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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2007047, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604960

RESUMO

Spintronics exploit spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to generate spin currents, spin torques, and, in the absence of inversion symmetry, Rashba and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. The widely used magnetic materials, based on 3d metals such as Fe and Co, possess a small SOC. To circumvent this shortcoming, the common practice has been to utilize the large SOC of nonmagnetic layers of 5d heavy metals (HMs), such as Pt, to generate spin currents and, in turn, exert spin torques on the magnetic layers. Here, a new class of material architectures is introduced, excluding nonmagnetic 5d HMs, for high-performance spintronics operations. Very strong current-induced torques exerted on single ferrimagnetic GdFeCo layers, due to the combination of large SOC of the Gd 5d states and inversion symmetry breaking mainly engineered by interfaces, are demonstrated. These "self-torques" are enhanced around the magnetization compensation temperature and can be tuned by adjusting the spin absorption outside the GdFeCo layer. In other measurements, the very large emission of spin current from GdFeCo, 80% (20%) of spin anomalous Hall effect (spin Hall effect) symmetry is determined. This material platform opens new perspectives to exert "self-torques" on single magnetic layers as well as to generate spin currents from a magnetic layer.

2.
Front Psychol ; 11: 576178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304295

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to carry out a psychosocial analysis of child-to-parent violence (CPV) in a sample of school adolescents, considering a set of individual variables (psychological distress, problematic use of social networking sites, and perceived non-conformist social reputation) and family variables (open and problematic communication with parents) according to sex. The sample consisted of 3,731 adolescents (54% boys), aged between 14 and 16 years (M = 14.6 years, SD = 0.567), from the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The scores of the boys and girls were analyzed to check for differences. Also, correlations between all the study variables were calculated. Finally, a multiple stepwise regression analysis was carried out for the total sample and also for boys and girls separately. Results confirmed the important role of individual variables as predictors of CPV in boys and girls. The main difference between boys and girls was observed in the predictive weight of problematic use of social networking sites, which was higher in girls than in boys. Open communication with the father was a significant factor for predicting the decrease of CPV levels in the case of boys, while open communication with the mother predicted the decrease of CPV in girls. Problematic communication with the mother showed similar values in boys and girls when predicting CPV, however, the predictive weight of problematic communication with the father was higher in girls than in boys. These results are interesting and have important implications for the prevention of CPV.

3.
Environ Res ; : 110393, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a well-established problem, exposure to third-hand smoke (THS) is scanty known and needs to be studied. The objective of this work is to characterize salivary cotinine concentrations among people who self-reported exposure to SHS and THS at home. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n = 736) of the adult population (≥16 years) from the city of Barcelona carried out in 2013-2014. A questionnaire on tobacco use and passive exposure was administered, and a saliva sample was collected for cotinine determination. For this study, the information of the non-smoker participants who provided saliva sample (n = 519) was used. The geometric means (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD) of the cotinine concentration were compared according to the type of self-reported exposure at home: (1) Not exposed to SHS or THS; (2) Exposed to SHS and THS; and (3) Only exposed to THS. We used log-linear models to compare the cotinine concentration of each exposed group with respect to the unexposed group, adjusting for sex, age, educational level, and tobacco exposure in other settings. RESULTS: The GM of the salivary cotinine concentration was 0.34 ng/ml (GSD = 0.16) among individuals reporting SHS and THS exposure, 0.22 ng/ml (GSD = 0.15) among those reporting only THS exposure and 0.11 ng/ml (GSD = 0.04) among those who declared not to be exposed to SHS nor THS (p-value for trend <0.001). The regression model showed a statistically significant increase in cotinine concentration among those exposed to SHS and THS (188% higher, 95% CI: 153%; 223%), and only exposed to THS (106% higher, IC95. %: 74.5%; 137.0%) when comparing with the unexposed group. No statistically significant differences in cotinine concentration were observed between those exposed to SHS and THS compared to the THS group (-25.8%, 95% CI: -69.5%; 17.9%). CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: People exposed to third-hand smoke at home had quantifiable cotinine levels in saliva. No differences in cotinine levels were found between those exposed to second-hand and third-hand smoke at home. The reduction of exposure to third-hand smoke at home should be put into the agenda of tobacco control.

4.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e222, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138927

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: El conocimiento idóneo en ciencias del ejercicio físico de los instructores de los programas ejercicio físico comunitario es importante para garantizar la seguridad y calidad de los programas para adultos mayores. Objetivo: Analizar el nivel de formación de los instructores y la frecuencia de aplicación de dos parámetros de seguridad para la implementación de programas de ejercicio físico para el adulto mayor. Métodos: Estudio transversal, analítico, realizado con 115 instructores de grupos de adultos mayores de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Para la recolección de la información se utilizó un cuestionario ad hoc. Las variables se analizaron en medidas de tendencia central o frecuencias según su naturaleza. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fischer para explorar la asociación entre las variables de interés. El nivel de significancia fue de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: El 18,22 % de los instructores encuestados posee titulación en Ciencias del Ejercicio Físico. Se encontró una mayor frecuencia de aplicación de método de selección de aptitud para la realización de actividad física, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas, en los sujetos titulados (p = 0,032) y en aquellos que recibieron capacitación formal en ejercicio físico en el adulto mayor (p = 0,002). Los sujetos titulados exigieron con mayor frecuencia una valoración médica (p=0,036). Conclusiones: La mayoría de los instructores reportaron no aplicar los parámetros de seguridad para la implementación de un programa de ejercicio físico. Sin embargo, hubo una mayor frecuencia de aplicación en instructores titulados y en aquellos con capacitación formal en ejercicio físico para el adulto mayor.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Suitable knowledge about physical culture sciences by community exercise instructors is important to ensure the safety and quality of programs for the elderly. Objective: Analyze the academic background of instructors and the frequency of application of two safety parameters in the implementation of physical exercise programs for the elderly. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of 155 instructors of groups of elderly people in Bucaramanga, Colombia. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect the information. The variables were analyzed as measures of central tendency or frequencies, depending on their nature. Fisher's exact test was used to explore the association between the variables of interest. The significance level was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of the instructors surveyed, 18.22% had a degree in Physical Exercise Sciences. A higher frequency was found of the application of the selection method based on aptitude to conduct physical activity, with statistically significant differences between graduated subjects (p = 0.032) and those who had received formal training in physical exercise for the elderly (p = 0.002). Medical assessment was more often requested by graduated subjects (p=0.036). Conclusions: Most instructors reported not to apply the safety parameters for implementation of a physical exercise program. However, application was more frequent by graduated instructors and those with formal training in physical exercise for the elderly.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the change in screen time usage in the last decade, there is needed to add more evidence about the relationship of screen time and sleep duration. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among Spanish children between 1 and 14 years old. METHODS: We used data from the 2017 Spanish National Health survey, conducted on a representative sample of the Spanish population. We categorised daily leisure screen time as 0-59, 60-119, 120-179, and ≥180 minutes. We classified sleep duration, depending on the age, as proper sleep duration and short sleep duration. We calculated unadjusted, and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of short sleep duration according to daily leisure screen time after adjusting for potential confounders. PR's were derived from fitting generalised linear models with Poisson distribution and robust variance. RESULTS: Of the 5517 Spanish children aged 1-14 years, 44.3% spent 120 minutes or more of daily leisure screen time and 23.6% had short sleep duration. 24.5% and 28.2% of children spending between 120 and 179 minutes and exceeding 180 minutes of daily leisure screen time suffered short sleep duration, respectively. In the adjusted model, higher patterns of daily leisure screen time were associated with short sleep duration: adjusted PR120-179  = 1.34 (95% CI 1.18, 1.54) and adjusted PR≥180  = 1.48 (95% CI 1.27, 1.73). CONCLUSIONS: Around one out of four Spanish children between 1 and 14 years old, exceeding 120 minutes of daily leisure screen time, had short sleep duration. More scientific research is needed for institutions to work on providing novel healthcare programmes that consider these new determinants of child health.

6.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the correlation between indices of diet quality (DQIs), insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) and resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference (WHR) and body mass (BMI) and the alleles and genotypes of the TJP1 SNP rs2291166 and the VNTR of ATXN2 in adolescent patients. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The study enrolled 85 subjects aged 10-20years, from the city of Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, recruited in the period 2017-2018. DQIs, BMI, WHR, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, and diet quality index were measured. The rs2291166 polymorphism in TJP1 was determined by allele-specific PCR and the (CAG)n expansion in ATXN2 was determined by hot start PCR. PCR products were analyzed using 8% PAGE electrophoresis and silver nitrate staining. RESULTS: A correlation was found of indices DQIs, HOMA-IR, WHR and BMI with the heterozygous genotype of the TJP1 SNP rs2291166 and the long and short repeats of the ATXN2 CAG repeat in obese adolescent patients. A very strong positive correlation was seen between the TJP1 SNP and the HOMA-IR index (P<.05). A positive correlation was also found between the ATXN2 CAG repeat and the QUICKI index (P=.000) (P<.05), while the DQIs index correlated more closely with BMI and WHR. CONCLUSIONS: DQIs, TJP1 SNP rs2291166, and ATXN2 CAG repeat are determinants of obesity-related risk parameters such as BMI, WHR, QUICKI, and HOMA-IR in the adolescent population analyzed.

7.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 56(5): 277-281, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-4817

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón está aumentando en mujeres. Se ha proyectado que en España pueda superar a la mortalidad por cáncer de mama, la principal causa de mortalidad por cáncer en mujeres, en pocos años. El objetivo de este estudio es estimar la proporción de mujeres que presentan alto riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de pulmón en un grupo de participantes en un cribado poblacional de cáncer de mama. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de una muestra de mujeres que participaron en un cribado poblacional de cáncer de mama en el año 2016 en Hospitalet de Llobregat (n = 1.601). El riesgo elevado de cáncer de pulmón se definió según los criterios del National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) y del Dutch-Belgian randomised lung cancer screening trial (NELSON). RESULTADOS: Alrededor de un 20% y un 40% de fumadoras según los criterios NLST y NELSON, respectivamente, y alrededor de un 20% de exfumadoras según ambos criterios, presentan un alto riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de pulmón. Se observa una tendencia positiva, estadísticamente significativa, entre la proporción de mujeres que presentan alto riesgo y la dependencia a la nicotina medida por el test de Fagerström breve. CONCLUSIÓN: Una alta proporción de participantes en este cribado de cáncer de mama presenta un riesgo elevado de desarrollar cáncer de pulmón y sería elegible para participar en un programa de cribado de cáncer de pulmón. Los cribados poblacionales de cáncer de mama pueden ser útiles para implementar estrategias de prevención primaria de cáncer de pulmón


INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer mortality is increasing in women. In Spain, estimates suggest that lung cancer mortality may soon surpass breast cancer mortality, the main cause of cancer mortality among women. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women at high risk of developing lung cancer in a group of participants in a population-based breast cancer screening program. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of women who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program in 2016 in Hospitalet de Llobregat (n=1,601). High risk of lung cancer was defined according to the criteria of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) and the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON). RESULTS: Around 20% of smokers according to NLST criteria and 40% of smokers according to NELSON criteria, and around 20% of former smokers according to both criteria, are at high risk of developing lung cancer. A positive and statistically significant trend is observed between the proportion of women at high risk and nicotine dependence measured with the brief Fagerström test. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of participants in this breast cancer screening program have a high risk of developing lung cancer and would be eligible to participate in a lung cancer screening program. Population-based breast cancer screening programs may be useful to implement lung cancer primary prevention activities

10.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e154, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126578

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: La inactividad física es un factor de riesgo comportamental que se define como la realización de menos de 150 minutos de actividad física a la semana de intensidad moderada, por otra parte, la conducta sedentaria hace referencia al tiempo que se permanece sentado o acostado en reposo. Objetivo: Determinar la correlación existente entre los niveles de actividad física, en cada uno de los dominios, y la conducta sedentaria de los senderistas de Bucaramanga, y área metropolitana. Métodos: Estudio correlacional realizado en 170 senderistas de Bucaramanga y área metropolitana. Las variables se analizaron en medidas de tendencia central o frecuencias según su naturaleza. Se utilizó la prueba U de Mann-Whitney para establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las variables categorías y continúas de interés. Se calculó coeficiente de Pearson para establecer una posible correlación en las variables de interés. El nivel de significancia fue de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: Se registró una prevalencia nula de inactividad física en la población de estudio. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al analizar las medianas de actividad física en cada uno de los dominios según sexo. El dominio de mayor realización de actividad física fue el del tiempo libre. Se estableció una correlación negativa entre la conducta sedentaria y la cantidad de actividad física y el gasto energético semanal. Conclusiones: La totalidad de los senderistas encuestados son físicamente activos y cumplen ampliamente con las recomendaciones de actividad física para la salud de la OMS, además de registrar bajos niveles de conducta sedentaria. Se determinó una correlación negativa entre la conducta sedentaria y la cantidad de actividad física y el gasto energético semanal.


ABSTRACT Introduction: physical inactivity is a behavioral risk factor that is defined as the realization of less than 150 moderate intensity physical activity per week, oh the other hand, sedentary behavior has to do with the time a person spend sitting or lying down. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between physical activity levels, in each domain, and the sedentary behavior of hikers from Bucaramanga, and its metropolitan area. Methods: correlational study carried out in 170 hikers from Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area. Variables were analyzed using central tendencies measures or frequencies according to its nature. U - Mann-Whitney test was utilized to establish differences statistically significant between categorical and continuous variables of interest. Pearson coefficient was calculated to establish a possible correlation between variables of interest. Significant level was of p ≤ 0.05 Results: a non-existent prevalence of physical inactivity was registered in hikers. No differences statistically significant were found when analyzing physical activity medians in each domain according to sex. Free time was the domain in which participants reported more physical activity. A negative correlation was established between sedentary behavior and the quantity of physical activity and weekly energy expenditure. Conclusions: All hikers interviewed are physically active and widely fulfill WHO recommendations on physical activity for health, besides, participants reported low levels of sedentary behavior. A negative correlation was stablished between sedentary behavior and the quantity of physical activity and weekly energy expenditure.

12.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(2): 238-242, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090583

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: a survey on peri-operative nutritional support in pancreatic and biliary surgery among Spanish hospitals in 2007 showed that few surgical groups followed the 2006 ESPEN guidelines. Ten years later we sent a questionnaire to check the current situation. Methods: a questionnaire with 21 items sent to 38 centers, related to fasting time before and after surgery, nutritional screening use and type, time and type of peri-operative nutritional support, and number of procedures. Results: thirty-four institutions responded. The median number of pancreatic resections (head/total) was 29.5 (95% CI: 23.0-35; range, 5-68) (total, 1002); of surgeries for biliary malignancies (non-pancreatic), 9.8 (95% CI: 7.3-12.4; range, 2-30); and of main biliary resections for benign conditions, 10.4 (95% CI: 7.6-13.3; range, 2-33). Before surgery, only 41.2% of the sites used nutritional support (< 50% used any nutritional screening procedure). The mean duration of preoperative fasting for solid foods was 9.3 h (range, 6-24 h); it was 6.6 h for liquids (range, 2-12). Following pancreatic surgery, 29.4% tried to use early oral feeding, but 88.2% of the surveyed teams used some nutritional support; 26.5% of respondents used TPN in 100% of cases. Different percentages of TPN and EN were used in the other centers. In malignant biliary surgery, 22.6% used TPN always, and EN in 19.3% of cases. Conclusions: TPN is the commonest nutrition approach after pancreatic head surgery. Only 29.4% of the units used early oral feeding, and 32.3% used EN; 22.6% used TPN regularly after surgery for malignant biliary tumours. The 2006 ESPEN guideline recommendations are not regularly followed 12 years after their publication in our country.

13.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 141(1): 22-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations for the management of patients with primary or secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) based on best evidence and experience. METHODS: The Delphi methodology was followed. A multidisciplinary panel of 10 experts was established, who defined the scope, users and preliminary recommendations. Systematic and narrative reviews of the current literature were performed to assess data on the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and the efficacy and safety of add-on therapy in patients with GTCS. Twenty-five definitive recommendations were generated which were then graded on a scale of 1 (totally disagree) to 10 (totally agree) by the experts and 45 neurologists. Consensus was reached if at least 70% of the participants applied a score of ≥7. Each recommendation was then assigned a level of evidence, a grade of agreement and a grade of recommendation. The entire process was supervised by an expert methodologist. RESULTS: Overall, 24 out of 25 recommendations achieved consensus. These included specific recommendations on diagnosis, evaluation and treatment. The recommendations also emphasized the importance of proper psychological evaluation and effective communication between patients and health professionals, and the importance of patient and family education and support. SIGNIFICANCE: The recommendations generated by this consensus can be used as a guide for the diagnosis and management of patients with GTCS.


Assuntos
Convulsões/terapia , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Espanha
14.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 56(5): 277-281, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629546

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer mortality is increasing in women. In Spain, estimates suggest that lung cancer mortality may soon surpass breast cancer mortality, the main cause of cancer mortality among women. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women at high risk of developing lung cancer in a group of participants in a population-based breast cancer screening program. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of women who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program in 2016 in Hospitalet de Llobregat (n=1,601). High risk of lung cancer was defined according to the criteria of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) and the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON). RESULTS: Around 20% of smokers according to NLST criteria and 40% of smokers according to NELSON criteria, and around 20% of former smokers according to both criteria, are at high risk of developing lung cancer. A positive and statistically significant trend is observed between the proportion of women at high risk and nicotine dependence measured with the brief Fagerström test. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of participants in this breast cancer screening program have a high risk of developing lung cancer and would be eligible to participate in a lung cancer screening program. Population-based breast cancer screening programs may be useful to implement lung cancer primary prevention activities.

15.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(1): 141-148, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of Spanish workers with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and those at risk of developing MetS in 2015. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of workers (n = 15 614). We used a modified definition of the NCEP:ATPIII criteria for MetS (we used body mass index (BMI) above 28.8 kg/m2 instead of the waist circumference criterion). We calculated the prevalence of MetS (having at least three components) and of being at risk of MetS (having one or two components). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of MetS according to socio-economic and workplace characteristics. RESULTS: The proportions of workers with and at risk of MetS were 7.1 and 31.9%, respectively. The most prevalent criterion was having a BMI > 28.8 kg/m2 (24.1%) in men and cHDL < 40 mg/dl in women (12.9%). There were significant associations between MetS and men (aOR compared to women = 3.73, CI 95%: 3.19; 4.36); age (higher among oldest, aOR = 5.75, CI 95%: 4.37;7.56); and social class (higher among lower social class, aOR = 2.03, CI 95%: 1.65;2.48). CONCLUSION: Reducing any of the five MetS components, while taking into account the differences found by socio-economic and workplace characteristics, should be one priority for reducing MetS prevalence.

17.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 40(2): 57-64, 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-6486

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La ingesta de comida en la calle es una práctica muy común en personas que trabajan. Hay una gran oferta de comida callejera; Las frutas son siempre parte de esta oferta y se pueden encontrar en diferentes presentaciones. OBJETIVO: Analizar la frecuencia del consumo de fruta en las vías públicas de América Latina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal utilizando un cuestionario de 15 preguntas en formato Google Docs, que fue validado por el método Delphi y aplicado en 11 países: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Portugal y Uruguay. RESULTADOS: Se encuestó a 8885 personas, más del 50% consume alimentos en la vía pública. Entre los países más consumidores, se destacan Colombia (78%) y Guatemala (76%), seguido de Perú (66%). Con respecto al consumo de fruta en la vía pública, se observa que existe un mayor consumo en Portugal (61%), seguido de Colombia (55%) y Guatemala (51%), y los países con menor consumo son Argentina (26%) y Uruguay (20%). El consumo de fruta en la calle es el mismo en ambos sexos en la mayoría de los países. Por otro lado, en Portugal, Colombia, Argentina, Costa Rica y Chile, el mayor consumo corresponde a personas con educación superior (universitaria o de posgrado). CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de alimentos en la calle es alto en todos los países, incluido el consumo de frutas. Esto puede transformarse en una oportunidad para alentar su consumo, pero los puestos de la calle deben ajustarse a los requisitos necesarios para ofrecer alimentos seguros


INTRODUCTION: The street food intake is a very common practice in working people. There is a great supply of street food; fruits are always part of this offer and can be found in different presentations Objetive: To analyze the frequency of fruit consumption in public roads in Latin America. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire of 15 questions in Google Docs format, which was validated by Delphi method and applied in 11 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay. RESULTS: It was surveyed 8885 people, over 50% consume food on public roads; among the most consuming countries, it is highlighted Colombia (78%) and Guatemala (76%), followed by Peru (66%). With respect to fruit consumption on public roads, it is observed that there is higher consumption in Portugal (61%), followed by Colombia (55%) and Guatemala (51%), and the countries with less consumption are Argentina (26%) and Uruguay (20%). Fruit consumption in the street is the same in both sexes in the most countries. On the other hand, in Portugal, Colombia, Argentina, Costa Rica and Chile, the highest consumption correspond to people with higher education (university or post-graduate). CONCLUSION: Street food consumption is high in all countries, including consumption of fruits. This can be transformed into an opportunity to encourage their consumption, but street posts must be adjusted to the necessary requirements to offer safe food

19.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(6): 1307-1314, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191150

RESUMO

Objective: the main objective was to assess body composition in terms of skeletal muscle index (SMI), myosteatosis, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) as an adjunct of information provided by radiotherapy CT planning scan. Material and methods: a sample of 49 patients with lung and digestive cancers underwent a CT scan for radiotherapy treatment, which included measurements at the L3 region. Images were analyzed with a radiotherapy contouring software, using different Hounsfield Unit (HU) settings. Cross-sectional areas (cm2) were automatically computed by summing tissue pixels and multiplying by pixel surface area. Low SMI (cm2/m2) and muscle density (HU) were determined according to the recently established cut-off points. Results: the prevalence of low SMI was detected in 46.94% of patients, being present in 8 women, 4 men with BMI < 25 kg/m2, and 11 men with BMI = 25 kg/m2. The average mean skeletal attenuation of total skeletal muscle area was 29.02 (± 8.66) HU, and myosteatosis was present in 13 women (81.25%) and 31 men (93.94%). Mean SAT was 131.92 (± 76.80) cm2, mean VAT was 133.19 (± 85.28) cm2, and mean IMAT was 11.29 (± 12.86) cm2. Conclusion: skeletal muscle abnormalities are frequently present in cancer patients and a low SMI may also exist even in the presence of overweight. As CT scans are an important tool at any radiation oncology department, they could also be used to offer highly sensitive and specific information about body composition, as well as to detect early malnutrition before starting radiotherapy treatment


Objetivo: evaluar la composición corporal mediante el índice de músculo esquelético (IME), el tejido adiposo visceral (TAV), el tejido adiposo subcutáneo (TAS) y el tejido adiposo intermuscular (TAIM) o la densidad muscular (DM) en pacientes oncológicos antes de iniciar el tratamiento con radioterapia mediante cortes de TAC. Materiales y métodos: se estudiaron 49 pacientes con cáncer de pulmón y del aparato digestivo sometidos a tomografía computarizada con cortes en L3 para la determinación del tratamiento con radioterapia. El tejido adiposo y muscular se cuantificó mediante distintas Unidades Hounsfield (UH) (-29 a +150 para masa muscular, -190 a -30 para TAIM/TAS y -150 a -50 para TAV). Resultados: la prevalencia de un IME bajo se detectó en el 46,94% de los pacientes, estando presente en 8 mujeres, 6 de ellas con un IMC = 25 kg/m². Según la distribución masculina, se identificaron 4 hombres con IMC < 25 kg/m² y 11 hombres con = 25 kg/m². La DM media fue de 29,02 (± 8,66) UH y la mioesteatosis estuvo presente en 13 mujeres (81,25%) y 31 hombres (93,94%). La media del TAS fue de 131,92 (± 76,80) cm², la del TAV de 133,19 (± 85,28) cm² y la del TAIM de 11,29 (± 12,86) cm². Conclusión: las anormalidades del músculo esquelético y la masa grasa son muy frecuentes en los pacientes con cáncer, pudiendo existir un bajo IME incluso en presencia de sobrepeso u obesidad. Teniendo en cuenta que la TAC es una herramienta importante en cualquier departamento de radioterapia, también podría utilizarse para ofrecer información sensible y específica sobre la composición corporal, así como para detectar la malnutrición precoz


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/radioterapia , Vértebras Lombares , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Index enferm ; 28(4): 179-183, oct.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192677

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: describir el conocimiento, uso y percepción de nocividad de los cigarrillos electrónicos en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud. METODOLOGÍA: estudio transversal con 380 estudiantes del grado de medicina y enfermería de la Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (Barcelona, España) mediante cuestionario autoadministrado, incluyendo variables sociodemográficas y consumo tabáquico. Se calcularon prevalencias y odds ratio (IC 95%). Se analizaron diferencias entre grupos sobre la percepción de nocividad. RESULTADOS: el 97,9% conocía estos productos. El 29,2% lo habían probado alguna vez, siendo mayor su uso entre fumadores y estudiantes de enfermería. El 15,5% de no fumadores lo había utilizado alguna vez, el 62,5% de ellos con nicotina. El principal motivo de uso fue la curiosidad (70,1%). CONCLUSIÓN: los resultados apoyan la hipótesis de que los cigarrillos electrónicos pueden ser una entrada a productos con nicotina entre la población joven no fumadora


OBJECTIVE: to describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes, use and their perceived harmfulness in health science students. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted to 380 medical and nursing students at the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain). A self-administered questionnaire was used, which included variables concerning sociodemographic factors and tobacco consumption. Prevalence and odd ratio were calculated. Differences between groups were analyzed for perceived harmfulness. RESULTS: awareness of electronic cigarettes was 97.9%. The prevalence of ever use was 29.2%. There were statistically significant differences according to tobacco consumption (higher in current smokers) and health science degree (higher in nursing students). 15.5% of never-smoker students had ever use electronic cigarettes and 62.5% of them with nicotine charges. The main reason for trying them was curiosity (70.1%). CONCLUSIONS: the results second the concern of electronic cigarettes as possible gateway to nicotine products among young never-smoker population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Estudos Transversais , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
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