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2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether associations between prevalent diabetes and cancer risk are pertinent to older adults and whether associations differ across subgroups of age, body weight status or levels of physical activity. METHODS: We harmonised data from seven prospective cohort studies of older individuals in Europe and the United States participating in the CHANCES consortium. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the associations of prevalent diabetes with cancer risk (all cancers combined, and for colorectum, prostate and breast). We calculated summary risk estimates across cohorts using pooled analysis and random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 667,916 individuals were included with an overall median (P25-P75) age at recruitment of 62.3 (57-67) years. During a median follow-up time of 10.5 years, 114,404 total cancer cases were ascertained. Diabetes was not associated with the risk of all cancers combined (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.04; I2 = 63.3%). Diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk in men (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26; I2 = 0%) and a similar HR in women (1.13; 95% CI: 0.82-1.56; I2 = 46%), but with a confidence interval including the null. Diabetes was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk (HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.77-0.85; I2 = 0%), but not with postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89-1.03; I2 = 0%). In exploratory subgroup analyses, diabetes was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk only in men with overweight or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalent diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk and inversely associated with prostate cancer risk in older Europeans and Americans.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 42(12): 1170-1177, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438022

RESUMO

AIMS : There is inconsistent evidence on the relation of alcohol intake with incident atrial fibrillation (AF), in particular at lower doses. We assessed the association between alcohol consumption, biomarkers, and incident AF across the spectrum of alcohol intake in European cohorts. METHODS AND RESULTS : In a community-based pooled cohort, we followed 107 845 individuals for the association between alcohol consumption, including types of alcohol and drinking patterns, and incident AF. We collected information on classical cardiovascular risk factors and incident heart failure (HF) and measured the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin I. The median age of individuals was 47.8 years, 48.3% were men. The median alcohol consumption was 3 g/day. N = 5854 individuals developed AF (median follow-up time: 13.9 years). In a sex- and cohort-stratified Cox regression analysis alcohol consumption was non-linearly and positively associated with incident AF. The hazard ratio for one drink (12 g) per day was 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.22, P < 0.001. Associations were similar across types of alcohol. In contrast, alcohol consumption at lower doses was associated with reduced risk of incident HF. The association between alcohol consumption and incident AF was neither fully explained by cardiac biomarker concentrations nor by the occurrence of HF. CONCLUSIONS : In contrast to other cardiovascular diseases such as HF, even modest habitual alcohol intake of 1.2 drinks/day was associated with an increased risk of AF, which needs to be considered in AF prevention.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305545

RESUMO

AIMS: Low-risk status in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) predicts better survival. The present study aimed to describe changes in risk status and treatment approaches over multiple clinical assessments in PAH, taking age and comorbidity burden into consideration. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included incident patients from the Swedish PAH registry, diagnosed with PAH in 2008-2019. Group A (n = 340) were ≤75 years old with <3 comorbidities. Group B (n = 163) were >75 years old with ≥3 comorbidities. Assessments occurred at baseline, first-year (Y1) and third-year (Y3) follow-ups. The study used an explorative and descriptive approach. Group A: median age was 65 years, 70% were female, and 46% had no comorbidities at baseline. Baseline risk assessment yielded low (23%), intermediate (66%), and high risk (11%). Among patients at low, intermediate, or high risk at baseline, 51%, 18%, and 13%, respectively, were at low risk at Y3. At baseline, monotherapy was the most common therapy among low (68%) and intermediate groups (60%), while dual therapy was the most common among high risk (69%). In patients assessed as low, intermediate, or high risk at Y1, 66%, 12%, and 0% were at low risk at Y3, respectively. Of patients at intermediate or high risk at Y1, 35% received monotherapy and 13% received triple therapy. In low-risk patients at Y1, monotherapy (40%) and dual therapy (43%) were evenly distributed. Group B: median age was 77 years, 50% were female, and 44% had ≥3 comorbidities at baseline. At baseline, 8% were at low, 80% at intermediate, and 12% at high risk. Monotherapy was the most common therapy (62%) in Group B at baseline. Few patients maintained or reached low risk at follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with PAH did not meet low-risk criteria during the 3 year follow-up. The first year from diagnosis seems important in defining the longitudinal risk status.

5.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 300, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease has emerged as a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and in many current guidelines, it is already considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. Routinely, creatinine has been used as the main marker of renal function, but recently, cystatin C emerged as a more promising marker. The aim of this study was to assess the comparative cardiovascular and mortality risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using cystatin C-based and creatinine-based equations of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in participants of population-based and disease cohorts. METHODS: The present study has been conducted within the BiomarCaRE project, with harmonized data from 20 population-based cohorts (n = 76,954) from 6 European countries and 3 cardiovascular disease (CVD) cohorts (n = 4982) from Germany. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess hazard ratios (HRs) for the various CKD definitions with adverse outcomes and mortality after adjustment for the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) variables and study center. Main outcome measures were cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CKD stage 3-5 by creatinine- and cystatin C-based eGFR, respectively, was 3.3% and 7.4% in the population-based cohorts and 13.9% and 14.4% in the disease cohorts. CKD was an important independent risk factor for subsequent CVD events and mortality. For example, in the population-based cohorts, the HR for CVD mortality was 1.72 (95% CI 1.53 to 1.92) with creatinine-based CKD and it was 2.14 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.40) based on cystatin-based CKD compared to participants without CKD. In general, the HRs were higher for cystatin C-based CKD compared to creatinine-based CKD, for all three outcomes and risk increased clearly below the conventional threshold for CKD, also in older adults. Net reclassification indices were larger for a cystatin-C based CKD definition. Differences in HRs (between the two CKD measures) in the disease cohorts were less pronounced than in the population-based cohorts. CONCLUSION: CKD is an important risk factor for subsequent CVD events and total mortality. However, point estimates of creatinine- and cystatin C-based CKD differed considerably between low- and high-risk populations. Especially in low-risk settings, the use of cystatin C-based CKD may result in more accurate risk estimates and have better prognostic value.

6.
Pulm Circ ; 10(3): 2045894020958557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062261

RESUMO

Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are commonly used in pulmonary arterial hypertension but, as suggested by the RESPITE study, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy (mono-/combination) does not always have a satisfactory treatment effect. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients not at treatment goal after at least 90 days of treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alone or in combination with other pulmonary arterial hypertension therapies. The study included 106 incident patients from the Swedish Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Registry, treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for ≥90 days, who were not at a pre-specified treatment goal, i.e. in World Health Organisation functional class III, with 6-min walking distance 165-440 m, and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide >300 ng/L. Changes in World Health Organisation functional class, 6-min walking distance, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and risk group between index and follow-up were assessed. Of patients with complete follow-up data, (n = 53) 77% were on combination therapy and risk assessment yielded 98% at intermediate risk at index. At follow-up, 11 patients transitioned from World Health Organisation functional class III to World Health Organisation functional class II, the median (Q1; Q3) change in 6-min walking distance was 6 (-30; 42) meters and in N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide 47 (-410; 603) ng/L, while 89% remained at an intermediate risk. Of those without complete follow-up data, 11 patients died and 2 underwent lung transplantation. In conclusion, pulmonary arterial hypertension patients treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, as single or combination therapy and not achieving the pre-specified treatment goals after ≥90 days have an unfavourable clinical course.

7.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051334

RESUMO

AIMS: High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) may convey prognostic information in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). This study evaluated if hs-TnT and hs-CRP associate with myocardial mass, and risk of future surgery for AS. METHODS: In total, 336 patients (48% women) with surgery for AS with previous participation in large population surveys were identified. Preoperatively, myocardial mass and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) were assessed. Two matched referents were allocated for each case, and hs-TnT and hs-CRP were determined in stored plasma from the baseline survey. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk (OR (95% CI)) related to one (natural logarithm) SD increase in hs-TnT and hs-CRP. Kaplan-Mayer and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate time to surgery. RESULTS: Median age (IQR) was 59.8 (10.3) years at survey, and median time between survey and surgery was 10.9 (9.3) years. Hs-TnT was independently associated with surgery for AS (1.24 (1.06-1.44)) irrespective of CAD, whereas Hs-CRP was not (1.05 (0.90-1.22)). Elevated hs-TnT levels at survey associated with shorter time to surgery (p<0.001), and with increased myocardial mass (p=0.002). Hs-CRP did not associate with time to surgery or with myocardial mass. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-TnT-but not hs-CRP-was associated with increased risk of-and shorter time to-future surgery for AS. Hs-TnT associated with myocardial mass at surgery which indicates that hs-TnT could be a potential biomarker for determining intervention.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14541, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883969

RESUMO

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.

9.
J Inflamm (Lond) ; 17: 28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817747

RESUMO

Background: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) mediates the innate immune response either through direct opsonisation of microorganisms or through activation of the complement system. There are conflicting data whether MBL deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to infections or not. The aim of this study was to determine if low levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) predict sepsis development, sepsis severity and outcome from severe sepsis or septic shock. Method: Patients aged 18 years or more with documented sepsis within 24 h after admission to the intensive care unit were included if they had participated in a health survey and donated blood samples prior to the sepsis event. A subset of these patients had stored plasma also from the acute phase. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were selected for each case. Plasma levels MBL were determined in stored samples from health surveys (baseline) and from ICU admission (acute phase). The association between MBL and sepsis, sepsis severity and in-hospital mortality were determined with 1300 ng/mL as cut-off for low levels. Results: We identified 148 patients (61.5% women) with a first-time sepsis event 6.5 years (median with IQR 7.7) after participation in a health survey, of which 122 also had samples from the acute septic phase. Both high MBL levels in the acute phase (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) (2.84 [1.20-6.26]), and an increase in MBL levels from baseline to the acute phase (3.76 [1.21-11.72]) were associated with increased risk for in-hospital death in women, but not in men (0.47 [0.11-2.06]). Baseline MBL levels did not predict future sepsis, sepsis severity or in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: An increase from baseline to the acute phase as well as high levels in the acute phase associated with an unfavourable outcome in women.

10.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2770-2777, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a common cause of death and a leading cause of disability and morbidity. Stroke risk assessment remains a challenge, but circulating biomarkers may improve risk prediction. Controversial evidence is available on the predictive ability of troponin concentrations and the risk of stroke in the community. Furthermore, reports on the predictive value of troponin concentrations for different stroke subtypes are scarce. METHODS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) concentrations were assessed in 82 881 individuals (median age, 50.7 years; 49.7% men) free of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline from 9 prospective European community cohorts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine relative risks, followed by measures of discrimination and reclassification using 10-fold cross-validation to control for overoptimism. Follow-up was based upon linkage with national hospitalization registries and causes of death registries. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 3033 individuals were diagnosed with incident nonfatal or fatal stroke (n=1654 ischemic strokes, n=612 hemorrhagic strokes, and n=767 indeterminate strokes). In multivariable regression models, hsTnI concentrations were associated with overall stroke (hazard ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.21]), ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]), and hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.20]). Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical cardiovascular risk factors (C indices, 0.809, 0.840, and 0.736 for overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively) increased the C index significantly but modestly. In individuals with an intermediate 10-year risk (5%-20%), the net reclassification improvement for overall stroke was 0.038 (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated hsTnI concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident stroke in the community, irrespective of stroke subtype. Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical risk factors only modestly improved estimation of 10-year risk of stroke in the overall cohort but might be of some value in individuals at an intermediate risk.


Assuntos
Miocárdio/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(12): 1008-1015, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigate whether socially disadvantaged individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of smoking and alcohol intake on allostatic load (AL), a marker of physiological 'wear and tear', resulting from adaptation to chronic stress. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 27 019 men and 26 738 women aged 35-74 years were identified from 21 European cohorts in the BiomarCaRE consortium. We defined three educational classes (EDs) according to years of schooling and an AL score as the sum of z-scores of eight selected biomarkers from the cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory systems. We used the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to disentangle the ED gradient in AL score into the differential exposure (DE, attributable to different distribution of smoking and alcohol intake across EDs) and the differential susceptibility (DS, attributable to a different effect of risk factors on AL across EDs) components. RESULTS: Less-educated men (mean AL difference: 0.68, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.79) and women (1.52, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.64) had higher AL scores. DE accounted for 7% and 6% of the gradient in men and women, respectively. In men, combining smoking and alcohol intake, DS accounted for 42% of the gradient (smoking DS coefficient=0.177, 26% of the gradient; alcohol DS coefficient=0.109; 16%, not statistically significant). DS contribution increased to 69% in metabolic markers. DS estimates were consistent across age groups, irrespective of comorbidities and robust to unmeasured confounding. No DS was observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: In men, a DS mechanism substantially contributes to the educational class gradient in allostatic load.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to atherosclerosis, preceded by arterial stiffness. We aimed to examine common carotid artery (CCA) biomechanical properties using ultrasound to calculate ß stiffness index (indicating arterial stiffness) and, a more recently developed technique, two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking strain (indicating arterial motion and deformation, strain) to 1) compare with age- and sex-matched controls and to 2) analyze relationships between strain and stiffness with disease characteristics and traditional risk factors for CVD in AS patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a cohort of 149 patients with AS, mean age 55.3±11.2 years, 102(68.5%) men, 146 (98%) HLA-B27 positive, were examined. Bilateral CCAs were examined for circumferential 2D strain and ß stiffness index. A subgroup of 46 patients were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls, both groups without hypertensive disease, diabetes, myocardial infarction or stroke. RESULTS: Mean bilateral circumferential 2D strain was lower in AS patients compared with controls, 7.9±2.6% vs 10.3±1.9%, p<0.001 whereas mean bilateral ß stiffness index was higher, 13.1±1.6mmHg/mm vs 12.3±1.3mmHg/mm, p=0.018. In multivariable linear regression analyses strain was associated with age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, history of anterior uveitis and treatment with csDMARD and/or bDMARD (R2 0.33), while stiffness was associated with age (R2 0.19). CONCLUSION: Both CCA circumferential 2D strain and ß stiffness index differed between AS patients and controls. Strain was associated with AS-related factors and age while stiffness with age, suggesting that the obtained results reflect different pathogenic vascular processes.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(13): e015189, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602397

RESUMO

Background Waist circumference and hip circumference are both strongly associated with risk of death; however, their joint association has rarely been investigated. Methods and Results The MONICA Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project was conducted in 30 cohorts from 11 countries; 90 487 men and women, aged 30 to 74 years, predominantly white, with no history of cardiovascular disease, were recruited in 1986 to 2010 and followed up for up to 24 years. Hazard ratios were estimated using sex-specific Cox models, stratified by cohort, with age as the time scale. Models included baseline categorical obesity measures, age, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 9105 all-cause deaths were recorded during a median follow-up of 10 years. Hazard ratios for all-cause death presented J- or U-shaped associations with most obesity measures. With waist and hip circumference included in the same model, for all hip sizes, having a smaller waist was strongly associated with lower risk of death, except for men with the smallest hips. In addition, among those with smaller waists, hip size was strongly negatively associated with risk of death, with ≈20% more people identified as being at increased risk compared with waist circumference alone. Conclusions A more complex relationship between hip circumference, waist circumference, and risk of death is revealed when both measures are considered simultaneously. This is particularly true for individuals with smaller waists, where having larger hips was protective. Considering both waist and hip circumference in the clinical setting could help to best identify those at increased risk of death.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9853, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555394

RESUMO

Trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansions longer than 39 in the huntingtin (HTT) gene cause Huntington's disease (HD). The frequency of intermediate alleles (IA) with a length of 27-35 in the general population is not fully known, but studied in specific materials connected to the incidence of HD. The Swedish Huntingtin Alleles and Phenotype (SHAPE) study aims to assess the frequency of trinucleotide repeat expansions in the HTT gene in north Sweden. 8260 individuals unselected for HD from the counties of Norr- and Västerbotten in the north of Sweden were included. DNA samples were obtained and analysis of the HTT gene was performed, yielding data on HTT gene expansion length in 7379 individuals. A high frequency of intermediate alleles, 6.8%, was seen. Also, individuals with repeat numbers lower than ever previously reported (<5) were found. These results suggest a high frequency of HD in the norther parts of Sweden. Subsequent analyses may elucidate the influence of IA:s on traits other than HD.

15.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; : 1-7, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586166

RESUMO

Objectives. To investigate if the pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) risk assessment tool presented in the 2015 ESC/ERS guidelines is valid for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) when taking pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) into account. Design. Incident CTEPH patients registered in the Swedish PAH Registry (SPAHR) between 2008 and 2016 were included. Risk stratification performed at baseline and follow-up classified the patients as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk using the proposed ESC/ERS risk algorithm. Results. There were 250 CTEPH patients with median age (interquartile range) 70 (14) years, and 53% were male. Thirty-two percent underwent PEA within 5 (6) months. In a multivariable model adjusting for age, sex, and pharmacological treatment, patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk profiles at baseline displayed an increased mortality risk (Hazard Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.64 [0.69-3.90] and 5.39 [2.13-13.59], respectively) compared to those with a low-risk profile, whereas PEA was associated with better survival (0.38 [0.18-0.82]). Similar impact of risk profile and PEA was seen at follow-up. Conclusion. The ESC/ERS risk assessment tool identifies CTEPH patients with reduced survival. Furthermore, PEA improves survival markedly independently of risk group and age. Take home message: The ESC/ERS risk stratification for PAH predicts survival also in CTEPH patients, even when taking PEA into account.

16.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2148-2152, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous observational studies have shown a moderately increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with high self-reported alcohol consumption. However, self-reported data tend to underestimate alcohol consumption. Phosphatidylethanol is a specific biomarker reflecting alcohol intake during the last month and correlates with the amount of alcohol consumed. The present study aimed to investigate the association between phosphatidylethanol levels and the risk of future ICH. METHODS: This population-based nested case-referent study was conducted within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. At baseline, all participants underwent a health examination, including a questionnaire with questions about alcohol consumption. A blood sample was collected and stored at -80°C, and phosphatidylethanol 16:0/18:1 levels were measured in packed erythrocytes. Cases (n=97) were diagnosed with a first-ever ICH between 1985 and 2007. Two referents (n=180) were matched to each case. RESULTS: The mean age at baseline was 55 years, 39% of participants were women, and the mean time from blood sampling to ICH was 7.3 years. Only phosphatidylethanol and hypertension remained independently associated with ICH in a multivariable model. Participants with phosphatidylethanol >0.30 µmol/L had an increased risk of ICH compared with those with phosphatidylethanol <0.01 µmol/L (odds ratio, 4.64 [95% CI, 1.49-14.40]). CONCLUSIONS: High blood concentrations of phosphatidylethanol were associated with an increased risk of future ICH. This association was independent of hypertension and other risk factors for ICH. Our findings suggest that phosphatidylethanol, as a marker of alcohol consumption, may be used as a risk marker of future ICH.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Glicerofosfolipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015218, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351154

RESUMO

Background Differences in risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are incompletely understood. Aim of this study was to understand whether risk factors and biomarkers show different associations with incident AF and HF and to investigate predictors of subsequent onset and mortality. Methods and Results In N=58 693 individuals free of AF/HF from 5 population-based European cohorts, Cox regressions were used to find predictors for AF, HF, subsequent onset, and mortality. Differences between associations were estimated using bootstrapping. Median follow-up time was 13.8 years, with a mortality of 15.7%. AF and HF occurred in 5.0% and 5.4% of the participants, respectively, with 1.8% showing subsequent onset. Age, male sex, myocardial infarction, body mass index, and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) showed similar associations with both diseases. Antihypertensive medication and smoking were stronger predictors of HF than AF. Cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were associated with HF, but not with AF. No variable was exclusively associated with AF. Population-attributable risks were higher for HF (75.6%) than for AF (30.9%). Age, male sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and NT-proBNP were associated with subsequent onset, which was associated with the highest all-cause mortality risk. Conclusions Common risk factors and biomarkers showed different associations with AF and HF, and explained a higher proportion of HF than AF risk. As the subsequent onset of both diseases was strongly associated with mortality, prevention needs to be rigorously addressed and remains challenging, as conventional risk factors explained only 31% of AF risk.

18.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1420-1428, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275189

RESUMO

The Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness Collaboration has derived an equation using age and mean blood pressure to estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), which predicted cardiovascular events independently of Systematic COoronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) and Framingham Risk Score. The study aim was to investigate the independent association between ePWV and clinical outcomes in 107 599 apparently healthy subjects (53% men) aged 19 to 97 years from the MORGAM Project who were included between 1982 and 2002 in 38 cohorts from 11 countries. Using multiple Cox-regression analyses, the predictive value of ePWV was calculated adjusting for country of inclusion and either SCORE, Framingham Risk Score, or traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index [BMI], total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Cardiovascular mortality consisted of fatal stroke, fatal myocardial infarction, or coronary death, and the composite cardiovascular end point consisted of stroke, myocardial infarction, or coronary death. Model discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C-statistic. Adjusting for country and logSCORE or Framingham Risk Score, ePWV was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% CI 1.20-1.25] per m/s or 1.32 [1.29-1.34]), cardiovascular mortality (1.26 [1.21-1.32] or 1.35 [1.31-1.40]), and composite cardiovascular end point (1.19 [1.16-1.22] or 1.23 [1.20-1.25]; all P<0.001). However, after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, ePWV was only associated with all-cause mortality (1.15 [1.08-1.22], P<0.001) and not with cardiovascular mortality (0.97 [0.91-1.03]) nor composite cardiovascular end point (1.10 [0.97-1.26]). The areas under the last 3 receiver operator characteristic curves remained unchanged when adding ePWV. Elevated ePWV was associated with subsequent mortality and cardiovascular morbidity independently of systematic coronary risk evaluation and Framingham Risk Score but not independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320909300, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN: The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort. METHODS: From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined. RESULTS: Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score >0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score >0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have >1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)). CONCLUSION: Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

20.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(4): 303-308, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125188

RESUMO

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is involved in the regulation of body weight and is associated with obesity-related complications, notably cardiovascular disease (CVD). A putative link between obesity and CVD could be induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) synthesis by leptin. In this study, we hypothesized that the beneficial effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) enalapril on PAI-1 levels is mediated by effects on leptin levels. The association between leptin and components of the fibrinolytic system was evaluated in a non-prespecified post hoc analysis of a placebo-controlled randomized, double-blind trial where the effect of the ACEi enalapril on fibrinolysis was tested. A total of 46 men and 37 women were randomized to treatment with enalapril or placebo after (median 12 months) an uncomplicated myocardial infarction. At baseline, the participants were stable and had no signs of congestive heart failure. Leptin and fibrinolytic variables (mass concentrations of PAI-1, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and tPA-PAI complex) were measured at baseline, and after 10 days, 6 months and 12 months. Enalapril treatment did not change leptin levels, which increased significantly during 1 year of follow-up (p = .007). Changes in leptin levels were strongly associated with changes of tPA mass (p = .001), tPA-PAI complex (p = .003) and of PAI-1 (p = .006) in men, but not in women. Leptin levels are not influenced by treatment with an ACEi. In contrast, leptin associates strongly with changes in fibrinolytic variables notably with a sex difference, which could be of importance for obesity-related CVD.

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