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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5,069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta-carotene, fruit, fibre, non-white bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary HR per 1 SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95%CI:1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (1.04; 1.02-1.06), wine (1.04;1.02-1.07), beer/cider (1.06;1.04-1.08), milk (0.95;0.93-0.98), cheese (0.96;0.94-0.99), calcium (0.93;0.90-0.95), phosphorus (0.92;0.90-0.95), magnesium (0.95;0.92-0.98), potassium (0.96;0.94-0.99), riboflavin (0.94;0.92-0.97), beta-carotene (0.96;0.93-0.98), and total protein (0.94;0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta-carotene and total protein.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806016

RESUMO

We explored the role of socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 incidence among cancer patients during the first wave of the pandemic. We conducted a case-control study within the UK Biobank cohort linked to the COVID-19 tests results available from 16 March 2020 until 23 August 2020. The main exposure variable was socioeconomic status, assessed using the Townsend Deprivation Index. Among 18,917 participants with an incident malignancy in the UK Biobank cohort, 89 tested positive for COVID-19. The overall COVID-19 incidence was 4.7 cases per 1000 incident cancer patients (95%CI 3.8-5.8). Compared with the least deprived cancer patients, those living in the most deprived areas had an almost three times higher risk of testing positive (RR 2.6, 95%CI 1.1-5.8). Other independent risk factors were ethnic minority background, obesity, unemployment, smoking, and being diagnosed with a haematological cancer for less than five years. A consistent pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 among incident cancer patients in the UK highlights the need to prioritise the cancer patients living in the most deprived areas in vaccination planning. This socio-demographic profiling of vulnerable cancer patients at increased risk of infection can inform prevention strategies and policy improvements for the coming pandemic waves.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804237

RESUMO

Ataxia in children is a common clinical sign of numerous neurological disorders consisting of impaired coordination of voluntary muscle movement. Its most common form, cerebellar ataxia, describes a heterogeneous array of neurologic conditions with uncountable causes broadly divided as acquired or genetic. Numerous genetic disorders are associated with chronic progressive ataxia, which complicates clinical management, particularly on the diagnostic stage. Advances in omics technologies enable improvements in clinical practice and research, so we proposed a multi-omics approach to aid in the genetic diagnosis and molecular elucidation of an undiagnosed infantile condition of chronic progressive cerebellar ataxia. Using whole-exome sequencing, RNA-seq, and untargeted metabolomics, we identified three clinically relevant mutations (rs141471029, rs191582628 and rs398124292) and an altered metabolic profile in our patient. Two POLR1C diagnostic variants already classified as pathogenic were found, and a diagnosis of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy was achieved. A mutation on the MMACHC gene, known to be associated with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria cblC type, was also found. Additionally, preliminary metabolome analysis revealed alterations in our patient's amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Our findings provided a definitive genetic diagnosis reinforcing the association between POLR1C mutations and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and highlighted the relevance of multi-omics approaches to the disease.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Genoma/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Obes Surg ; 31(6): 2841-2842, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity surgery is justified as it produces sustained weight loss, increases life expectancy, and reduces the complications of obesity. For this reason, increasing numbers of patients are undergoing this surgery [1]. Complications following surgical treatment of severe obesity vary based upon the procedure performed and, although it is currently below 7% in more experienced centers, it may increase in more complex surgeries (such as revision surgery) and can be as high as 40% [2, 3]. Patients with early postoperative complications may be managed in specialist centers by the bariatric surgeon during the hospital stay [4]. Missing bowel injury may occur primarily during insertion of a Veress needle and trocar, use of electrosurgery and laser beams, suturing, and adhesiolysis [5]. Less frequently, the bowel perforation is due to the measurement of the loop and goes unnoticed. Perforation of the intestines due to any reason is a severe condition that can clinically present with free intraabdominal air, purulent or even fecal peritonitis, and abdominal compartment syndrome [6]. High clinical suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis. Early recognition of bowel injury and early intervention is crucial to reduce its morbidity and mortality [5]. METHODS: We present a case of a 50-year-old male patient with a BMI of 36.1 kg/m2, hypertension, and dyslipidemia who was proposed for bariatric surgery. A laparoscopic one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) was performed with no intraoperative incidents. Few hours after the surgery, the patient manifests intense abdominal pain and tachycardia (120 bpm) so we decided to order an abdominal CT scan that showed signs of jejunal perforation (pneumoperitoneum, oral contrast extravasation, and small air bubbles next to the jejunum wall). RESULTS: Emergency laparoscopy was done and showed generalized peritonitis caused by a 4-mm perforation in the mesenteric border of the jejunum with everted mucosa that was located 150 cm from the loop of Treitz. We decided to place three infraumbilical trocars to help us with washing, viewing, and surgical repair. We performed a 2-0 barbed simple suture of the perforation and extensive washing of the entire cavity with 10 L of serum. We left three drains. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 72 h after surgery with an established oral diet. CONCLUSIONS: Missing intestinal perforation is an uncommon injury during bariatric surgery, but its early diagnosis is important to avoid endangering the patient's life. Simple postoperative tachycardia in obese patients should be taken seriously as it is a warning signal. Laparoscopic reoperation in these early diagnosed cases is safe and effective, since it allows visualization and washing of the entire cavity. Bowel injuries, which may occur as a result of the insertion of an insufflation needle or trocar, are a rare complication of laparoscopy. In the case we present, the perforation occurred during the small bowel measurement so we insist on the extreme caution that surgeons must take during every detail of the surgical technique. The use of atraumatic forceps, handling of the bowel strictly at the antimesenteric side, and the infusion of sufficient methylene blue in the anastomosis testing are gestures that can help reduce the risk.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The patient interval-the time patients wait before consulting their physician after noticing cancer symptoms-contributes to diagnostic delays. We compared anticipated help-seeking times for cancer symptoms and perceived barriers to help-seeking before and after the coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: Two waves (pre-Coronavirus: February 2020, N = 3269; and post-Coronavirus: August 2020, N = 1500) of the Spanish Onco-barometer population survey were compared. The international ABC instrument was administered. Pre-post comparisons were performed using multiple logistic and Poisson regression models. RESULTS: There was a consistent and significant increase in anticipated times to help-seeking for 12 of 13 cancer symptoms, with the largest increases for breast changes (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.22-1-96) and unexplained bleeding (OR = 1.50, 1.26-1.79). Respondents were more likely to report barriers to help-seeking in the post wave, most notably worry about what the doctor may find (OR = 1.58, 1.35-1.84) and worry about wasting the doctor's time (OR = 1.48, 1.25-1.74). Women and older individuals were the most affected. CONCLUSIONS: Participants reported longer waiting times to help-seeking for cancer symptoms after the pandemic. There is an urgent need for public interventions encouraging people to consult their physicians with symptoms suggestive of cancer and counteracting the main barriers perceived during the pandemic situation.

6.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211010615, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and genetic characteristics (novel mutation in BEST1 gene) of a Spanish patient with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). METHODS: The detailed ophthalmological examination included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), color and autofluorescence photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and electrophysiology tests. A next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategy was applied to the index patient, and then sequenced in an Illumina NextSeq500 system. RESULTS: A 55-year-old male presented with a BCVA of 20/25 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy revealed perifoveal yellow flecked-like lesions. Fluorescein angiography and fundus autofluorescence results were consistent with pattern dystrophy. A homozygous frameshift mutation in BEST1 (c.341_342del; p.(Leu114Glnfs*57)) was identified as the cause of the disease. CONCLUSION: ARB is a genetic disease that leads to irreversible visual loss. In this report we found a novel mutation responsible for this disease.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913149

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies examining the association between specific fatty acids and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are inconclusive. We investigated the association between dietary estimates and plasma levels of individual and total saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), industrial-processed trans (iTFA), and ruminant-sourced trans (rTFA) fatty acids, and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Baseline fatty acid intakes were estimated in 450,112 participants (6,162 developed CRC, median follow-up=15 years). In a nested case-control study, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in 433 colon cancer cases and 433 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Dietary total SFA (highest vs. lowest quintile, HRQ5vs.Q1 =0.80; 95%CI:0.69-0.92), myristic acid (HRQ5vs.Q1 =0.83, 95%CI:0.74-0.93) and palmitic acid (HRQ5vs.Q1 =0.81, 95%CI:0.70-0.93) were inversely associated with CRC risk. Plasma myristic acid was also inversely associated with colon cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile, ORQ4vs.Q1 =0.51; 95%CI:0.32-0.83), whereas a borderline positive association was found for plasma stearic acid (ORQ4vs.Q1 =1.63; 95%CI:1.00-2.64). Dietary total MUFA was inversely associated with colon cancer (per one-standard deviation increment, HR1-SD =0.92, 95%CI: 0.85-0.98), but not rectal cancer (HR1-SD =1.04, 95%CI:0.95-1.15, Pheterogeneity =0.027). Dietary iTFA, and particularly elaidic acid, was positively associated with rectal cancer (HR1-SD =1.07, 95%CI:1.02-1.13). Our results suggest that total and individual saturated fatty acids and fatty acids of industrial origin may be relevant to the aetiology of CRC. Both dietary and plasma myristic acid levels were inversely associated with colon cancer risk, which warrants further investigation.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(5): 953-964, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational evidence has shown that smoking is a risk factor for breast and colorectal cancer. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine causal associations between smoking and risks of breast and colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-Wide Association Study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n = 126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n = 112 variants). Using two-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to incident breast (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and colorectal cancer (52,775 cases/45,940 controls). RESULTS: In inverse-variance weighted models, a genetic predisposition to higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with breast cancer risk [OR per 1-SD increment: 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.26; P = 0.04]; although heterogeneity was observed. Similar associations were found for estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with colorectal cancer (OR per 1-SD increment, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40; P = 0.01), colon cancer (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.11-1.55; P < 0.01), and rectal cancer (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.73; P = 0.01). Ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risks of breast (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.14; P = 0.85) or colorectal cancer (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.86-1.10; P = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with prior observational evidence and support a causal role of higher lifetime smoking amount in the development of breast and colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The results from this comprehensive MR analysis indicate that lifetime smoking is a causal risk factor for these common malignancies.

9.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(1): 18, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based cancer registries are required to calculate cancer incidence in a geographical area, and several methods have been developed to obtain estimations of cancer incidence in areas not covered by a cancer registry. However, an extended analysis of those methods in order to confirm their validity is still needed. METHODS: We assessed the validity of one of the most frequently used methods to estimate cancer incidence, on the basis of cancer mortality data and the incidence-to-mortality ratio (IMR), the IMR method. Using the previous 15-year cancer mortality time series, we derived the expected yearly number of cancer cases in the period 2004-2013 for six cancer sites for each sex. Generalized linear mixed models, including a polynomial function for the year of death and smoothing splines for age, were adjusted. Models were fitted under a Bayesian framework based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The IMR method was applied to five scenarios reflecting different assumptions regarding the behavior of the IMR. We compared incident cases estimated with the IMR method to observed cases diagnosed in 2004-2013 in Granada. A goodness-of-fit (GOF) indicator was formulated to determine the best estimation scenario. RESULTS: A total of 39,848 cancer incidence cases and 43,884 deaths due to cancer were included. The relative differences between the observed and predicted numbers of cancer cases were less than 10% for most cancer sites. The constant assumption for the IMR trend provided the best GOF for colon, rectal, lung, bladder, and stomach cancers in men and colon, rectum, breast, and corpus uteri in women. The linear assumption was better for lung and ovarian cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In the best scenario, the mean absolute percentage error was 6% in men and 4% in women for overall cancer. Female breast cancer and prostate cancer obtained the worst GOF results in all scenarios. CONCLUSION: A comparison with a historical time series of real data in a population-based cancer registry indicated that the IMR method is a valid tool for the estimation of cancer incidence. The goodness-of-fit indicator proposed can help select the best assumption for the IMR based on a statistical argument.

10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 81, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have been hypothesised to influence breast cancer risk. However, relatively few prospective studies have examined this relationship, and well-powered analyses according to hormone receptor-defined molecular subtypes, menopausal status, and body size have rarely been conducted. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between dietary intakes of TFAs (industrial trans fatty acids [ITFAs] and ruminant trans fatty acids [RTFAs]) and breast cancer risk among 318,607 women. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 13,241 breast cancer cases occurred. In the multivariable-adjusted model, higher total ITFA intake was associated with elevated breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). A similar positive association was found between intake of elaidic acid, the predominant ITFA, and breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). Intake of total RTFAs was also associated with higher breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17; P trend = 0.015). For individual RTFAs, we found positive associations with breast cancer risk for dietary intakes of two strongly correlated fatty acids (Spearman correlation r = 0.77), conjugated linoleic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20; P trend = 0.001) and palmitelaidic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16; P trend = 0.028). Similar associations were found for total ITFAs and RTFAs with breast cancer risk according to menopausal status, body mass index, and breast cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that higher dietary intakes of ITFAs, in particular elaidic acid, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. Due to the high correlation between conjugated linoleic acid and palmitelaidic acid, we were unable to disentangle the positive associations found for these fatty acids with breast cancer risk. Further mechanistic studies are needed to identify biological pathways that may underlie these associations.

11.
Carcinogenesis ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780524

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction between amino-acids and reducing sugars, or dicarbonyls as intermediate compounds. Experimental studies suggest that AGEs may promote colorectal cancer, but prospective epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study nested within a large European cohort. Plasma concentrations of three protein-bound AGEs: N ε-(carboxy-methyl)lysine (CML), N ε-(carboxy-ethyl)lysine (CEL) and N δ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry in baseline samples collected from 1,378 incident primary colorectal cancer cases and 1,378 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk associated with CML, CEL, MG-H1, total AGEs, and [CEL+MG-H1: CML] and [CEL:MG-H1] ratios. Inverse colorectal cancer risk associations were observed for CML (OR comparing highest to lowest quintile, ORQ5vs.Q1=0.40, 95%CI:0.27-0.59), MG-H1 (ORQ5vs.Q1=0.73, 95%CI:0.53 - 1.00) and total AGEs (OR Q5vs.Q1=0.52, 95%CI:0.37 - 0.73) whereas no association was observed for CEL. A higher [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio was associated with colorectal cancer risk (ORQ5vs.Q1=1.91, 95%CI:1.31-2.79). The associations observed did not differ by sex, or by tumour anatomical subsite. Although individual AGEs concentrations appear to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, a higher ratio of methylglyoxal-derived AGEs versus those derived from glyoxal (calculated by [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio) showed a strong positive risk association. Further insight on the metabolism of AGEs and their dicarbonyls precursors, and their roles in colorectal cancer development is needed.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(5): 874-885, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce. METHODS: We investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,069 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified and matched to 1,069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of colorectal cancer was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, colorectal cancer incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between prediagnostic RBC stearic acid and colorectal cancer reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls, which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and colorectal cancer is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: These findings add to the evidence on colorectal cancer prevention.

14.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599019

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical and psychiatric comorbidities are common in cancer patients and could impact their treatment and prognosis. However, the evidence base regarding the influence of comorbidities in the management and health service use of patients is still scant. In this research we investigated how physical comorbidities are related to the mental health and help-seeking of cancer patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from the representative National Health Survey of Spain (2017). Participants were respondents who reported a cancer diagnosis (n = 484). These were also matched with controls without cancer history (n = 484) based on age, gender, and region. Four alternative physical comorbidities indices were created based on information regarding 28 chronic conditions. Outcomes of interest were psychological distress and having consulted a mental healthcare professional in the year before the survey. RESULTS: Thirty percent of cancer patients reported significant psychological distress but only 10% had consulted a professional. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, among cancer patients each additional comorbidity was associated with 9% higher odds of reporting high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.16) and 21% higher odds of having consulted a mental healthcare professional (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.34). The effects of comorbidities depended on the type of index and were different in controls without cancer history. CONCLUSION: Physical comorbidities in cancer patients are associated with higher risk of psychological distress and higher demand for mental health services. We encourage further research on this issue as it could improve mental health screening and management in oncologic care.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2759-2773, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.

17.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468987

RESUMO

The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a major Public Health problem that is influenced by a number of factors. Recently it has been hypothesized that this transmission may be reduced during the summer due to the warm temperatures. On the other hand, the potential association between the high number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and air pollution is being studied. This relationship was already proven during the SARS outbreak in 2002. This article reviewed the scientific evidence to date regarding the possible influence of environmental temperature and air pollution on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It is concluded that the annual seasons and, therefore, the temperature do not seem to influence the spread of the virus. In addition, air pollutants facilitate infection and mortality from the virus.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)). CONCLUSIONS: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143925, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308858

RESUMO

Soil protection and sustainable land management practices for croplands are usually considered to be cost-effective. However, to date little economic information has emerged about these techniques and there is no comprehensive economic appraisal to effectively help guide investment decisions. This review proposes a new multidisciplinary approach for an economic assessment of soil protection practices at the farm level at selected European sites. It draws together and integrates economic data on a selection of measures based on information related to climate change, soil degradation and biodiversity research that are rarely investigated jointly. Out of the studies reviewed, quantitative and qualitative data from 26 scientific papers and technical reports were gathered into a database. For the quantitative data analysis, 14 of those studies were used. The main results show that most practices may not pass the cost/benefit test and that their benefits are not, as is often assumed, systematically higher than their costs. Specific quantitative results are not definitive but we find that estimation methods may have unintended consequences. They may well lead to ineffective investment decisions unless more holistic and multidisciplinary approaches to soil protection are taken.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5,738 cancer-free EPIC participants with metabolomics data. Partial least squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1,608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of elevated odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were more strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR 0.51 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR 0.62 per unit change, 95% CI 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.93 per unit change, 95% CI 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared to female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

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