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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e24526, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive training can potentially prevent cognitive decline. However, the results of recent studies using semi-immersive virtual reality (VR)-assisted cognitive training are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the hypothesis that cognitive training using fully immersive VR, which may facilitate visuospatial processes, could improve visuospatial functioning, comprehensive neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and functional connectivity in the visual brain network in predementia. METHODS: Participants over 60 years old with subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment from a memory clinic were randomly allocated to the VR (n=23) or the control (n=18) group. The VR group participants received multidomain and neuropsychologist-assisted cognitive training in a fully immersive VR environment twice a week for 1 month. The control group participants did not undergo any additional intervention except for their usual therapy such as pharmacotherapy. Participants of both groups were evaluated for cognitive function using face-to-face comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) copy task; for psychiatric symptoms such as depression, apathy, affect, and quality of life; as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) at baseline and after training. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the effect of cognitive training between groups. Seed-to-voxel-based analyses were used to identify the cognitive improvement-related functional connectivity in the visual network of the brain. RESULTS: After VR cognitive training, significant improvement was found in the total score (F1,39=14.69, P=.001) and basic components score of the RCFT copy task (F1,39=9.27, P=.005) compared with those of the control group. The VR group also showed improvements, albeit not significant, in naming ability (F1,39=3.55, P=.07), verbal memory delayed recall (F1,39=3.03, P=.09), and phonemic fluency (F1,39=3.08, P=.09). Improvements in psychiatric symptoms such as apathy (F1,39=7.02, P=.01), affect (F1,39=14.40, P=.001 for positive affect; F1,39=4.23, P=.047 for negative affect), and quality of life (F1,39=4.49, P=.04) were found in the VR group compared to the control group. Improvement in the RCFT copy task was associated with a frontal-occipital functional connectivity increase revealed by rsfMRI in the VR group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Fully immersive VR cognitive training had positive effects on the visuospatial function, apathy, affect, quality of life, and increased frontal-occipital functional connectivity in older people in a predementia state. Future trials using VR cognitive training with larger sample sizes and more sophisticated designs over a longer duration may reveal greater improvements in cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and brain functional connectivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service KCT0005243; https://tinyurl.com/2a4kfasa.

2.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate secular trends in domain-specific physical activity in the immigrant population in the US between 2009 and 2018. METHOD: A secondary data analysis from the 2009-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a total of 7282 immigrants in the US were included in this analysis. All domain-specific physical activity was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Tests for linear trends were performed to examine the trends of each physical activity time using orthogonal polynomial coefficients. Physical activity trends were assessed by the whole group and the various subgroups. RESULTS: Total physical activity showed an upward linear trend in female (Ptrend = .04) and young adult (Ptrend = .009) immigrants. Work-related physical activity showed an upward linear trend in young adult immigrants (Ptrend = .01). Recreational physical activity showed an upward linear trend in young adult (Ptrend = .03) and Mexican American (Ptrend < .001) immigrants and in immigrants living in the US for 15-29 years (Ptrend = .02). In contrast, we observed downward linear trends in transit-related physical activity for immigrants across male (Ptrend = .04), middle-aged adult (Ptrend = .01), and non-Hispanic black groups (Ptrend = .004) and in immigrants living in the US for 15-29 years (Ptrend = .03). CONCLUSION: There were no significant linear trends in the 4 domains of physical activity in the overall US immigrant population; however, trends in domain-specific physical activity in the US immigrant population differed by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and length of residence. These findings may inform physical activity promotion strategies targeting US immigrant populations with diverse sociocultural backgrounds.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many high-income Western countries, the prevalence of dementia had been reduced over the past decades. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the prevalence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had changed in Korea from 2008 to 2017. METHODS: Nationwide Survey on Dementia Epidemiology of Korea (NaSDEK) in 2008 and 2017 was conducted on representative elderly populations that were randomly sampled across South Korea. Both surveys employed a two-stage design (screening and diagnostic phases) and diagnosed dementia and MCI according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the consensus criteria from the International Working Group, respectively. The numbers of participants aged 65 years or older in the screening and diagnostic phases were 6,141 and 1,673 in the NaSDEK 2008 and 2,972 and 474 in the NaSDEK 2017, respectively. RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease showed nonsignificant decrease (12.3% to 9.8%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54-1.48 for all-cause dementia; 7.6% to 6.8%, OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.58-1.42] for Alzheimer's disease). Vascular dementia decreased in the young-old population aged less than 75 years (2.7% to 0.001%, OR [95% CI] = 0.04 [0.01-0.15]) and in women (1.9% to 0.5%, OR [95% CI] = 0.27 [0.10-0.72]) while MCI remained stable (25.3% to 26.2%, OR [95% CI] = 1.08 [0.67-1.73]). CONCLUSION: We found that the prevalence of dementia in Korea showed a nonsignificant decrease between 2008 and 2017.

4.
Menopause ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether hormonal changes during menopausal transition postmenopause stages influence pulmonary function is not clearly understood. We evaluated the association between each stage of menopause and the prevalence of abnormal lung function in healthy middle-aged women. We hypothesized that the prevalence of abnormal lung function would increase from the late menopausal transition stage during menopausal transition postmenopause stages. METHODS: The study population included women 40 to 65 years of age who underwent comprehensive health screening examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers from January 2015 to December 2017. Stages of menopause (premenopausal, early menopausal transition, late menopausal transition, and postmenopausal) were defined using the 2011 Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW + 10) criteria. Abnormal lung function was defined based on spirometry as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity less than70% or forced vital capacity less than 80% predicted. Prevalence ratios (PRs) for abnormal lung function by stages of menopause were estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age, anthropometric measurements, lifestyle factors, medical history, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers, and reproductive factors. RESULTS: Among 43,822 participants, there were 4,615 participants (10.5%) with restrictive ventilatory disorder and 653 participants (1.5%) with obstructive ventilatory disorder. The fully adjusted PRs (95% confidence interval) for abnormal ventilatory disorder comparing early menopausal transition, late menopausal transition, and postmenopausal stage to premenopausal stage were 1.01 (0.94-1.08), 1.13 (1.03-1.22), and 1.10 (0.98-1.22), respectively. The fully adjusted PRs for restrictive ventilatory disorder comparing early menopausal transition, late menopausal transition, and postmenopausal stages to premenopausal stage were 1.02 (0.94-1.11), 1.18 (1.06-1.30), and 1.15 (1.00-1.31), respectively. There was, however, no clear association between stages of menopause and obstructive ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of middle-aged women, the fully adjusted prevalence of abnormal lung function, particularly that of restrictive ventilatory disorder, was higher in women in late menopausal transition and menopausal stages compared to women in premenopausal stage.

5.
Neurology ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of single sensory impairment (SSI; visual or auditory) or dual sensory impairment (DSI; visual and auditory) on dementia and longitudinal changes of neuropsychological test scores. METHODS: In this nationwide, prospective, community-based elderly cohort study, Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD), 6,520 elderly individuals (58-101 year) representing the general population were included. We defined visual and auditory sensory impairment via self-report questionnaire: 932 had a normal sensory function, 2957 had a SSI, and 2631 had a DSI. Demographic and clinical variables including cognitive outcomes were evaluated every two years over six years. Through logistic regression, Cox regression, and linear mixed model analysis, the relationship between SSI or DSI and dementia prevalence, dementia incidence, and change in neuropsychological scores were evaluated. RESULTS: At baseline, DSI was significantly associated with increased dementia prevalence compared to normal sensory function (OR=2.17, 95% CI [1.17-4.02]), but SSI was not (OR=1.27, 95% CI [0.66-2.41]). During the 6-year follow-up, the incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the DSI group than in the normal sensory function (HR=1.9, 95% CI [1.04-3.46]), and neuropsychological scores significantly decreased (ß=-0.87, 95% CI [-1.17--0.58]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that coexisting visual and hearing impairments facilitate dementia prevalence, dementia incidence, and cognitive decline, but visual or hearing impairment alone do not. Additionally, visual and hearing impairment may lead to dementia or cognitive decline independent of Alzheimer's pathology.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8103, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854107

RESUMO

We examined the associations of smoking status and urinary cotinine levels, an objective measure of smoking, with the development of new-onset HL. This cohort study was performed in 293,991 Korean adults free of HL who underwent a comprehensive screening examination and were followed for up to 8.8 years. HL was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz ≥ 25 dB in both ears. During a median follow-up of 4.9 years, 2286 participants developed new-onset bilateral HL. Self-reported smoking status was associated with an increased risk of new-onset bilateral HL. Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for incident HL comparing former smokers and current smokers to never-smokers were 1.14 (1.004-1.30) and 1.40 (1.21-1.61), respectively. Number of cigarettes, pack-years, and urinary cotinine levels were consistently associated with incident HL. These associations were similarly observed when introducing changes in smoking status, urinary cotinine, and other confounders during follow-up as time-varying covariates. In this large cohort of young and middle-aged men and women, smoking status based on both self-report and urinary cotinine level were independently associated with an increased incidence of bilateral HL. Our findings indicate smoking is an independent risk factor for HL.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effect of weight change on hepatic steatosis (HS) incidence with or without liver fibrosis in metabolically healthy overweight or obese individuals. METHODS: A cohort of 14,779 metabolically healthy men and women who were overweight or obese (BMI ≥23 kg/m2) and free from HS and an intermediate or high probability of fibrosis at baseline were followed for a median of 5.2 years. Metabolic health was defined as freedom from the components of metabolic syndrome and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance <2.5. Weight changes were calculated as differences from baseline at the next subsequent visit. The outcome was HS incidence, with or without liver fibrosis, as assessed by liver ultrasound and two non-invasive fibrosis scores. RESULTS: During 76,794.6 person-years of follow-up, 3,539 cases of HS incidence were identified. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for HS incidence by weight change group, <-5.0%, -5.0%-1.0%, 1.0%-5.0%, and >5.0%, relative to the no weight change group (-0.9% to 0.9%) were 0.52 (0.44-0.60), 0.83 (0.75-0.92), 1.21 (1.10-1.33), and 1.51 (1.36-1.69), respectively. Clinically relevant weight loss of >5% was also associated with a lowered risk of HS with intermediate or high probability of advanced fibrosis. In mediation analyses, associations remained significant, although adjustment for metabolic risk factors was attenuating. DISCUSSION: Clinically relevant weight loss was associated with a reduced risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with or without intermediate or high probability of advanced fibrosis in metabolically healthy overweight or obese individuals.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737406

RESUMO

The impact of blood eosinophil counts on the development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is unknown. We investigated whether a higher blood eosinophil counts was associated with the risk of developing obstructive lung disease (OLD) in a large cohort of men and women free lung disease at baseline.Cohort study of 359 456 Korean adults without a history of asthma and without OLD at baseline who participated in health screening exams including spirometry. OLD was defined as pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.7 and FEV1<80% predicted.After a median follow-up of 5.6 years (interquartile range, 2.9-9.2), 5008 participants developed incident OLD (incidence rate, 2.1 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 2.1-2.2). In the fully-adjusted model, the HR (95% CI) for incident OLD comparing eosinophil counts of 100-<200, 200-<300, 300-<500 and ≥500 cells·µL-1 to <100 cells·µL-1 were 1.07 (1.00-1.15), 1.30 (1.20-1.42), 1.46 (1.33-1.60) and 1.72 (1.51-1.95) (p for trend <0.001). These associations were consistent in clinically relevant subgroups, including never, former, and current smokers.In this large longitudinal cohort study, blood eosinophil counts were positively associated with the risk of developing of OLD. Our findings indicate a potential role of eosinophil count as an independent risk factor for developing COPD.

9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e23, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706839

RESUMO

Abstract. AIMS: The longitudinal relationship between depression and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is uncertain. We examined: (a) the association between depressive symptoms and incident hepatic steatosis (HS), both with and without liver fibrosis; and (b) the influence of obesity on this association. METHODS: A cohort of 142 005 Korean adults with neither HS nor excessive alcohol consumption at baseline were followed for up to 8.9 years. The validated Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score (CES-D) was assessed at baseline, and subjects were categorised as non-depressed (a CES-D < 8, reference) or depression (CES-D ⩾ 16). HS was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4). Parametric proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 27 810 people with incident HS and 134 with incident HS plus high FIB-4 were identified. Compared with the non-depressed category, the aHR (95% CIs) for incident HS was 1.24 (1.15-1.34) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.00 (0.95-1.05) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction with obesity <0.001). The aHR (95% CIs) for developing HS plus high FIB-4 was 3.41 (1.33-8.74) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.22 (0.60-2.47) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction = 0.201). CONCLUSIONS: Depression was associated with an increased risk of incident HS and HS plus high probability of advanced fibrosis, especially among obese individuals.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Fígado Gorduroso , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/psicologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(5): 528-533, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is uncertain what factors increases the risk of suicide in older adults without depression, and it is unknown whether executive dysfunction (ED) is one of those factors. We aimed to examine the effect of ED on the risk of suicide in non-demented older adults without depression. METHODS: In an ongoing population-based prospective cohort of Korean older adults, we identified suicide using the National Mortality Database and suicidal ideation or attempt (SIA) based on the Korean version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We defined ED as performing below -1.5 SD of age-adjusted, gender-adjusted and education-adjusted norms in any of following tests: Frontal Assessment Battery, Trail Making Test A, Digit Span Test or Verbal Fluency Test. RESULTS: The mean age of the 4791 participants at baseline was 69.7 (SD 6.4) years, and 57.1% of them were women (mean follow-up duration=4.9 years). ED at baseline increased the risk of suicide by about seven times (HR 7.20, 95% CI 1.84 to 28.12, p=0.005) but did not change the risk of SIA. However, cognitive impairment without ED did not change the risks of suicide and SIA. In participants with ED, being aged 75 years or above, living alone, and having a low socioeconomic status were associated with the risk of suicide. CONCLUSION: ED is a strong risk factor of late life suicide independent from depression, particularly in very old adults living in disadvantaged environments.

11.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615358

RESUMO

AIMS : The associations of visual impairment (VI) with cardio-metabolic risk factors have been reported but its association with cardiovascular mortality remains uncertain. Therefore, we evaluated the association of visual acuity (VA) with overall, injury-related, and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort study was performed in 580 746 Korean adults (average age, 39.7 years) who were followed for a median of 8.1 years (maximum, 16 years). Presenting VA was measured by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Visual acuity in the better vision eye was categorized as normal vision (≥0.8), lowered vision (0.5-0.8), mild visual impairment (VI) (0.3-0.5), or moderate to severe VI (<0.3). Vital status and cause of death were ascertained through linkage to national death records. During 4 632 892.2 person-years of follow-up, 6585 overall deaths, 974 cardiovascular deaths, and 1163 injury-related deaths were identified. After adjustment for possible confounders, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall mortality among participants with lowered vision, minimal VI, and moderate to severe VI were 1.21 (1.13-1.29), 1.26 (1.15-1.37), and 1.54 (1.40-1.68), respectively, compared with those with normal vision. The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for injury-related mortality were 1.12 (0.96-1.32), 0.98 (0.76-1.26), and 1.36 (1.04-1.79), respectively, and the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for cardiovascular mortality were 1.32 (1.12-1.57), 1.43 (1.15-1.77), and 2.41 (1.94-2.99). CONCLUSION : In this large cohort of young and middle-aged individuals, VI was associated with increased risk of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4585, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633295

RESUMO

The effect of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption on cancer risk remains controversial. We examined the association between low-level alcohol consumption and cancer mortality. A cohort study included 331,984 Korean adults free of cancer at baseline who underwent a comprehensive health checkup examination. Participants were categorized into never drinkers, former drinkers, and current drinkers who were further divided into light, moderate, heavy, and very heavy drinkers. Vital status and cancer-related deaths were ascertained through links to national death records. During 1,633,906 person-years of follow-up (median 5.3 years interquartile range 3.8-6.2), 374 cancer-related deaths were identified (cancer-cause mortality rate of 23 per 105 person-years). When former and never drinkers were classified as non-drinkers, the light drinkers had a lowest risk of cancer mortality compared with non-drinkers and other current drinkers (J-shaped); however, with consideration of lifetime abstinence history, current drinking was positively associated with cancer mortality in a dose-dependent manner. When changes in alcohol drinking status and confounders during follow-up were updated as time-varying covariates and never drinkers were used as the reference, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals, CIs) for cancer mortality among current light, moderate, heavy, and very heavy drinkers were 1.58 (1.03-2.43), 2.28 (1.41-3.70), 2.34 (1.42-3.85), and 2.97 (1.80-4.90), respectively, and the highest risk of cancer mortality was observed in former drinkers, who had an HR (95% CI) of 3.86 (2.38-6.28). Alcohol consumption was significantly and positively associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality in a dose-dependent manner, beginning with light drinkers.

13.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is emerging as a potential mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis. However, few studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory status and the natural course of cervical precursor lesion. The aim of this study was to assess the probability of LSIL regression, associated with an inflammatory biomarker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study, female participants were examined annually or biannually using cervical cytology between 2006 and 2015. Incident LSIL cases were included in the analysis, with regression defined as at least one consecutive normal cytologic result. A total of 520 women aged 22-64 years were followed up for LSIL regression. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for LSIL regression were estimated using a parametric proportional hazards model. RESULTS: During 827.5 person-years of follow-up, 486 out of 520 subjects (93.5%) showed LSIL regression. After adjusting several important potential confounders, a higher quartile of hs-CRP levels was significantly associated with a lower rate of regression (for quartile 4 vs quartile 1, inverse HR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.69; P for trend = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: The low rate of spontaneous regression recorded in women with higher hs-CRP lends support to the role of the perturbated host inflammatory status in cervical carcinogenesis, and suggests that hs-CRP level could help monitor LSIL.

14.
Hepatology ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electronic health record (EHR)-based research allows the capture of large amounts of data, which is necessary in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), where the risk of clinical liver outcomes is generally low. The lack of consensus on which International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes should be used as exposures and outcomes limits comparability and generalizability of results across studies. We aimed to establish consensus among a panel of experts on ICD codes that could become the reference standard and provide guidance around common methodological issues. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Researchers with an interest in EHR-based NAFLD research were invited to collectively define which administrative codes are most appropriate for documenting exposures and outcomes. We used a modified Delphi approach to reach consensus on several commonly encountered methodological challenges in the field. After two rounds of revision, a high level of agreement (>67%) was reached on all items considered. Full consensus was achieved on a comprehensive list of administrative codes to be considered for inclusion and exclusion criteria in defining exposures and outcomes in EHR-based NAFLD research. We also provide suggestions on how to approach commonly encountered methodological issues and identify areas for future research. CONCLUSIONS: This expert panel consensus statement can help harmonize and improve generalizability of EHR-based NAFLD research.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 398, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432008

RESUMO

The longitudinal relationship between smoking status and risk of developing visual impairment (VI) remains unclear. We examined the relationship of smoking status and urinary cotinine level, an objective measure of smoking, with incidence of VI. This cohort study included 279,069 individuals free of VI who were followed for up to 8.8 years (median 4.8 years). VI was defined as when bilateral visual acuity was worse than 0.5 (cutoffs of 0.3 Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution). During 1,324,429.8 person-years of follow-up, 7852 participants developed new-onset bilateral VI. Self-reported current smoking status was associated with increased risk of developing VI in both men and women, with a stronger association in women (P for interaction = 0.01). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident VI comparing current smokers to never-smokers were 1.14 (1.04-1.25) in men and 1.52 (1.28-1.80) in women. Urinary cotinine levels of ≥ 100 ng/ml were significantly associated with increased risk of incident VI, and these associations remained when introducing changes in urinary cotinine and other confounders during follow-up as time-varying covariates. Cigarette smoking assessed based on self-report and urinary cotinine level was associated with increased incidence of VI. Our findings identify smoking as an independent risk factor for VI.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20812, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257781

RESUMO

The impact of depression on the risk of liver-related mortality in individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear. We examined the association between depression, HBV infection, and liver-related mortality. A total of 342,998 Korean adults who underwent health examinations were followed for up to 7.8 years. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score ≥ 16. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 1,836,508 person-years of follow-up, 74 liver-related deaths and 54 liver cancer deaths were identified (liver-related mortality rate of 4.0 per 105 person-years and liver cancer mortality rate of 2.9 per 105 person-years). Subjects with depressive symptoms had an increased risk of liver-related mortality with a corresponding multivariable aHR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.10-3.63) compared to those without depressive symptoms. This association was more evident in HBsAg-positive participants with a corresponding multivariable aHR of 4.22 (95% CI 1.81-9.88) than HBsAg-negative participants (P for interaction by HBsAg positivity = 0.036). A similar pattern was observed in relation to liver cancer mortality. In this large cohort, depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of liver-related mortality, with a stronger association in HBsAg-positive individuals.

18.
Circ J ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high level of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is associated with incident coronary artery disease (CAD) when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is discordantly low or concordantly high. However, data on the relationship of apoB with subclinical measure of CAD are limited.Methods and Results:A total of 14,205 men (mean age 41.0 years) who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and who underwent a health checkup exam, including measurement of coronary artery calcium (CAC), were studied. Of the study group, 2,773 participants (19.5%) had CAC at baseline, and CAC progression was observed in 2,550 (18.0%). The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing discordantly high apoB/low LDL-C and concordantly high apoB/high LDL-C with concordantly low apoB/low LDL-C were 1.51 (0.98-2.32) and 2.70 (2.19-3.33), respectively. The corresponding relative risks for CAC progression were 1.26 (1.02-1.56) and 1.49 (1.34-1.66), respectively. These associations did not change appreciably after adjustment for insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Discordant analysis showed that a high apoB level was strongly associated with prevalence and progression of CAC independent of LDL-C in a large cohort of healthy adults. The present study results highlighted the importance of an apoB measure as a potential target for primary prevention of coronary atherosclerosis in healthy adults.

19.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867420972763, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subsyndromal depression is prevalent and associated with poor outcomes in late life, but its effect on the risk of dementia has barely been investigated. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of subsyndromal depression on dementia risk in cognitively normal older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: Data were collected from a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study on a randomly sampled Korean elderly population aged 60 years or older, which has been followed every 2 years. Using 6-year follow-up data of 4456 non-demented elderly, the authors examined the risk of dementia associated with late-onset subsyndromal depression using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. After standardized diagnostic interviews, subsyndromal depression and dementia were diagnosed by the operational diagnostic criteria and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, respectively. RESULTS: Subsyndromal depression tripled the risk of dementia in non-demented elderly individuals (hazard ratio = 3.02, 95% confidence interval = [1.56, 5.85], p < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, subsyndromal depression was associated with the risk of dementia in cognitively normal participants only (hazard ratio = 4.59, 95% confidence interval = [1.20, 17.54], p = 0.026); chronic/recurrent subsyndromal depression with increasing severity during the follow-up period was associated with the risk of dementia (hazard ratio = 15.34, 95% confidence interval = [4.19, 56.18], p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Late-onset subsyndromal depression is a potential predictor of incident dementia when it is chronic or recurrent with increasing severity in cognitively normal older adults.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19417, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173145

RESUMO

Although obesity is associated with numerous diseases, the risks of disease may depend on metabolic health. Associations between the gut microbiota, obesity, and metabolic syndrome have been reported, but differences in microbiomes according to metabolic health in the obese population have not been explored in previous studies. Here, we investigated the composition of gut microbiota according to metabolic health status in obese and overweight subjects. A total of 747 overweight or obese adults were categorized by metabolic health status, and their fecal microbiota were profiled using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We classified these adults into a metabolically healthy group (MH, N = 317) without any components of metabolic syndrome or a metabolically unhealthy group (MU, N = 430) defined as having at least one metabolic abnormality. The phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic alpha diversity for gut microbiota were lower in the MU group than the MH group, and there were significant differences in gut microbiota bacterial composition between the two groups. We found that the genus Oscillospira and the family Coriobacteriaceae were associated with good metabolic health in the overweight and obese populations. This is the first report to describe gut microbial diversity and composition in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese individuals. Modulation of the gut microbiome may help prevent metabolic abnormalities in the obese population.

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