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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573013

RESUMO

The public health crisis created by COVID-19 represents a challenge for journalists and the media. Specialised information in healthcare and science has turned into a need to deal with the current situation as well as the demand for information by society. In this context of increased uncertainty, the circulation of fake news on social networks and messaging applications has proliferated, producing what has been known as 'infodemic'. This paper is focused on the fact-checking of journalistic content using a combined methodology: content analysis of information denied by the main Spanish fact-checking platforms (Maldita and Newtral) and an in-depth questionnaire to these stakeholders. The results confirm the quantitative and qualitative evolution of disinformation. Quantitatively, more fact-checking is performed during the state of alarm. Qualitatively, hoaxes increase in complexity as the pandemic evolves, in such a way that disinformation engineering takes place, and it is expected to continue until the development of a vaccine.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Mídias Sociais , Decepção , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009126, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524030

RESUMO

The increasing use of immunosuppressants in areas where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic has increased the number of people susceptible to developing more severe forms of the disease. Few studies have examined the quality of the immune response in immunosuppressed patients or experimental animals with VL. The present work characterises the parasite load developed in, and immune response to, Leishmania infantum-induced VL in C57BL/6 mice that, prior to and during infection, received immunosuppressant treatment with methylprednisolone (MPDN), anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies, or methotrexate (MTX). The latter two treatments induced a significant reduction in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes over the infection period. The anti-TNF treatment was also associated with a higher parasite load in the liver and a lower parasite load in the spleen. This, plus a possibly treatment-induced reduction in the number of cytokine-producing Th1 cells in the spleen, indicates the development of more severe VL. Interestingly, the MPDN and (especially) MTX treatments provoked a greater presence of soluble Leishmania antigen-specific multi-cytokine-producing T cells in the spleen and a lower liver parasite load than in control animals. These results highlight the need to better understand how immunosuppressant treatments might influence the severity of VL in human patients.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503065

RESUMO

Concentration difficulties, forgetfulness and mental slowness are common in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); initial findings suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may also be accompanied by cognitive impairments. This study aimed to compare attentional performance between patients with FMS and RA. Attention was quantified in the domains of alerting, orienting and executive control using the Attentional Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) in 56 women with FMS, 41 women with RA and 50 healthy women. Pain severity was statistically controlled in the group comparison. While FMS patients exhibited longer reaction times and made more errors on the ANT-I than RA patients and healthy women, performance did not differ between RA patients and healthy women. The magnitude of group differences did not vary by the experimental conditions of the ANT-I, suggesting a general attentional deficit in FMS rather than specific impairments in the domains of alerting, orienting and executive control. Differences between patient groups may relate to the different pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the disorders, i.e. inflammatory processes in RA and central nervous sensitization in FMS. In FMS, heightened activity in the pain neuromatrix may interfere with attention, because it requires enhanced neural resources in brain areas that are involved in both pain and attentional processing.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 125118, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485228

RESUMO

Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most highly consumed petroleum-based polymers and its accumulation as waste causes environmental pollution. In this sense, the use of microorganisms and their enzymes represents the most ecofriendly and effective decontamination approach. In this work, molecular docking simulation for catalytic enzyme degradation of PE was carried out using individual enzymes: laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and unspecific peroxygenase (UnP). PE-binding energy, PE-binding affinity and dimensions of PE-binding sites in the enzyme cavity were calculated in each case. Four hypothetical PE biodegradation pathways were proposed using individual enzymes, and one pathway was proposed using a synergic enzyme combination. These results show that in nature, enzymes act in a synergic manner, using their specific features to undertake an extraordinarily effective sequential catalytic process for organopollutants degradation. In this process, Lac (oxidase) is crucial to provide hydrogen peroxide to the medium to ensure pollutant breakdown. UnP is a versatile enzyme that offers a promising practical application for the degradation of PE and other pollutants due to its cavity features. This is the first in silico report of PE enzymatic degradation, showing the mode of interaction of PE with enzymes as well as the degradation mechanism.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450964

RESUMO

In 2020, approximately 191,930 new prostate cancer (PCa) cases are estimated in the United States (US). Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are the second largest racial/ethnic group in the US. This study aims to assess methylation patterns between aggressive and indolent PCa including DNA repair genes along with ancestry proportions. Prostate tumors classified as aggressive (n = 11) and indolent (n = 13) on the basis of the Gleason score were collected. Tumor and adjacent normal tissue were annotated on H&E (Haemotoxylin and Eosin) slides and extracted by macro-dissection. Methylation patterns were assessed using the Illumina 850K DNA methylation platform. Raw data were processed using the Bioconductor package. Global ancestry proportions were estimated using ADMIXTURE (k = 3). One hundred eight genes including AOX1 were differentially methylated in tumor samples. Regarding the PCa aggressiveness, six hypermethylated genes (RREB1, FAM71F2, JMJD1C, COL5A3, RAE1, and GABRQ) and 11 hypomethylated genes (COL9A2, FAM179A, SLC17A2, PDE10A, PLEKHS1, TNNI2, OR51A4, RNF169, SPNS2, ADAMTSL5, and CYP4F12) were identified. Two significant differentially methylated DNA repair genes, JMJD1C and RNF169, were found. Ancestry proportion results for African, European, and Indigenous American were 24.1%, 64.2%, and 11.7%, respectively. The identification of DNA methylation patterns related to PCa in H/L men along with specific patterns related to aggressiveness and DNA repair constitutes a pivotal effort for the understanding of PCa in this population.

6.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408052

RESUMO

The focus of diagnostic radiology training is on creating competent professionals, whereas confidence and its calibration receive less attention. Appropriate confidence is critical for patient care both during and after training. Overconfidence can adversely affect patient care and underconfidence can create excessive costs. We reviewed the psychology and medical literature pertaining to confidence and competence to collect insights and best practices from the psychology and medical literature on confidence and apply them to radiology training. People are rarely accurate in assessments of their own competence. Among physicians, the correlation between perceived abilities and external assessments of those abilities is weak. Overconfidence is more prevalent than underconfidence, particularly at lower levels of competence. On the individual level, confidence can be calibrated to a more appropriate level through efforts to increase competence, including sub-specialization, and by gaining a better understanding of metacognitive processes. With feedback, high-fidelity simulation has the potential to improve both competence and metacognition. On the system level, systems that facilitate access to follow-up imaging, pathology, and clinical outcomes can help close the gap between perceived and actual performance. Appropriate matching of trainee confidence and competence should be a goal of radiology residency and fellowship training to help mitigate the adverse effects of both overconfidence and underconfidence during training and independent practice.

7.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260855

RESUMO

Several bacteria are able to degrade the major industrial solvent dichloromethane (DCM) by using the conserved dehalogenase DcmA, the only system for DCM degradation characterised at the sequence level so far. Using differential proteomics, we rapidly identified key determinants of DCM degradation for Hyphomicrobium sp. MC8b, an unsequenced facultative methylotrophic DCM-degrading strain. For this, we designed a pan-proteomics database comprising the annotated genome sequences of 13 distinct Hyphomicrobium strains. Compared to growth with methanol, growth with DCM induces drastic changes in the proteome of strain MC8b. Dichloromethane dehalogenase DcmA was detected by differential pan-proteomics, but only with poor sequence coverage, suggesting atypical characteristics of the DCM dehalogenation system in this strain. More peptides were assigned to DcmA by error-tolerant search, warranting subsequent sequencing of the genome of strain MC8b, which revealed a highly divergent set of dcm genes in this strain. This suggests that the dcm enzymatic system is less strongly conserved than previously believed, and that substantial molecular evolution of dcm genes has occurred beyond their horizontal transfer in the bacterial domain. Our study showed the power of pan-proteomics for quick characterization of new strains belonging to branches of the Tree of Life that are densely genome-sequenced.

8.
Ecol Food Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176493

RESUMO

Obesity is the result of a complex combination of psychological, biological, and environmental factors. In this work, we evaluate whether obesity is related to eating habits, depressive symptomatology, as well as interleukin-8 and cortisol. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 232 university students. All youths were surveyed to determine their eating habits and depressive symptomatology. Anthropometric measures and a blood sample were taken to determine its biochemical profile and its concentration of interleukin-8 and cortisol. The results show that interleukin-8 increase in the overfat group. The altered eating behaviors were frequent in the studied group; they were associated with the presence of obesity and the variation of interleukin-8 and cortisol. Besides, we found correlations of interleukin-8 with age, glucose, and lipid profile in the overfat group. In conclusion, these results indicate that high adiposity is related to changes in the concentrations of interleukin-8 and eating habits, confirming that obesity is the consequence of a complex network of various factors.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152033

RESUMO

The mandatory home confinement of the Spanish population, implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, presents a unique opportunity to study the use and influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in people's perception of quality of life during this exceptional situation. This article adapts and validates a psychometric scale designed to identify and measure the main dimensions of the Quality of Life construct perceived through ICT use. To this end, an exploratory and transversal study has been carried out in Spain on a sample of 2,346 participants. Data processing has been carried out with SPSS and EQS. The results provide evidence of the reliability and psychometric quality on the scale, which exhibits adequate consistency that facilitates its application. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a hierarchical model of three correlated factors that account for the dimensions "Satisfaction with life", "Emotional support" and "Social support", which have enough correlation to measure the personal perception of quality of life associated with ICT use and are consistent with previous psychometric studies. The results of the TICO scale indicate that more than 70% of the sample feel ICT have united their family during home confinement and more than 45% experience happy feelings when they use ICT. In home confinement, ICT use has improved users' quality of life, mainly their satisfaction with life and social and family support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Tecnologia da Informação , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Apoio Social , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The health crisis caused by COVID-19 required the prompt launch of research in order to generate scientific evidence pertaining to the new disease oriented to control its devastating effects and continuous spread. Therefore, it was essential to adapt the work flow of Research Ethics Committees, to prioritize and to accelerate the evaluation of projects related to this disease. METHODS: This work analyses the evaluation conducted by our Regional Ethics Committees during the initial period of the health emergency (between 13th March and 28th May 2020). RESULTS: 81 research projects were evaluated, 73 of them of regional scope (62 single-centre), 4 national and 4 international. 57 projects obtained a favourable opinion, 4 were withdrawn by the sponsors, 6 did not require ethics approval and 14 did not respond to the clarifications requested up to the date of the study's closure. CONCLUSIONS: The most important research procedures to be analysed in this context are those related to the methodology and informed consent process. It is also essential to address aspects related to the privacy of personal data, and to take into account the workload of the researchers. As an improvement proposal, we think that greater collaboration between the different research teams should be encourage to obtain more robust results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Fluxo de Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pandemias , Espanha
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143275

RESUMO

This work analyzed the available evidence in the scientific literature about the risk of preterm birth and/or giving birth to low birth weight newborns in pregnant women with periodontal disease. A systematic search was carried out in three databases for observational cohort studies that related periodontal disease in pregnant women with the risk of preterm delivery and/or low birth weight, and that gave their results in relative risk (RR) values. Eleven articles were found, meeting the inclusion criteria. Statistically significant values were obtained regarding the risk of preterm birth in pregnant women with periodontitis (RR = 1.67 (1.17-2.38), 95% confidence interval (CI)), and low birth weight (RR = 2.53 (1.61-3.98) 95% CI). When a meta-regression was carried out to relate these results to the income level of each country, statistically significant results were also obtained; on the one hand, for preterm birth, a RR = 1.8 (1.43-2.27) 95% CI was obtained and, on the other hand, for low birth weight, RR = 2.9 (1.98-4.26) 95% CI. A statistically significant association of periodontitis, and the two childbirth complications studied was found, when studying the association between these results and the country's per capita income level. However, more studies and clinical trials are needed in this regard to confirm the conclusions obtained.

12.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252973

RESUMO

In schizophrenia research, patients who "jump to conclusions" in probabilistic reasoning tasks tend to display impaired decision-making and delusional belief. In five studies, we examined whether jumping to conclusions (JTC) was similarly associated with decision impairments in a nonclinical sample, such as reasoning errors, false belief, overconfidence, and diminished learning. In Studies 1a and 1b, JTC was associated with errors stimulated by automatic reasoning, oddball beliefs such as conspiracy theories, and overconfidence. We traced these deficits to an absence of controlled processing rather than to an undue impact of automatic thinking, while ruling out roles for plausible alternative individual differences. In Studies 2 and 3, JTC was associated with higher confidence despite diminished performance in a novel probabilistic learning task (i.e., diagnosing illnesses), in part because those who exhibited JTC behavior were prone to overly exuberant theorizing, with no or little data, about how to approach the task early on. In Study 4, we adapted intervention materials used in schizophrenia treatment to train participants to avoid JCT. The intervention quelled overconfidence in the probabilistic learning task. In summary, this research suggests that a fruitful crosstalk may exist between research on psychopathology and work on social cognition within the general public. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

13.
Cureus ; 12(10): e11016, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094040

RESUMO

Purpose Surgical management of ankle fractures has been extensively studied in literature but studies investigating validated clinical results are lacking and controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional and health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes after surgically treated ankle fractures and to detect some of their predictors. Methods Two hundred sixty-six skeletally mature patients who underwent surgery for an isolated ankle fracture from 2006 to 2017 were retrospectively identified from our hospital records and included in the study. All patients were evaluated at one, three, six and 12 months post-injury with clinical and radiographic examination. Outcome measures recorded at final two years minimum follow-up included patient-reported pain, patient satisfaction, functional (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score) and quality of life (Short Form (SF) 36 score) status. Results Patient satisfaction score was 8.4 out of 10, Visual Analogue Scale mean score was 2.3, complication rate was 36.5% and mean AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 87.3. Mean SF36-physical summary score was 77.9 and SF36-mental summary score was 81.1. The injury demonstrated a significant effect on physical function, role-physical, bodily pain and social functioning SF-36 subdomains. Functional outcome was significantly related to occupation, syndesmotic lesion, number of fractured malleoli and delay to surgery. Main predictors of quality of life were age, occupation, cause of injury, syndesmotic lesion, number of fractured malleoli and waiting time to surgery. Conclusions Ankle fractures have a considerable impact on functional and quality of life status of patients. Occupation, presence of syndesmotic injury, Pott's classification and surgery delay must be considered as predictors of final outcome.

14.
Exp Gerontol ; 142: 111118, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091525

RESUMO

With aging the immune response is impaired. This immunosenescence, in which an alteration of the redox state of the immune cells appears, is involved in the rate of aging. Since leukocyte function is a good marker of health and predictor of longevity, the effects of daily oral administration of the antioxidant vitamin C (500 mg), or both vitamin C (500 mg) and vitamin E (200 mg) on several blood neutrophil (adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and superoxide anion levels) and lymphocyte (adherence, chemotaxis, proliferation, interleukin-2 secretion and natural killer activity) functions were studied in healthy elderly men and women. These parameters were analysed before supplementation, after 3 months of supplementation, and 6 months after the end of supplementation. The results showed that vitamin C, in elderly participants, improved the immune functions studied which achieved values close to those of young adults. These effects were maintained in several functions after 6 months without supplementation. Similar effects were found in the elderly supplemented with both vitamin C and E. Thus, a short period of vitamin C or vitamin C and E ingestion, with the doses used, improves the immune function in elderly men and women and could contribute to a healthy longevity.

15.
3 Biotech ; 10(11): 488, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123455

RESUMO

In this study, the induction of esterase activity during the degradation of a high concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (1500 mg l-1) by Fusarium culmorum was investigated using Ca(NO3)2 as nitrogen source under liquid fermentation conditions. Assessments of esterase activities through biochemical tests and zymographic assays, as well as fungal growth were studied. A high concentration of DEHP increased esterase activity in F. culmorum, which produces five esterase isoforms (26.4, 31.7, 43, 73.6 and 125 kDa), which were different in abundance and molecular weight to those produced constitutively in glucose-containing medium (control medium). F. culmorum showed higher µ and Y X/S values in DEHP-containing medium than those observed in the control medium. F. culmorum has great potential for use in the restoration of sites contaminated with high concentrations of DEHP and even of other phthalates with less complex structures.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961801

RESUMO

Vitamin D regulates estrogen synthesis among other mechanisms involved in breast cancer (BC) development; however, no evidence has been found regarding its relationship with DNA repair capacity (DRC). Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate whether DRC levels are linked with plasma 25(OH)D levels. BC cases and controls were selected from our BC cohort. DRC levels were assessed in lymphocytes through the host-cell reactivation assay. 25(OH)D levels were measured using the UniCel DxI 600 Access Immunoassay System. BC cases (n = 91) showed higher 25(OH)D levels than the controls (n = 92) (p = 0.001). When stratifying BC cases and controls into low and high DRC categories, BC cases with low DRC (n = 74) had the highest 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.0001). A positive correlation between 25(OH)D and DRC levels was found for the controls (r = 0.215, p = 0.043) while a negative correlation was found for BC cases (r = -0.236, p = 0.026). Significant differences in 25(OH)D levels were observed when stratifying by molecular subtypes (p = 0.0025). Our study provides evidence of a link between 25(OH)D and DRC in BC along with a description of to how 25(OH)D levels vary across subtypes. The positive correlation observed in the control group suggests that 25(OH)D contributes differently to DRC levels once the malignancy is developed.

17.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962153

RESUMO

As studies of bilingual language control (BLC) seek to explore the underpinnings of bilinguals' abilities to juggle two languages, different types of language switching tasks have been used to uncover switching and mixing effects and thereby reveal what proactive and reactive control mechanisms are involved in language switching. Voluntary language switching tasks, where a bilingual participant can switch freely between their languages while naming, are being utilized more often due to their greater ecological validity compared to cued switching paradigms. Because this type of task had not yet been applied to language switching in bilingual patients, our study sought to explore voluntary switching in bilinguals with aphasia (BWAs) as well as in healthy bilinguals. In Experiment 1, we replicated previously reported results of switch costs and mixing benefits within our own bilingual population of Catalan-Spanish bilinguals. With Experiment 2, we compared both the performances of BWAs as a group and as individuals against control group performance. Results illustrated a complex picture of language control abilities, indicating varying degrees of association and dissociation between factors of BLC. Given the diversity of impairments in BWAs' language control mechanisms, we highlight the need to examine BLC at the individual level and through the lens of theoretical cognitive control frameworks in order to further parse out how bilinguals regulate their language switching.

20.
Med. paliat ; 27(3): 171-180, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197370

RESUMO

La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 que expuso a nuestros pacientes a una importante carga sintomática hizo de los cuidados paliativos una herramienta necesaria para la atención de estos pacientes. Los fármacos empleados para contrarrestar el virus y los tratamientos para el control de síntomas tienen múltiples interacciones debido tanto al hepatotrofismo del virus como a las vías de metabolismo de los tratamientos. Con este artículo pretendemos compartir nuestra experiencia y algunas recomendaciones farmacológicas para minimizar potenciales interacciones y efectos secundarios de los tratamientos empleados. Queda mucho por investigar, pero creemos que compartiendo información entre centros podremos brindar el mejor abordaje multidisciplinar que merecen los pacientes


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that exposed our patients to a significant symptom burden made palliative care a necessary tool for the care of these patients. The drugs used to counteract the virus and the treatments used for the control of symptoms have multiple interactions due to both the hepatotrophism of the virus and the metabolism pathways of treatments. With this article we aim to share our experience and some pharmacological recommendations to minimize the potential interactions and side effects of treatments. Much remains to be investigated but we believe that by sharing information between centers we shall be able to provide the best multidisciplinary approach that patients deserve


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Medicação/normas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Manejo da Dor , Dispneia/terapia , Tosse/terapia
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