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1.
Behav Res Methods ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676967

RESUMO

Studies on morphological processing in French, as in other languages, have shown disparate results. We argue that a critical and long-overlooked factor that could underlie these diverging results is the methodological differences in the calculation of morphological variables across studies. To address the need for a common morphological database, we present MorphoLex-FR, a sizeable and freely available database with 12 variables for prefixes, roots, and suffixes for the 38,840 words of the French Lexicon Project. MorphoLex-FR constitutes a first step to render future studies addressing morphological processing in French comparable. The procedure we used for morphological segmentation and variable computation is effectively the same as that in MorphoLex, an English morphological database. This will allow for cross-linguistic comparisons of future studies in French and English that will contribute to our understanding of how morphologically complex words are processed. To validate these variables, we explored their influence on lexical decision latencies for morphologically complex nouns in a series of hierarchical regression models. The results indicated that only morphological variables related to the suffix explained lexical decision latencies. The frequency and family size of the suffix exerted facilitatory effects, whereas the percentage of more frequent words in the morphological family of the suffix was inhibitory. Our results are in line with previous studies conducted in French and in English. In conclusion, this database represents a valuable resource for studies on the effect of morphology in visual word processing in French.

2.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233442

RESUMO

In recent decades there have been significant changes in the conceptualization of reading as well as in the perception of how this activity should be assessed. Interest in the analysis of reading processes has led to the emergence of new explanatory models based primarily on the contributions of cognitive psychology. In parallel, there have been notable advances in measurement procedures, especially in models based on Item Response Theory (IRT), as well as in the capacity and performance of specific software programs that allow data to be managed and analyzed. These changes have contributed significantly to the rise of testing procedures such as computerized adaptive tests (CATs), whose fundamental characteristic is that the sequence of items presented in the tests is adapted to the level of competence that the subject manifests. Likewise, the incorporation of elements of dynamic assessment (DA) as the prompts are gradually offered allows for obtaining information about the type and degree of support required to optimize the subject's performance. In this sense, the confluence of contributions from DA and CATs offers a new possibility for approaching the assessment of learning processes. In this article, we present a longitudinal research developed in two phases, through which a computerized dynamic adaptive assessment battery of reading processes (EDPL-BAI) was configured. The research frame involved 1,831 students (46% girls) from 13 public schools in three regions of Chile. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differential contribution on reading competence of dynamic scores obtained in a subsample composed of 324 (47% girls) students from third to sixth grade after the implementation of a set of adaptive dynamic tests of morpho-syntactic processes. The results achieved in the structural equation modeling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show a significant contribution of calibrated score that reflects estimated knowledge level on reading competence, as well as dynamic scores based on the assigned value of graduated prompts required by the students. These results showed significant predictive values on reading competence and incremental validity in relation to predictions made by static criterion tests.

3.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(4): 1568-1580, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124719

RESUMO

Most of the new words a reader will find are morphologically complex. Also, theoretical models of language processing propose that morphology plays an important role in visual word processing. Nevertheless, studies on the subject show contradicting results that are difficult to reconcile. One factor that may explain this is the lack of a sizeable and reliable morphological database. As a consequence, there are enormous methodological differences in the way the values for morphological variables are calculated across studies. We present a sizeable and freely available database with six new variables for affixes and three for roots for 68,624 words from the English Lexicon Project. We further studied by means of regression models the influence of these new variables on the lexical decision latencies of 4,724 morphologically complex nouns that included one root and one suffix. Results showed that root frequency and suffix length had a facilitatory effect, whereas the percentage of more frequent words in the morphological family of the suffix had an inhibitory effect on latencies. After controlling for collinearity, root family size, suffix family size, suffix P*, and suffix frequency also had facilitatory effects. These results shed new light on the importance of suffix length and the frequency of the lexical competitors of the family of a suffix. This database represents a valuable resource for studies on the effect of morphology in visual word processing in English and can be found at https://github.com/hugomailhot/MorphoLex-en .


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Leitura , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Vocabulário
4.
Front Psychol ; 5: 764, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25101030

RESUMO

Idiomatic expressions can be interpreted literally or figuratively. These two meanings are often processed in parallel or very rapidly, as evidenced by online measures of idiomatic processing. Because in many cases the figurative meaning cannot be derived from the component lexical elements and because of the speed with which this meaning is accessed, it is assumed such meanings are stored in semantic memory. In the present study, we examined how literal equivalents and intact idiomatic expressions are stored in memory and whether episodic memory traces interact or interfere with semantic-level representations and vice versa. To examine age-invariance, younger and older adults studied lists of idioms and literal equivalents. On a recognition test, some studied items were presented in the alternative form (e.g., if the idiom was studied, its literal equivalent was tested). False alarms to these critical items suggested that studying literal equivalents activates the idiom from which they are derived, presumably due to spreading activation in lexical/semantic networks, and results in high rates of errors. Importantly, however, the converse (false alarms to literal equivalents after studying the idiom) were significantly lower, suggesting an advantage in storage for idioms. The results are consistent with idiom processing models that suggest obligatory access to figurative meanings and that this access can also occur indirectly, through literal equivalents.

5.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 20(5): 988-96, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23543423

RESUMO

Research on the impact of letter transpositions that arise across morpheme boundaries has yielded conflicting results. These results have led to the suggestion that a cross-linguistic difference may exist in the recognition of Spanish and English words. In two masked-priming experiments run on separate groups of Spanish and English speakers, we tested this hypothesis by comparing the impacts of primes with letter transpositions that arose within morphemes or across morpheme boundaries on the recognition of identical or near-identical Spanish-English cognate targets. The results showed transposed-letter benefits in both Spanish and English that were not modulated by the position of the transposed letter in the prime stimulus. Our findings therefore add to the growing body of literature suggesting that the transposed-letter benefit is not affected by the position of the transposed letters relative to the morpheme boundary, and they dispel previous suggestions that there might be a genuine difference in orthographic coding across the Spanish and English writing systems.


Assuntos
Idioma , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Psicolinguística/métodos , Leitura , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Redação
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