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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701180

RESUMO

The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) on transition metals, such as platinum (Pt), is commonly viewed as a sharp transition from the CO-inhibited surface to the active metal, covered with oxygen (O). However, we find that minor amounts of O are present in the CO-poisoned layer that explain why, surprisingly, CO desorbs at stepped and flat Pt crystal planes at once, regardless of the reaction conditions. Using near-ambient pressure X-ray photoemission and a curved Pt(111) crystal we probe the chemical composition at surfaces with variable step density during the CO oxidation reaction. The systematic analysis of carbon and oxygen core levels across the curved crystal reveals that, right before light-off, subsurface O builds up within (111) terraces. This is key to trigger the simultaneous ignition of the catalytic reaction at different Pt surfaces, as indicated by ab-initio theory: a CO-Pt-O complex is formed that equals the CO chemisorption energy at terraces and steps, leading to the abrupt desorption of poisoning CO from all crystal facets at the same temperature.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101402

RESUMO

We extensively characterize the electronic structure of ultranarrow graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with armchair edges and zigzag termini that have five carbon atoms across their width (5-AGNRs), as synthesized on Au(111). Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on the ribbons, recorded on both the metallic substrate and a decoupling NaCl layer, show well-defined dispersive bands and in-gap states. In combination with theoretical calculations, we show how these in-gap states are topological in nature and localized at the zigzag termini of the nanoribbons. In addition to rationalizing the driving force behind the topological class selection of 5-AGNRs, we also uncover the length-dependent behavior of these end states which transition from singly occupied spin-split states to a closed-shell form as the ribbons become shorter. Finally, we demonstrate the magnetic character of the end states via transport experiments in a model two-terminal device structure in which the ribbons are suspended between the scanning probe and the substrate that both act as leads.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999431

RESUMO

The electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can be precisely tuned by chemical doping. Here we demonstrate that amino (NH2) functional groups attached at the edges of chiral GNRs (chGNRs) can efficiently gate the chGNRs and lead to the valence band (VB) depopulation on a metallic surface. The NH2-doped chGNRs are grown by on-surface synthesis on Au(111) using functionalized bianthracene precursors. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy resolves that the NH2 groups significantly upshift the bands of chGNRs, causing the Fermi level crossing of the VB onset of chGNRs. Through density functional theory simulations we confirm that the hole-doping behavior is due to an upward shift of the bands induced by the edge NH2 groups.

5.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(8): 4564-4580, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318555

RESUMO

The use of atomic orbitals in Hedin's GW approximation provides, in principle, an inexpensive alternative to plane-wave basis sets, especially when modeling large molecules. However, benchmarking of the algorithms and basis sets is essential for a careful balance between cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present an implementation of the GW approximation using numerical atomic orbitals and a pseudopotential treatment of core electrons. The combination of a contour deformation technique with a one-shot extraction of quasiparticle energies provides an efficient scheme for many applications. The performance of the implementation with respect to the basis set convergence and the effect of the use of pseudopotentials has been tested for the 117 closed-shell molecules from the G2/97 test set and 24 larger acceptor molecules from another recently proposed test set. Moreover, to demonstrate the potential of our method, we compute the thermally averaged GW density of states of a large photochromic compound by sampling ab initio molecular dynamics trajectories at different temperatures. The computed thermal line widths indicate approximately twice as large electron-phonon couplings with GW than with standard DFT-GGA calculations. This is further confirmed using frozen-phonon calculations.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1573, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952953

RESUMO

Miniaturization of electronic circuits into the single-atom level requires novel approaches to characterize transport properties. Due to its unrivaled precision, scanning probe microscopy is regarded as the method of choice for local characterization of atoms and single molecules supported on surfaces. Here we investigate electronic transport along the anisotropic germanium (001) surface with the use of two-probe scanning tunneling spectroscopy and first-principles transport calculations. We introduce a method for the determination of the transconductance in our two-probe experimental setup and demonstrate how it captures energy-resolved information about electronic transport through the unoccupied surface states. The sequential opening of two transport channels within the quasi-one-dimensional Ge dimer rows in the surface gives rise to two distinct resonances in the transconductance spectroscopic signal, consistent with phase-coherence lengths of up to 50 nm and anisotropic electron propagation. Our work paves the way for the electronic transport characterization of quantum circuits engineered on surfaces.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 488, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679501

RESUMO

For the layered transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2, we establish through a unique experimental approach and density functional theory, how ultrafast charge transfer in 1T-TaS2 takes on isotropic three-dimensional character or anisotropic two-dimensional character, depending on the commensurability of the charge density wave phases of 1T-TaS2. The X-ray spectroscopic core-hole-clock method prepares selectively in- and out-of-plane polarized sulfur 3p orbital occupation with respect to the 1T-TaS2 planes and monitors sub-femtosecond wave packet delocalization. Despite being a prototypical two-dimensional material, isotropic three-dimensional charge transfer is found in the commensurate charge density wave phase (CCDW), indicating strong coupling between layers. In contrast, anisotropic two-dimensional charge transfer occurs for the nearly commensurate phase (NCDW). In direct comparison, theory shows that interlayer interaction in the CCDW phase - not layer stacking variations - causes isotropic three-dimensional charge transfer. This is presumably a general mechanism for phase transitions and tailored properties of dichalcogenides with charge density waves.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(73): 10256-10259, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141797

RESUMO

A nanographene formed by the fusion of 22 benzene rings has been prepared by combining an in-solution Pd-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction and on-surface Au-promoted cyclodehydrogenation. The structure and electronic properties of the resulting three-fold symmetric C66H24 molecule have been characterized by scanning probe microscopy with atomic resolution and corroborated by theoretical modelling.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(16): 11037-11046, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648564

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms involved in the covalent attachment of organic molecules to surfaces is a major challenge for nanotechnology and surface science. On the basis of classical organic chemistry mechanistic considerations, key issues such as selectivity and reactivity of the organic adsorbates could be rationalized and exploited for the design of molecular-scale circuits and devices. Here we use tris(benzocyclobutadieno)triphenylene, a singular Y-shaped hydrocarbon containing antiaromatic cyclobutadienoid rings, as a molecular probe to study the reaction of polycyclic conjugated molecules with atomic scale moieties, dangling-bond (DB) dimers on a hydrogen-passivated Ge(001):H surface. By combining molecular design, synthesis, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS) and computational modeling, we show that the attachment involves a concerted [4+2] cycloaddition reaction that is completely site-selective and fully reversible. This selectivity, governed by the bond alternation induced by the presence of the cyclobutadienoid rings, allows for the control of the orientation of the molecules with respect to the surface DB-patterning. We also demonstrate that by judicious modification of the electronic levels of the polycyclic benzenoid through substituents, the reaction barrier height can be modified. Finally, we show that after deliberate tip-induced covalent bond cleavage, adsorbed molecules can be used to fine tune the electronic states of the DB dimer. This power to engineer deliberately the bonding configuration and electronic properties opens new perspectives for creating prototypical nanoscale circuitry.

10.
Nanoscale ; 10(17): 8014-8022, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667672

RESUMO

We compare the ultrafast charge transfer dynamics of molecules on epitaxial graphene and bilayer graphene grown on Ni(111) interfaces through first principles calculations and X-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy. We use 4,4'-bipyridine as a prototypical molecule for these explorations as the energy level alignment of core-excited molecular orbitals allows ultrafast injection of electrons from a substrate to a molecule on a femtosecond timescale. We show that the ultrafast injection of electrons from the substrate to the molecule is ∼4 times slower on weakly coupled bilayer graphene than on epitaxial graphene. Through our experiments and calculations, we can attribute this to a difference in the density of states close to the Fermi level between graphene and bilayer graphene. We therefore show how graphene coupling with the substrate influences charge transfer dynamics between organic molecules and graphene interfaces.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(1): 585-595, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298379

RESUMO

Plasmonic gaps are known to produce nanoscale localization and enhancement of optical fields, providing small effective mode volumes of about a few hundred nm3. Atomistic quantum calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory reveal the effect of subnanometric localization of electromagnetic fields due to the presence of atomic-scale features at the interfaces of plasmonic gaps. Using a classical model, we explain this as a nonresonant lightning rod effect at the atomic scale that produces an extra enhancement over that of the plasmonic background. The near-field distribution of atomic-scale hot spots around atomic features is robust against dynamical screening and spill-out effects and follows the potential landscape determined by the electron density around the atomic sites. A detailed comparison of the field distribution around atomic hot spots from full quantum atomistic calculations and from the local classical approach considering the geometrical profile of the atoms' electronic density validates the use of a classical framework to determine the effective mode volume in these extreme subnanometric optical cavities. This finding is of practical importance for the community of surface-enhanced molecular spectroscopy and quantum nanophotonics, as it provides an adequate description of the local electromagnetic fields around atomic-scale features with use of simplified classical methods.

12.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11661-11668, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049879

RESUMO

We report the energy level alignment evolution of valence and conduction bands of armchair-oriented graphene nanoribbons (aGNR) as their band gap shrinks with increasing width. We use 4,4″-dibromo-para-terphenyl as the molecular precursor on Au(111) to form extended poly-para-phenylene nanowires, which can subsequently be fused sideways to form atomically precise aGNRs of varying widths. We measure the frontier bands by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, corroborating that the nanoribbon's band gap is inversely proportional to their width. Interestingly, valence bands are found to show Fermi level pinning as the band gap decreases below a threshold value around 1.7 eV. Such behavior is of critical importance to understand the properties of potential contacts in GNR-based devices. Our measurements further reveal a particularly interesting system for studying Fermi level pinning by modifying an adsorbate's band gap while maintaining an almost unchanged interface chemistry defined by substrate and adsorbate.

13.
ACS Nano ; 11(7): 7355-7361, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636331

RESUMO

We report the on-surface synthesis of 7-armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) substituted with nitrile (CN) functional groups. The CN groups are attached to the GNR backbone by modifying the 7-AGNR precursor. Whereas many of these groups survive the on-surface synthesis, the reaction process causes the cleavage of some CN from the ribbon backbone and the on-surface cycloisomerization of few nitriles onto pyridine rings. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal that CN groups behave as very efficient n-dopants, significantly downshifting the bands of the ribbon and introducing deep impurity levels associated with the nitrogen electron lone pairs.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(1): 50-56, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073274

RESUMO

Bottom-up chemical reactions of selected molecular precursors on a gold surface can produce high quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Here, we report on the formation of quantum dots embedded in an armchair GNR by substitutional inclusion of pairs of boron atoms into the GNR backbone. The boron inclusion is achieved through the addition of a small amount of boron substituted precursors during the formation of pristine GNRs. In the pristine region between two boron pairs, the nanoribbons show a discretization of their valence band into confined modes compatible with a Fabry-Perot resonator. Transport simulations of the scattering properties of the boron pairs reveal that they selectively confine the first valence band of the pristine ribbon while allowing an efficient electron transmission of the second one. Such band-dependent electron scattering stems from the symmetry matching between the electronic wave functions of the states from the pristine nanoribbons and those localized at the boron pairs.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(28): 19309-17, 2016 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27375264

RESUMO

Dangling bond (DB) arrays on Si(001):H and Ge(001):H surfaces can be patterned with atomic precision and they exhibit complex and rich physics making them interesting from both technological and fundamental perspectives. But their complex behavior often makes scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images difficult to interpret and simulate. Recently it was shown that low-temperature imaging of unoccupied states of an unpassivated dimer on Ge(001):H results in a symmetric butterfly-like STM pattern, despite the fact that the equilibrium dimer configuration is expected to be a bistable, buckled geometry. Here, based on a thorough characterization of the low-bias switching events on Ge(001):H, we propose a new imaging model featuring a dynamical two-state rate equation. On both Si(001):H and Ge(001):H, this model allows us to reproduce the features of the observed symmetric empty-state images which strongly corroborates the idea that the patterns arise due to fast switching events and provides an insight into the relationship between the tunneling current and switching rates. We envision that our new imaging model can be applied to simulate other bistable systems where fluctuations arise from transiently charged electronic states.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(25): 16757-65, 2016 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271337

RESUMO

Construction of single-molecule electronic devices requires the controlled manipulation of organic molecules and their properties. This could be achieved by tuning the interaction between the molecule and individual atoms by local "on-surface" chemistry, i.e., the controlled formation of chemical bonds between the species. We demonstrate here the reversible attachment of a planar conjugated polyaromatic molecule to a pair of unpassivated dangling bonds on a hydrogenated Ge(001):H surface via a Diels-Alder [4+2] addition using the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Due to the small stability difference between the covalently bonded and a nearly undistorted structure attached to the dangling bond dimer by long-range dispersive forces, we show that at cryogenic temperatures the molecule can be switched between both configurations. The reversibility of this covalent bond forming reaction may be applied in the construction of complex circuits containing organic molecules with tunable properties.

18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(21): 214001, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147701

RESUMO

We present a study of the optical response of compact and hollow icosahedral clusters containing up to 868 silver atoms by means of time-dependent density functional theory. We have studied the dependence on size and morphology of both the sharp plasmonic resonance at 3-4 eV (originated mainly from sp-electrons), and the less studied broader feature appearing in the 6-7 eV range (interband transitions). An analysis of the effect of structural relaxations, as well as the choice of exchange correlation functional (local density versus generalised gradient approximations) both in the ground state and optical response calculations is also presented. We have further analysed the role of the different atom layers (surface versus inner layers) and the different orbital symmetries on the absorption cross-section for energies up to 8 eV. We have also studied the dependence on the number of atom layers in hollow structures. Shells formed by a single layer of atoms show a pronounced red shift of the main plasmon resonances that, however, rapidly converge to those of the compact structures as the number of layers is increased. The methods used to obtain these results are also carefully discussed. Our methodology is based on the use of localised basis (atomic orbitals, and atom-centered and dominant-product functions), which bring several computational advantages related to their relatively small size and the sparsity of the resulting matrices. Furthermore, the use of basis sets of atomic orbitals also allows the possibility of extending some of the standard population analysis tools (e.g. Mulliken population analysis) to the realm of optical excitations. Some examples of these analyses are described in the present work.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(14): 9476-83, 2016 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26979269

RESUMO

In a recent study [M. Feng, et al., ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 8877], it was shown that CO molecules adsorbed on the quasi-one-dimensional O(2 × 1)/Cu(110) surface reconstruction tend to form highly-ordered single-molecule-wide rows along the direction perpendicular to the Cu-O chains. This stems from the peculiar tilted adsorption configuration of CO on this substrate, which gives rise to short-range attractive dipole-dipole interactions. Motivated by this observation, here we study the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO) on O(2 × 1)/Cu(110) and Cu(110) using density functional theory, with the aim of elucidating whether a similar behaviour can be expected for this molecule. We first study NO adsorption on a clean Cu(110) surface, where the role of short-range attractions between molecules has already been pointed out by the observation of the formation of NO dimers by scanning tunnelling microscopy [A. Shiotari, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2011, 106, 156104]. On the clean Cu(110), the formation of dimers along the [110̄] direction is favourable, in agreement with published experimental results. However, the formation of extended NO rows is found to be unstable. Regarding the O(2 × 1)/Cu(110) substrate, we observe that NO molecules adsorb in between the Cu-O chains, causing a substantial disruption of the surface structure. Although individual molecules can be tilted with negligible energetic cost along the direction of the Cu-O chains, the interaction among neighbouring molecules was found to be repulsive along all directions and, consequently, the formation of dimers unfavourable.

20.
Nano Lett ; 16(3): 2017-22, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26752001

RESUMO

A vicinal rutile TiO2(110) crystal with a smooth variation of atomic steps parallel to the [1-10] direction was analyzed locally with STM and ARPES. The step edge morphology changes across the samples, from [1-11] zigzag faceting to straight [1-10] steps. A step-bunching phase is attributed to an optimal (110) terrace width, where all bridge-bonded O atom vacancies (Obr vacs) vanish. The [1-10] steps terminate with a pair of 2-fold coordinated O atoms, which give rise to bright, triangular protrusions (St) in STM. The intensity of the Ti 3d-derived gap state correlates with the sum of Obr vacs plus St protrusions at steps, suggesting that both Obr vacs and steps contribute a similar effective charge to sample doping. The binding energy of the gap state shifts when going from the flat (110) surface toward densely stepped planes, pointing to differences in the Ti(3+) polaron near steps and at terraces.

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