin were investigated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels. The increased MDA level and decreased SOD and GSH levels in the vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice were significantly reversed by the administration of Theracurmin. Moreover, we observed that Theracurmin administration elevated the expression levels of synaptic components, including synaptophysin and post synaptic density protein 95, and decreased the expression levels of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), a marker of activated microglia. These results suggest that Theracurmin ameliorates cognitive function by increasing the expression of synaptic components and by preventing neuronal cell damage from oxidative stress or from the activation of microglia. Thus, Theracurmin would be useful for treating the cognitive dysfunctions observed in AD.

19.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(3): 379-388, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828070

RESUMO

Bee pollen consists of floral pollen mixed with bee secretions and nectar. It has been considered as a functional food and has different kinds of biologically active ingredients, such as flavonoids, polyphenols, phytosterols and minerals. However, its function in cognition has yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the ameliorating effect of bee pollen against scopolamine-caused cognitive impairment through the passive avoidance test, the Y-maze test and the Morris water maze test. In addition, Western blotting was employed to verify the effects of bee pollen on memory-related signaling molecules in the hippocampus. Bee pollen extract (100 or 300 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) obviously reversed scopolamine-caused cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test, ameliorated spontaneous alternation versus the scopolamine-treated group in the Y-maze test and prolonged swimming time in the target zone in the Morris water maze test. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the hippocampi, were increased in response to the treatment with bee pollen extract (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o.). These results indicated that bee pollen ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic blockade through the enhancing conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF by tPA, probably, through the ERK-CREB pathway or Akt-GSK-3ß signaling pathway and would be a useful agent for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Pólen , Escopolamina/toxicidade , Animais , Abelhas , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 233: 73-79, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605739

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow (Rhamnaceae) have long been treated as hypnotic agent for sleep disturbances in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine and many previous studies have focused on its effect in central nervous system. AIMS OF STUDY: The present study aimed to provide evidence showing that the ethanol extract of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa seeds (EEZS), which may regulate plasmin activity, has the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent for AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synaptic function was determined by measuring long-term potentiation (LTP) in Shaffer-collateral pathway of the hippocampus. Protein levels of plasmin or plasminogen were examined using western blotting. Plasmin activity was measured using ELISA. Cognitive functions were measured using passive avoidance and object recognition tests in the 5XFAD mice. RESULTS: Our in vitro analysis revealed that EEZS-treated hippocampal slices from 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of AD, showed significantly higher long-term potentiation levels than did vehicle-treated hippocampal slices from 5XFAD mice (P < 0.05). Additionally, EEZS significantly elevated the plasmin level and activity in the hippocampal slices from 5XFAD mice (P < 0.05). Co-treating the slices with EEZS and 6-aminocaproic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, blocked the ameliorating effects of EEZS on the synaptic deficits that were present in 5XFAD mice. Compatible with the in vitro study, the results of our in vivo investigation showed that administering EEZS orally to 5XFAD mice ameliorated their memory impairments. Orally administered EEZS also elevated the plasmin level and activity in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings suggest that EEZS alleviates the AD-like symptoms in 5XFAD mice by regulating of plasmin activity and EEZS may be a suitable treatment for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ziziphus , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Fibrinolisina/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos
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