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1.
Rev. ADM ; 76(2): 91-96, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008991

RESUMO

El expediente clínico se define como el conjunto de datos médicos y clínicos ordenados y detallados en forma cronológica, que permiten al profesional de la salud plantear un diagnóstico sindrómico y nosológico, con su posterior pronóstico, para finalmente llevar un registro del desarrollo de un tratamiento. Refleja la capacidad resolutiva de la clínica o consultorio, así como la capacidad profesional de su personal, de ahí la importancia de tener un expediente clínico bien integrado, ordenado, completo, legible y en apego a la normatividad vigente (AU)


The clinical file is defined as a set of medical and clinical data, which are ordered and chronologically detailed, allows the health professional to identify a syndromic and nosological diagnosis, with a later prognosis, to finally make a treatment plan. It reflects the resolutive capacity and the professional capacity of the clinician and his staff. Therefore, it becomes a legal document of the greatest importance, having to have the characteristics of being well integrated, orderly, complete, legible and in compliance with current regulations (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Registros Odontológicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Administração da Prática Odontológica , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Prática Odontológica
2.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 34(3): 158-164, jul.-sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165194

RESUMO

Background. The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. Aims. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents’ effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. Methods. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. Results. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. Conclusions. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to <1mg/ml A. sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro (AU)


Antecedentes. La colonización por parte de Candida albicans de las superficies de las prótesis dentales se asocia con el desarrollo de estomatitis. Se ha propuesto el uso de fluconazol, pero su desventaja es la resistencia microbiana. El aceite de Allium sativum ha mostrado su efectividad al controlar la formación de biopelícula de objetivos. Objetivos. Determinar la sensibilidad de cepas clínicas de especies de Candida, obtenidas de prótesis dentales parciales o totales rígidas de base acrílica, al aceite esencial de A. sativum y comparar su efecto en células planctónicas y en biopelícula. Métodos. Se incluyeron 48 cepas clínicas de la superficie acrílica de prótesis dentales totales o parciales, identificadas entre las siguientes especies: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis y Candida krusei. Se evaluó la sensibilidad de cada una al aceite esencial de A. sativum y al fluconazol mediante la metodología M27-A3 del CLSI, tanto sobre células planctónicas como en biopelícula, y mediante el método semicuantitativo de la reducción de XTT en el último caso. Resultados. Todas las cepas planctónicas de Candida fueron sensibles al aceite esencial de A.sativum, mientras que el 4,2% fue resistente al fluconazol. En cuanto a su sensibilidad en biopelícula, el 43,8% fue resistente a A. sativum y el 91,7% lo fue al fluconazol. Conclusiones. Todas las cepas en forma planctónica de las diferentes especies de Candida fueron sensibles a concentraciones inferiores a 1mg/ml del aceite esencial de A. sativum y en menor proporción a fluconazol. La sensibilidad disminuyó en las células en biopelícula, con mayor resistencia al fluconazol en comparación con el aceite esencial de A. sativum. Por tanto, el aceite esencial de A. sativum es activo frente a cepas clínicas de diferentes especies de Candida, obtenidas de dentaduras, con efectos en biopelícula y células planctónicas in vitro (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Allium sativum (Homeopatia)/administração & dosagem , Allium sativum (Homeopatia)/uso terapêutico , Alho/microbiologia , Prótese Dentária/microbiologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico
3.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 34(3): 158-164, 2017 Jul - Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. METHODS: A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. RESULTS: All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. CONCLUSIONS: All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to <1mg/ml A. sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro.

4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 65: 204-10, 2016 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the epidemiologic and microbiologic profile and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeasts isolated from the oral mucosa colonization/infection of elderly patients. BACKGROUND: It has been reported that in older adults increases the oral colonization by Candida particularly C. non-albicans, showing a decreased response to fluconazole, which increases the risk of recalcitrant local and disseminated candidiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in 120 elderly patients. Oral samples were obtained of mucosal Candida colonization or infection by swabbing. Each sample was plated on CHROMagar(®)Candida and incubated (36±1.5°C) for two days. The yeast species were identified using the API(®)ID32-C-AUX. Fluconazole susceptibility was tested using a broth microdilution assay according to the CLSI methods. RESULTS: The yeast colonization/infection frequency in the total population was 65.8%. The frequency of the highest Candida carriers was 67.4% in the 70-79-year-old-group. Oral candidiasis was present in 20%, with a tendency to increase with age (33.3% of adults aged>80years), it was determined that the use of prosthesis is associated with a higher colonization rate (Chi2, p=0.011). The frequency of colonization/infection cases with more than one species showed a tendency to increase with age; 18.9% in the 60-69 year-old-group, 20.9% in the 70-79-year-old-group and 29.2% in the ≥80 year-old-group. About fluconazole susceptibility: for C. albicans, 20.3%, about Candida non-albicans species 15.3% were dose dependently susceptible (DDS) and 17.9% were resistant. CONCLUSIONS: After 80 years of age, there is a considerable increase in Candida non-albicans species and a reduced susceptibility to fluconazole.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 9(3): 373-377, dic. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-775459

RESUMO

A pesar del gran número de productos disponibles para la limpieza de prótesis dentales, el 60% de los portadores hace uso de ellos, posiblemente por la situación económica. El objetivo fue determinar la susceptibilidad antifúngica in vitro que presenta Candida y sus especies a tres sustancias utilizadas para la desinfección de prótesis (hipoclorito de sodio, ácido acético y solución de superoxidación). Se obtuvieron aislados clínicos de Candida de pacientes portadores de prótesis diagnosticados con estomatitis protésica, para su posterior estudio de susceptibilidad in vitro a las diferentes sustancias. El hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% mostró in vitro una mayor inhibición para las cepas de Candida albicans y Candida no albicans. El ácido acético y la solución de superoxidación no mostraron inhibición in vitro frente a ambas cepas. El hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% tiene un efecto inhibitorio in vitro sobre las cepas de C. albicans y Candida no albicans.


Despite the large number of products available for denture cleaning, less than 60% of denture wearers use them, possibly due to the economic situation. The aims were to determine the in vitro anti-fungal susceptibility of Candida species to three denture disinfectants (Sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid and super oxidized solution). Clinical isolates were obtained from denture wearers diagnosed with denture stomatitis for its posterior in vitro susceptibility study to the different substances. 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite showed the higher in vitro inhibitory effect on Candida albicans and non-albicans. Acetic acid and super oxidized solution showed no inhibition in both species. 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite has an in vitro inhibitory effect on Candida species.

6.
Nefrologia ; 33(6): 764-70, 2013 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24241363

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Species identification is sometimes important for treatment. objective: to determine the prevalence of different Candida species colonising or infecting the oral mucosa (OM) of diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (non-DM) chronic kidney disease patients, comparing both groups and exploring potential risk factors. METHODS: 56 DM and 80 non-DM patients on chronic dialysis were examined. OM swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates. Candida species were identified with API® galleries. OC was confirmed by exfoliative cytology. Statistical associations were analysed using χ2, Fisher's exact test (ET), and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Candida prevalence was 43.4%: 53.6% DM and 36.3% non-DM, (p=.045). The species identified were C. albicans 74.6%, C. glabrata 22.0%, C. tropicalis 15.2%, C. parapsilosis 3.4 %, C. kefyr 3.4% and C. famata 1.7% without difference between groups. DM patients had a higher xerostomia prevalence (p=.002) and lower salivary flow (p=.008) and lower serum albumin (p=.018). 16.9% of patients had OC, 23.2% DM compared with 12.5% non-DM, (p=.101). The following were associated with the presence of Candida in the OM: the use of dental prostheses (odds ratio [OR] 25.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5 to 253, P=.001), xerostomia (OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.4 to 38.1, P=.001) and low serum albumin values (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.98, P=.044). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Candida sp. in the OM was associated with dental prostheses, xerostomia and low serum albumin.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Prótese Dentária/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/microbiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoalbuminemia/epidemiologia , Hipoalbuminemia/microbiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 58(10): 1318-26, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23849353

RESUMO

We have conducted a longitudinal study to quantify biofilms in oral clinical isolates of Candida species (spp.) from adults with local and systemic predisposing factors for candidiasis. A total of 69 yeast isolates from 63 Mexican patients were evaluated. These isolates (39 C. albicans, 15 C. tropicalis, 7 C. glabrata, 4 C. krusei, 1 C. lusitaniae, 1 C. kefyr, 1 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. pulcherrima) were obtained from two clinical sites: 62.3% (n=43) from the oral mucosa of totally and partially edentulous patients, and 37.7% (n=26) from the oral mucosa of diabetics. In addition, Candida ATCC strains were used as controls for each experiment. The kinetics of biofilm formation were measured by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide [XTT] reduction; each isolate was tested at 6, 12 and 24h. Biofilm formation is dependent on the Candida spp. and its clinical origin. On average, the oral isolates of C. glabrata are strong biofilm producers, whereas C. albicans and C. tropicalis are moderate producers. The most common species in our population was C. albicans. While the kinetics of C. albicans biofilm formation varies between oral isolates, it generally maintains steady growth from 2 to 48h, when it reaches its maximum growth.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Candida/patogenicidade , Humanos , Cinética , Estudos Longitudinais , México , Microscopia Confocal , Fatores de Risco , Sais de Tetrazólio
8.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 29(4): 214-222, oct.-dic. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-105664

RESUMO

En el presente estudio se cuantificó la producción de biopelículas individuales y mixtas de Candida albicans y Staphylococcus aureus para determinar si dichas biopelículas mixtas se favorecen sinérgicamente. Los ensayos se realizaron utilizando placas de microtitulación de poliestireno de 96 pocillos de fondo plano, se determinó la actividad metabólica de las células en la biopelícula por medio de la reducción enzimática de una sal de tetrazolio (XTT) a través de los cambios colorimétricos que fueron medidos a 490nm. Para visualizar las biopelículas de cada microorganismo y su cinética de crecimiento se utilizo microscopia láser confocal. La mayor formación de biopelícula se observó en las biopelículas mixtas, seguida de las de Candida albicans y, por último, la menor producción la obtuvo Staphylococcus aureus, lo cual nos sugiere la presencia de una relación sinérgica entre los microorganismos ensayados(AU)


This study quantifies the production of single and mixed biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus to determine if such mixed biofilms have synergistic effects. Assays were performed using polystyrene microtitre plates of 96 wells, metabolic activity was measured by the enzymatic reduction of a tetrazolium salt (XTT) and colorimetric changes were measured at 490nm. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to visualise the biofilms of each microorganism and its growth kinetics. The highest levels of biofilm formation were observed in mixed biofilms, followed by those of Candida albicans only, with the lowest levels of biofilm formation being detected for Staphylococcus aureus; all together these results suggest a synergistic relationship between the tested microorganisms(AU)


Assuntos
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Biofilmes , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colorimetria/métodos , Colorimetria , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Candida albicans/citologia , Candida albicans , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Candida albicans/virologia , Agentes de Controle de Microrganismos
9.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 31(1): 48-53, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22427164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the frequency of candida in the oral cavity of children with a risk of developing opportunistic infections, and establish if there is an association between the frequency of this oral colonization and three categories of at-risk populations. METHODS: Four infant population groups in Mexico were studied: an HIV/AIDS group undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (35 girls and 25 boys); a malnourished group (26 girls and 29 boys); a group from the Tarahumara indigenous people, one of the poorest ethnic populations in the country (37 girls and 20 boys); and a control group (8 girls and 21 boys in apparently good health). The children with HIV/AIDS were immunologically and virologically classified according to the EC Clearinghouse criteria, while malnutrition was determined through the World Health Organization's weight/height index. A sample of oral mucosa was taken with a sterile swab, which was incubated in Sabouraud dextrose agar and in Candida CHROMagar®. The species of candida were confirmed through the API ID32C test. RESULTS: The HIV/AIDS and malnutrition groups showed the higher frequency of Candida spps (51.7% and 38.2%, respectively), while the frequency level in the Tarahumara group was similar to that of the control group (17.5% versus 10.3%). With regard to the species of candida, the malnutrition group had the greatest diversity: C. albicans, C. tropical, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS: The children with HIV/AIDS and malnutrition require strategies designed to reduce oral candidal colonization and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , México , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 29(4): 214-22, 2012 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22391328

RESUMO

This study quantifies the production of single and mixed biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus to determine if such mixed biofilms have synergistic effects. Assays were performed using polystyrene microtitre plates of 96 wells, metabolic activity was measured by the enzymatic reduction of a tetrazolium salt (XTT) and colorimetric changes were measured at 490 nm. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to visualise the biofilms of each microorganism and its growth kinetics. The highest levels of biofilm formation were observed in mixed biofilms, followed by those of Candida albicans only, with the lowest levels of biofilm formation being detected for Staphylococcus aureus; all together these results suggest a synergistic relationship between the tested microorganisms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 31(1): 48-53, ene. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-618467

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de Candida en cavidad bucal de niños con riesgo de desarrollar infecciones oportunistas y establecer si existe asociación entre la frecuencia de esta colonización bucal y tres tipos de población en riesgo. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron cuatro grupos de población infantil de México: grupo VIH/sida bajo terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (TAAA) (35 niñas y 25 niños); grupo desnutrición (26 niñas y 29 niños); grupo tarahumara (37 niñas y 20 niños), una de las poblaciones étnicas más pobres del país, y grupo control (8 niñas y 21 niños aparentemente sanos). Los niños con VIH/sida fueron inmunológica y virológicamente clasificados según los criterios de EC-Clearinghouse, mientras que la desnutrición fue determinada a través del índice peso/talla de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se tomó una muestra de la mucosa bucal con hisopo estéril, que fue incubada en agar dextrosa Sabouraud y en CHROMagar-Candida®. Las especies de Candida se confirmaron con la prueba API ID32C. RESULTADOS: Los grupos VIH/sida y desnutrición mostraron la frecuencia más alta de Candida spp. (51,7 por ciento y 38,2 por ciento, respectivamente) mientras que el grupo tarahumara presenta una frecuencia semejante a la del grupo control (17,5 por ciento vs 10,3 por ciento). Respecto a las especies de Candida, el grupo desnutrición mostró la mayor diversidad: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei y C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONES: Los infantes con inmunodeficiencia y con desnutrición requieren de estrategias diseñadas para disminuir la colonización bucal candidal y disminuir el riesgo de infecciones oportunistas.


OBJECTIVE: Determine the frequency of candida in the oral cavity of children with a risk of developing opportunistic infections, and establish if there is an association between the frequency of this oral colonization and three categories of at-risk populations. METHODS: Four infant population groups in Mexico were studied: an HIV/AIDS group undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (35 girls and 25 boys); a malnourished group (26 girls and 29 boys); a group from the Tarahumara indigenous people, one of the poorest ethnic populations in the country (37 girls and 20 boys); and a control group (8 girls and 21 boys in apparently good health). The children with HIV/AIDS were immunologically and virologically classified according to the EC Clearinghouse criteria, while malnutrition was determined through the World Health Organization's weight/height index. A sample of oral mucosa was taken with a sterile swab, which was incubated in Sabouraud dextrose agar and in Candida CHROMagar®. The species of candida were confirmed through the API ID32C test. RESULTS: The HIV/AIDS and malnutrition groups showed the higher frequency of Candida spps (51.7 percent and 38.2 percent, respectively), while the frequency level in the Tarahumara group was similar to that of the control group (17.5 percent versus 10.3 percent). With regard to the species of candida, the malnutrition group had the greatest diversity: C. albicans, C. tropical, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS: The children with HIV/AIDS and malnutrition require strategies designed to reduce oral candidal colonization and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , México , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 28(1): 36-42, ene.-mar. 2011. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-86131

RESUMO

El incremento en las últimas dos décadas en la incidencia de fungemias causadas por especies levaduriformes en pacientes inmunodeprimidos susceptibles y la poca sensibilidad del cultivo de sangre convencional hacen necesario el desarrollo de enfoques alternativos para la detección temprana y la identificación de las especies responsables. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido comparar la utilidad de la prueba molecular de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y métodos convencionales para identificar aislamientos clínicos de diferentes especies, incluyendo el sistema ATB ID32C (bioMérièux, Francia), el cultivo cromogénico Chromagar Candida® (Chromagar, Francia) y la morfogénesis en agar harina de maíz. Se estudiaron 79 aislamientos clínicos en los cuales la especie más prevalente usando el sistema ATB ID32C y la PCR fue C. albicans, seguida por C. tropicalis, C. glabrata y C. krusei. Los patrones de PCR obtenidos para la identificación de aislamientos clínicos fueron estables y consistentes en los diferentes ensayos independientes y mostraron una buena reproducibilidad. Se concluye que la PCR con los cebadores específicos para cada especie, que amplifican los genes ITS1 e ITS2 del ARNr o del gen de la topoisomerasa II, demostró ser un método sensible y específico para la identificación de los aislamientos de C. glabrata C. krusei, C. albicans y, con menor especificidad, para C. tropicalis(AU)


The increase in the incidence of yeast species causing fungemia in susceptible immunocompromised patients in the last two decades and the low sensitivity of conventional blood culture has led to the need to develop alternative approaches for the early detection and identification of causative species. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of molecular testing by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to identify clinical isolates of different species, using the ID32C ATB system (bioMérieux, France), chromogenic culture Chromagar Candida® (CHROMagar, France) and morphogenesis in corn meal agar. We studied 79 isolates, in which the most prevalent species using the system ID32C and PCR was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C .krusei. PCR patterns obtained for the identification of clinical isolates were stable and consistent in the various independent studies and showed good reproducibility, concluding that PCR with species-specific primers that amplify genes ITS1 and ITS2 for rRNA or topoisomerase II primers is a very specific and sensitive method for the identification of C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans, and with less specificity for C. tropicalis(AU)


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/patogenicidade , México/epidemiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia
14.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 28(1): 36-42, 2011 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21167300

RESUMO

The increase in the incidence of yeast species causing fungemia in susceptible immunocompromised patients in the last two decades and the low sensitivity of conventional blood culture has led to the need to develop alternative approaches for the early detection and identification of causative species. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of molecular testing by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to identify clinical isolates of different species, using the ID32C ATB system (bioMérieux, France), chromogenic culture Chromagar Candida® (CHROMagar, France) and morphogenesis in corn meal agar. We studied 79 isolates, in which the most prevalent species using the system ID32C and PCR was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C .krusei. PCR patterns obtained for the identification of clinical isolates were stable and consistent in the various independent studies and showed good reproducibility, concluding that PCR with species-specific primers that amplify genes ITS1 and ITS2 for rRNA or topoisomerase II primers is a very specific and sensitive method for the identification of C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans, and with less specificity for C. tropicalis.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/microbiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Micologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Ágar , Candida/genética , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/patogenicidade , Compostos Cromogênicos , Meios de Cultura , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/genética , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Humanos , Morfogênese , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência/genética
15.
Mycoses ; 53(3): 200-3, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19389066

RESUMO

Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , México , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Boca/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Voriconazol
16.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 31(3): 266-71, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18054468

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activities of voriconazole and fluconazole against Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolated from blood during a 14-year period (1990-2003) at the tertiary care hospital of Cruces (Barakaldo, Spain). The in vitro activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against 28 isolates of C. glabrata and 15 isolates of C. krusei were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disk diffusion method. Of the 28 C. glabrata isolates tested, 24 (85.7%) were susceptible (S) to fluconazole, 2 (7.1%) were susceptible dose-dependent (S-DD) and 2 (7.1%) were resistant (R). All C. krusei isolates were classified as R to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole was observed in one isolate each of C. glabrata (3.6%) and C. krusei (6.7%), and one isolate of each species was S-DD. These results were confirmed by the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest methods, with good comparative results. Voriconazole was very active in vitro against C. glabrata and C. krusei blood isolates and the resistance observed was not related to the introduction of voriconazole in the therapeutic schedule of the hospital. These facts support the usefulness of voriconazole as a therapeutic tool for candidaemia caused by these species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Espanha , Voriconazol
17.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 24(2): 148-51, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17604435

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to compare the usefulness of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to that of the ATB ID32C kit (bioMérieux, France) for identification of different species of Candida isolated from clinical specimens. The RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with OPE-18 primer for identification of clinical isolates were consistent, and the different independent assays revealed reproduction of the band patterns. RAPD with the OPE-18 primer is a very specific and sensitive method for identification of Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida tropicalis, Candida pelliculosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida lusitaniae.


Assuntos
Candida/classificação , Candidíase/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/análise , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Candida/genética , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Colorimetria , Primers do DNA , DNA Fúngico/genética , Humanos , México , Micologia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 24(2): 148-151, 2007. ta, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-76588

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido comparar la utilidad de un método deamplificación aleatoria del ADN polimorfo (RAPD) y la del método ATB ID32C(bioMérieux, Francia) para identificar aislamientos clínicos de diferentesespecies de Candida. Los patrones de RAPD obtenidos con el cebadorOPE-18 fueron estables y consistentes en los diferentes ensayosindependientes y mostraron una buena reproducibilidad. La RAPD con elcebador OPE-18 es un método sensible y específico para la identificación delos aislamientos de Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candidatropicalis, Candida pelliculosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candidalusitaniae(AU)


The objective of this work was to compare the usefulness of a randomlyamplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to that of the ATB ID32C kit(bioMérieux, France) for identification of different species of Candida isolatedfrom clinical specimens. The RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with OPE-18primer for identification of clinical isolates were consistent, and the differentindependent assays revealed reproduction of the band patterns. RAPD withthe OPE-18 primer is a very specific and sensitive method for identification ofCandida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida tropicalis, Candidapelliculosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida lusitaniae(AU)


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 22(2): 83-92, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16107165

RESUMO

We have conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period to address the point prevalence, microbiological characteristics and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeast isolates colonizing or infecting the oral cavities of 111 HIV-infected (51 adults, 60 children) and 201 non HIV-infected (109 adults, 92 children) Mexican persons. Regarding the epidemiology of oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was the most frequent species isolated. Seventy-one out of 85 isolates from colonized persons were C. albicans (83.5%), 27 isolates of them were from HIV-infected children and 44 from non HIV-infected patients. Sixty-two isolates belonged to serotype A which was the most prevalent serotype of C. albicans. Non-albicans species (Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were isolated from 16.5% of colonized patients and from 38.5% patients with candidiasis or Candida-related lesions. There were nine episodes of infection or colonization by at least 2 different yeast species. In the case of HIV/AIDS patients, it was determined that yeast carriage was not associated with the number of CD4+ cells or the viral load, but HAART reduced the prevalence of oral candidiasis. Overall, most patients harbored strains in vitro susceptible to fluconazole, however 10.8% of the yeasts were resistant to one or more azole antifungal agents and 29% were intermediate susceptible to them. On the contrary, 5-fluorocytosine was very active against all isolates tested, and amphotericin B was active against 97.9% of them.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Prevalência , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 43(8): 4159-62, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16081965

RESUMO

Oral yeast carriage was studied in 312 Mexican subjects. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, but other Candida spp. were isolated from 16.5 to 38.5% of patients. Colonization did not correlate with CD4+ number or viral load, but highly active antiretroviral therapy reduced the frequency of candidiasis. Most isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, but 10.8% were resistant to one or more azoles.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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