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1.
Obes Surg ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity surgery is justified as it produces sustained weight loss, increases life expectancy, and reduces the complications of obesity. For this reason, increasing numbers of patients are undergoing this surgery [1]. Complications following surgical treatment of severe obesity vary based upon the procedure performed and, although it is currently below 7% in more experienced centers, it may increase in more complex surgeries (such as revision surgery) and can be as high as 40% [2, 3]. Patients with early postoperative complications may be managed in specialist centers by the bariatric surgeon during the hospital stay [4]. Missing bowel injury may occur primarily during insertion of a Veress needle and trocar, use of electrosurgery and laser beams, suturing, and adhesiolysis [5]. Less frequently, the bowel perforation is due to the measurement of the loop and goes unnoticed. Perforation of the intestines due to any reason is a severe condition that can clinically present with free intraabdominal air, purulent or even fecal peritonitis, and abdominal compartment syndrome [6]. High clinical suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis. Early recognition of bowel injury and early intervention is crucial to reduce its morbidity and mortality [5]. METHODS: We present a case of a 50-year-old male patient with a BMI of 36.1 kg/m2, hypertension, and dyslipidemia who was proposed for bariatric surgery. A laparoscopic one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) was performed with no intraoperative incidents. Few hours after the surgery, the patient manifests intense abdominal pain and tachycardia (120 bpm) so we decided to order an abdominal CT scan that showed signs of jejunal perforation (pneumoperitoneum, oral contrast extravasation, and small air bubbles next to the jejunum wall). RESULTS: Emergency laparoscopy was done and showed generalized peritonitis caused by a 4-mm perforation in the mesenteric border of the jejunum with everted mucosa that was located 150 cm from the loop of Treitz. We decided to place three infraumbilical trocars to help us with washing, viewing, and surgical repair. We performed a 2-0 barbed simple suture of the perforation and extensive washing of the entire cavity with 10 L of serum. We left three drains. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 72 h after surgery with an established oral diet. CONCLUSIONS: Missing intestinal perforation is an uncommon injury during bariatric surgery, but its early diagnosis is important to avoid endangering the patient's life. Simple postoperative tachycardia in obese patients should be taken seriously as it is a warning signal. Laparoscopic reoperation in these early diagnosed cases is safe and effective, since it allows visualization and washing of the entire cavity. Bowel injuries, which may occur as a result of the insertion of an insufflation needle or trocar, are a rare complication of laparoscopy. In the case we present, the perforation occurred during the small bowel measurement so we insist on the extreme caution that surgeons must take during every detail of the surgical technique. The use of atraumatic forceps, handling of the bowel strictly at the antimesenteric side, and the infusion of sufficient methylene blue in the anastomosis testing are gestures that can help reduce the risk.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806016

RESUMO

We explored the role of socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 incidence among cancer patients during the first wave of the pandemic. We conducted a case-control study within the UK Biobank cohort linked to the COVID-19 tests results available from 16 March 2020 until 23 August 2020. The main exposure variable was socioeconomic status, assessed using the Townsend Deprivation Index. Among 18,917 participants with an incident malignancy in the UK Biobank cohort, 89 tested positive for COVID-19. The overall COVID-19 incidence was 4.7 cases per 1000 incident cancer patients (95%CI 3.8-5.8). Compared with the least deprived cancer patients, those living in the most deprived areas had an almost three times higher risk of testing positive (RR 2.6, 95%CI 1.1-5.8). Other independent risk factors were ethnic minority background, obesity, unemployment, smoking, and being diagnosed with a haematological cancer for less than five years. A consistent pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in COVID-19 among incident cancer patients in the UK highlights the need to prioritise the cancer patients living in the most deprived areas in vaccination planning. This socio-demographic profiling of vulnerable cancer patients at increased risk of infection can inform prevention strategies and policy improvements for the coming pandemic waves.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804237

RESUMO

Ataxia in children is a common clinical sign of numerous neurological disorders consisting of impaired coordination of voluntary muscle movement. Its most common form, cerebellar ataxia, describes a heterogeneous array of neurologic conditions with uncountable causes broadly divided as acquired or genetic. Numerous genetic disorders are associated with chronic progressive ataxia, which complicates clinical management, particularly on the diagnostic stage. Advances in omics technologies enable improvements in clinical practice and research, so we proposed a multi-omics approach to aid in the genetic diagnosis and molecular elucidation of an undiagnosed infantile condition of chronic progressive cerebellar ataxia. Using whole-exome sequencing, RNA-seq, and untargeted metabolomics, we identified three clinically relevant mutations (rs141471029, rs191582628 and rs398124292) and an altered metabolic profile in our patient. Two POLR1C diagnostic variants already classified as pathogenic were found, and a diagnosis of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy was achieved. A mutation on the MMACHC gene, known to be associated with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria cblC type, was also found. Additionally, preliminary metabolome analysis revealed alterations in our patient's amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Our findings provided a definitive genetic diagnosis reinforcing the association between POLR1C mutations and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and highlighted the relevance of multi-omics approaches to the disease.

4.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(1): 18, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based cancer registries are required to calculate cancer incidence in a geographical area, and several methods have been developed to obtain estimations of cancer incidence in areas not covered by a cancer registry. However, an extended analysis of those methods in order to confirm their validity is still needed. METHODS: We assessed the validity of one of the most frequently used methods to estimate cancer incidence, on the basis of cancer mortality data and the incidence-to-mortality ratio (IMR), the IMR method. Using the previous 15-year cancer mortality time series, we derived the expected yearly number of cancer cases in the period 2004-2013 for six cancer sites for each sex. Generalized linear mixed models, including a polynomial function for the year of death and smoothing splines for age, were adjusted. Models were fitted under a Bayesian framework based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The IMR method was applied to five scenarios reflecting different assumptions regarding the behavior of the IMR. We compared incident cases estimated with the IMR method to observed cases diagnosed in 2004-2013 in Granada. A goodness-of-fit (GOF) indicator was formulated to determine the best estimation scenario. RESULTS: A total of 39,848 cancer incidence cases and 43,884 deaths due to cancer were included. The relative differences between the observed and predicted numbers of cancer cases were less than 10% for most cancer sites. The constant assumption for the IMR trend provided the best GOF for colon, rectal, lung, bladder, and stomach cancers in men and colon, rectum, breast, and corpus uteri in women. The linear assumption was better for lung and ovarian cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In the best scenario, the mean absolute percentage error was 6% in men and 4% in women for overall cancer. Female breast cancer and prostate cancer obtained the worst GOF results in all scenarios. CONCLUSION: A comparison with a historical time series of real data in a population-based cancer registry indicated that the IMR method is a valid tool for the estimation of cancer incidence. The goodness-of-fit indicator proposed can help select the best assumption for the IMR based on a statistical argument.

5.
Carcinogenesis ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780524

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction between amino-acids and reducing sugars, or dicarbonyls as intermediate compounds. Experimental studies suggest that AGEs may promote colorectal cancer, but prospective epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study nested within a large European cohort. Plasma concentrations of three protein-bound AGEs: N ε-(carboxy-methyl)lysine (CML), N ε-(carboxy-ethyl)lysine (CEL) and N δ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry in baseline samples collected from 1,378 incident primary colorectal cancer cases and 1,378 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk associated with CML, CEL, MG-H1, total AGEs, and [CEL+MG-H1: CML] and [CEL:MG-H1] ratios. Inverse colorectal cancer risk associations were observed for CML (OR comparing highest to lowest quintile, ORQ5vs.Q1=0.40, 95%CI:0.27-0.59), MG-H1 (ORQ5vs.Q1=0.73, 95%CI:0.53 - 1.00) and total AGEs (OR Q5vs.Q1=0.52, 95%CI:0.37 - 0.73) whereas no association was observed for CEL. A higher [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio was associated with colorectal cancer risk (ORQ5vs.Q1=1.91, 95%CI:1.31-2.79). The associations observed did not differ by sex, or by tumour anatomical subsite. Although individual AGEs concentrations appear to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, a higher ratio of methylglyoxal-derived AGEs versus those derived from glyoxal (calculated by [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio) showed a strong positive risk association. Further insight on the metabolism of AGEs and their dicarbonyls precursors, and their roles in colorectal cancer development is needed.

6.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 81, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have been hypothesised to influence breast cancer risk. However, relatively few prospective studies have examined this relationship, and well-powered analyses according to hormone receptor-defined molecular subtypes, menopausal status, and body size have rarely been conducted. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between dietary intakes of TFAs (industrial trans fatty acids [ITFAs] and ruminant trans fatty acids [RTFAs]) and breast cancer risk among 318,607 women. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 13,241 breast cancer cases occurred. In the multivariable-adjusted model, higher total ITFA intake was associated with elevated breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). A similar positive association was found between intake of elaidic acid, the predominant ITFA, and breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). Intake of total RTFAs was also associated with higher breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17; P trend = 0.015). For individual RTFAs, we found positive associations with breast cancer risk for dietary intakes of two strongly correlated fatty acids (Spearman correlation r = 0.77), conjugated linoleic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20; P trend = 0.001) and palmitelaidic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16; P trend = 0.028). Similar associations were found for total ITFAs and RTFAs with breast cancer risk according to menopausal status, body mass index, and breast cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that higher dietary intakes of ITFAs, in particular elaidic acid, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. Due to the high correlation between conjugated linoleic acid and palmitelaidic acid, we were unable to disentangle the positive associations found for these fatty acids with breast cancer risk. Further mechanistic studies are needed to identify biological pathways that may underlie these associations.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce. METHODS: We investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,069 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified and matched to 1,069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of colorectal cancer was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, colorectal cancer incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between prediagnostic RBC stearic acid and colorectal cancer reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls, which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and colorectal cancer is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: These findings add to the evidence on colorectal cancer prevention.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2759-2773, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.

11.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599019

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical and psychiatric comorbidities are common in cancer patients and could impact their treatment and prognosis. However, the evidence base regarding the influence of comorbidities in the management and health service use of patients is still scant. In this research we investigated how physical comorbidities are related to the mental health and help-seeking of cancer patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from the representative National Health Survey of Spain (2017). Participants were respondents who reported a cancer diagnosis (n = 484). These were also matched with controls without cancer history (n = 484) based on age, gender, and region. Four alternative physical comorbidities indices were created based on information regarding 28 chronic conditions. Outcomes of interest were psychological distress and having consulted a mental healthcare professional in the year before the survey. RESULTS: Thirty percent of cancer patients reported significant psychological distress but only 10% had consulted a professional. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, among cancer patients each additional comorbidity was associated with 9% higher odds of reporting high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.16) and 21% higher odds of having consulted a mental healthcare professional (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.34). The effects of comorbidities depended on the type of index and were different in controls without cancer history. CONCLUSION: Physical comorbidities in cancer patients are associated with higher risk of psychological distress and higher demand for mental health services. We encourage further research on this issue as it could improve mental health screening and management in oncologic care.

12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)). CONCLUSIONS: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.

13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468987

RESUMO

The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a major Public Health problem that is influenced by a number of factors. Recently it has been hypothesized that this transmission may be reduced during the summer due to the warm temperatures. On the other hand, the potential association between the high number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and air pollution is being studied. This relationship was already proven during the SARS outbreak in 2002. This article reviewed the scientific evidence to date regarding the possible influence of environmental temperature and air pollution on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It is concluded that the annual seasons and, therefore, the temperature do not seem to influence the spread of the virus. In addition, air pollutants facilitate infection and mortality from the virus.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143925, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308858

RESUMO

Soil protection and sustainable land management practices for croplands are usually considered to be cost-effective. However, to date little economic information has emerged about these techniques and there is no comprehensive economic appraisal to effectively help guide investment decisions. This review proposes a new multidisciplinary approach for an economic assessment of soil protection practices at the farm level at selected European sites. It draws together and integrates economic data on a selection of measures based on information related to climate change, soil degradation and biodiversity research that are rarely investigated jointly. Out of the studies reviewed, quantitative and qualitative data from 26 scientific papers and technical reports were gathered into a database. For the quantitative data analysis, 14 of those studies were used. The main results show that most practices may not pass the cost/benefit test and that their benefits are not, as is often assumed, systematically higher than their costs. Specific quantitative results are not definitive but we find that estimation methods may have unintended consequences. They may well lead to ineffective investment decisions unless more holistic and multidisciplinary approaches to soil protection are taken.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5,738 cancer-free EPIC participants with metabolomics data. Partial least squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1,608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of elevated odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were more strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR 0.51 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR 0.62 per unit change, 95% CI 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.93 per unit change, 95% CI 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared to female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Islet autoimmunity is associated with diabetes incidence. We investigated whether there was an interaction between dietary fish intake or plasma phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration with the 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) antibody positivity on the risk of developing adult-onset diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 11,247 incident cases of adult-onset diabetes and 14,288 noncases from the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study conducted in eight European countries. Baseline plasma samples were analyzed for GAD65 antibodies and phospholipid n-3 PUFAs. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes in relation to GAD65 antibody status and tertiles of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA or fish intake were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Additive (proportion attributable to interaction [AP]) and multiplicative interactions between GAD65 antibody positivity (≥65 units/mL) and low fish/n-3 PUFA were assessed. RESULTS: The hazard of diabetes in antibody-positive individuals with low intake of total and fatty fish, respectively, was significantly elevated (HR 2.52 [95% CI 1.76-3.63] and 2.48 [1.79-3.45]) compared with people who were GAD65 antibody negative and had high fish intake, with evidence of additive (AP 0.44 [95% CI 0.16-0.72] and 0.48 [0.24-0.72]) and multiplicative (P = 0.0465 and 0.0103) interactions. Individuals with high GAD65 antibody levels (≥167.5 units/mL) and low total plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs had a more than fourfold higher hazard of diabetes (HR 4.26 [2.70-6.72]) and an AP of 0.46 (0.12-0.80) compared with antibody-negative individuals with high n-3 PUFAs. CONCLUSIONS: High fish intake or relative plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA concentrations may partially counteract the increased diabetes risk conferred by GAD65 antibody positivity.

17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 563414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329525

RESUMO

Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have gradually been gaining greater relevance in the field of immunology due to their multiple functions in the innate immune response. They can mainly be found in mucosal and barrier organs like skin, gut, and lungs, and have been classified into five main types (NKs, ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and Lti cells) according to their function and development. They all play major roles in functions such as tissue homeostasis, early pathogen defense, regulation of inflammation, or tissue remodeling. ILCs are mostly tissue-resident cells tightly bound to the tissue structure, a fact that requires long and complex protocols that do not always provide sufficient yield for analysis. This suggests the need for optimized approaches aimed at ensuring that enriched and viable ILC samples are obtained, in order to furnish quality results. Herein a detailed protocol is established for obtaining a single-cell suspension highly enriched in lymphoid cells from mouse gut in order to identify the different subsets of ILCs by means of flow cytometry. The cell marker panel and flow cytometry gating strategies for identification and quantification of all the different ILC populations are provided for simultaneous analysis. Moreover, the protocol described includes a procedure for studying the different cytokines produced by ILC3s involved in maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier and defending against extracellular pathogens. As a result, herein an efficient method is presented for studying mouse ILCs within the lamina propria of the small intestine and colon; this can constitute a useful tool for future investigations in the field.

18.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

19.
Blood ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150388

RESUMO

The need for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-neg) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk (HR) features and adequate measurable residual disease (MRD) clearance remains unclear. The aim of the ALL-HR-11 trial was to evaluate the outcomes of HR Ph-neg adult ALL patients following chemotherapy or allo-HSCT administered based on end-induction and consolidation MRD levels. Patients aged 15-60 years (y) with HR-ALL in complete response (CR) and MRD levels (centrally assessed by 8-color flow cytometry) <0.1% after induction and <0.01% after early consolidation, were assigned to receive delayed consolidation and maintenance therapy up to 2y in CR. The remaining patients were allocated to allo-HSCT. CR was attained in 315/348 patients (91%), with MRD <0.1% after induction in 220/289 patients (76%). By intention-to treat, 218 patients were assigned to chemotherapy and 106 to allo-HSCT. The 5-year (±95%CI) cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) probabilities for the whole series were 43%±7%, 49%±7% and 40±6%, respectively, with CIR and OS rates of 45±8% and 59±9% for patients assigned to chemotherapy and of 40±12% and 38±11% for those assigned to allo-HSCT, respectively. Our results show that avoiding allo-HSCT does not hamper the outcomes of HR Ph-neg adult ALL patients up to 60y with adequate MRD response after induction and consolidation. Better post-remission alternative therapies are especially needed for patients with poor MRD clearance. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01540812).

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity increases endometrial cancer risk, possibly through inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and increasing estrogens. We aimed to quantify the mediating effects of adiponectin (anti-inflammatory adipocytokine); IL6, IL1-receptor antagonist, TNF receptor 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein (inflammatory status biomarkers); C-peptide (hyperinsulinemia biomarker); and free estradiol and estrone (estrogen biomarkers) in the adiposity-endometrial cancer link in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We used data from a case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eligible women did not have cancer, hysterectomy, and diabetes; did not use oral contraceptives or hormone therapy; and were postmenopausal at recruitment. Mediating pathways from adiposity to endometrial cancer were investigated by estimating natural indirect (NIE) and direct (NDE) effects using sequential mediation analysis. RESULTS: The study included 163 cases and 306 controls. The adjusted OR for endometrial cancer for body mass index (BMI) ≥30 versus ≥18.5-<25 kg/m2 was 2.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.02). The ORsNIE were 1.95 (1.01-3.74) through all biomarkers [72% proportion mediated (PM)] decomposed as: 1.35 (1.06-1.73) through pathways originating with adiponectin (33% PM); 1.13 (0.71-1.80) through inflammation beyond (the potential influence of) adiponectin (13% PM); 1.05 (0.88-1.24) through C-peptide beyond adiponectin and inflammation (5% PM); and 1.22 (0.89-1.67) through estrogens beyond preceding biomarkers (21% PM). The ORNDE not through biomarkers was 1.29 (0.54-3.09). Waist circumference gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced adiponectin and increased inflammatory biomarkers, C-peptide, and estrogens mediated approximately 70% of increased odds of endometrial cancer in women with obesity versus normal weight. IMPACT: If replicated, these results could have implications for identifying targets for intervention to reduce endometrial cancer risk in women with obesity.

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