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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913487

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the risk of incident cancer in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) compared to the general population and siblings. AIH was defined by the presence of a medical diagnosis of AIH and a liver biopsy in a nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study. We identified 5,268 adults with AIH diagnosed 1969-2016 and 22,996 matched general population reference individuals and 4,170 sibling comparators. Using Cox regression, hazard ratios (HRs) were determined for any incident cancer and sub-types determined from the Swedish Cancer Register. During follow-up, a cancer diagnosis was made in 1,119 individuals with AIH (17.2/1000 person-years) and 4,450 reference individuals (12.0/1000 person-years). This corresponded to an HR of 1.53 (95%CI: 1.42,1.66). Cancer risk was highest in those with cirrhosis. There was a 29.18-fold increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (95%CI, 17.52,48.61). The annual incidence risk of HCC in individuals with AIH who had cirrhosis was 1.1% per year. AIH was also linked to non-melanoma skin cancer (HR=2.69) and lymphoma (HR=1.89). Sibling analyses yielded similar risk estimates for any cancer (HR=1.84) and HCC (HR=23.10). AIH is associated with an increased risk of any cancer, in particular, HCC and extra-hepatic malignancies. The highest risk for cancer, especially HCC, is in patients with cirrhosis.

2.
JAMA ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914014

RESUMO

Importance: The outcomes of newborn infants of women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy is unclear. Objective: To evaluate neonatal outcomes in relation to maternal SARS-CoV-2 test positivity in pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nationwide, prospective cohort study based on linkage of the Swedish Pregnancy Register, the Neonatal Quality Register, and the Register for Communicable Diseases. Ninety-two percent of all live births in Sweden between March 11, 2020, and January 31, 2021, were investigated for neonatal outcomes by March 8, 2021. Infants with malformations were excluded. Infants of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were matched, directly and using propensity scores, on maternal characteristics with up to 4 comparator infants. Exposures: Maternal test positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital mortality; neonatal resuscitation; admission for neonatal care; respiratory, circulatory, neurologic, infectious, gastrointestinal, metabolic, and hematologic disorders and their treatments; length of hospital stay; breastfeeding; and infant test positivity for SARS-CoV-2. Results: Of 88 159 infants (49.0% girls), 2323 (1.6%) were delivered by mothers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The mean gestational age of infants of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers was 39.2 (SD, 2.2) weeks vs 39.6 (SD, 1.8) weeks for comparator infants, and the proportions of preterm infants (gestational age <37 weeks) were 205/2323 (8.8%) among infants of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers and 4719/85 836 (5.5%) among comparator infants. After matching on maternal characteristics, maternal SARS-CoV-2 test positivity was significantly associated with admission for neonatal care (11.7% vs 8.4%; odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.70) and with neonatal morbidities such as respiratory distress syndrome (1.2% vs 0.5%; OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.50-3.84), any neonatal respiratory disorder (2.8% vs 2.0%; OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.90), and hyperbilirubinemia (3.6% vs 2.5%; OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90). Mortality (0.30% vs 0.12%; OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.99-6.57), breastfeeding rates at discharge (94.4% vs 95.1%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.05), and length of stay in neonatal care (median, 6 days in both groups; difference, 0 days; 95% CI, -2 to 7 days) did not differ significantly between the groups. Twenty-one infants (0.90%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the neonatal period; 12 did not have neonatal morbidity, 9 had diagnoses with unclear relation to SARS-CoV-2, and none had congenital pneumonia. Conclusions and Relevance: In a nationwide cohort of infants in Sweden, maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was significantly associated with small increases in some neonatal morbidities. Given the small numbers of events for many of the outcomes and the large number of statistical comparisons, the findings should be interpreted as exploratory.

3.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(2): 177-192, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that individuals with chronic immune-mediated diseases are at increased risk of COVID-19 and related severe adverse outcome, including intensive care admission or death. We aimed to explore the absolute and relative risk of severe COVID-19 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This population-based cohort study used nationwide registers in Sweden, with 67,292 individuals with a diagnosis of IBD 1969-2017 (Crohn's disease, n = 21,599; ulcerative colitis: n = 43,622; IBD-unclassified: n = 2071) and alive on 1 February 2020. Patients with IBD were matched to up to five controls from the general population (n = 297,910). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for (i) hospital admission with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 as the primary diagnosis, and (ii) severe COVID-19 (composite outcome consisting of (a) COVID-19 intensive care admission, or (b) death from COVID-19 or (c) death within 30 days of COVID-19 hospital admission), were calculated. Analyses were conditioned on age, sex, calendar period, and county and adjusted for other comorbidities. RESULTS: Between 1 February and 31 July 2020, 179 (0.27%) IBD patients and 500 (0.17%) general population controls were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.19-1.72). The corresponding numbers for severe COVID-19 was 65 (0.10%) and 183 (0.06%; aHR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.81-1.52). Adjusted HRs were similar in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In a propensity score-matched model taking comorbidity into account until 2016, the increased risk for COVID-19 hospital admission remained (aHR = 1.32; 1.12-1.56), but there was no increased risk of severe COVID-19 (aHR = 1.12; 0.85-1.47). CONCLUSIONS: While individuals with IBD were more likely to be admitted to hospital for COVID-19 than the general population, the risk of severe COVID-19 was not higher.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adolescente , Adulto , /diagnóstico , /mortalidade , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 410-421, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known to what extent biologic treatment for IBD is captured in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (PDR) and the National Patient Register (NPR). METHODS: A cross-sectional study from July 2005 until 2017, comparing data on biologic treatment in the PDR and the NPR with medical records. We assessed the proportion of started treatment episodes in the medical records that were found in the PDR/NPR ever, within +/- one year and within +/- three months; for any biologic drug, per specific drug (infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, vedolizumab, ustekinumab), by calendar period (2005-2008, 2009-2012, and 2013-2017) and by study center. For adalimumab, we assessed the validity of end of treatment episodes. RESULTS: Medical records of 1361 patients and 2323 treatment episodes with any biologic were reviewed and 80.1% (95% CI: 78.4-81.7) were ever captured in the PDR/NPR in. A time window of +/- one year or +/- three months reduced the sensitivity to 63.3% (95% CI: 61.3-65.3) and 52.6% (95% CI: 50.5-54.6), respectively. The sensitivity was high (>85%) for the prescribed injection drugs adalimumab, golimumab, and ustekinumab for all time windows and for adalimumab end of treatment, while considerably lower for the infusion drugs infliximab and vedolizumab. CONCLUSIONS: The PDR and the NPR are reliable data sources on treatment with injection biologics in patients with IBD in Sweden. Infliximab and vedolizumab are poorly captured, why PDR/NPR data should only be used after careful consideration of their limitations or complemented by other data sources, e.g., the disease-specific quality register SWIBREG.

6.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 64(3): 301-312, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To avoid a permanent stoma, restorative surgery is performed after the colectomy. Previous studies have shown that less than half of patients with ulcerative colitis undergo restorative surgery. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to explore the association between socioeconomic status and restorative surgery after colectomy. DESIGN: This was a nationwide register-based cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in Sweden. PATIENTS: All Swedish patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent colectomy between 1990 and 2017 at the age of 15 to 69 years were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was restorative surgery, and the secondary outcome was failure of the reconstruction (defined as the need for a new ileostomy after the reconstruction or nonreversal of a defunctioning stoma within 2 years of the reconstruction). To calculate HRs for restorative surgery after colectomy, as well as failure after restorative surgery, multivariable Cox regression models were performed (adjusted for sex, year of colectomy, colorectal cancer diagnosis, education, civil status, country of birth, income (quartiles 1 to 4, where Q4 represents highest income), hospital volume, and stratified by age). RESULTS: In all, 5969 patients with ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy, and of those, 2794 (46.8%) underwent restorative surgery. Restorative surgery was more common in patients with a high income at the time of colectomy (quartile 1, reference; quartile 2, 1.09 (0.98-1.21); quartile 3, 1.20 (1.07-1.34); quartile 4, 1.27 (1.13-1.43)) and less common in those born in a Nordic country than in immigrants born in a non-Nordic country (0.86 (0.74-0.99)), whereas no association was seen with educational level and civil status. There was no association between socioeconomic status and the risk of failure after restorative surgery. LIMITATIONS: The study was restricted to register data. CONCLUSIONS: Restorative surgery in ulcerative colitis appears to be more common in patients with a high income and patients born in a non-Nordic country, indicating inequality in the provided care. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B433. LA CIRUGA RESTAURADORA ES MS COMN EN PACIENTES CON COLITIS ULCEROSA CON INGRESOS ALTOS UN ESTUDIO POBLACIONAL: ANTECEDENTES:Para evitar un estoma permanente, se realiza una cirugía reparadora después de la colectomía. Estudios anteriores han demostrado que menos de la mitad de los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa se someten a cirugía reconstituyente.OBJETIVO:El objetivo principal fue explorar la asociación entre el nivel socioeconómico y la cirugía reconstituyente después de la colectomía.DISEÑO:Estudio de cohorte basado en registros a nivel nacional.MARCO:Suecia.PACIENTES:Todos los pacientes Suecos con colitis ulcerosa que se sometieron a colectomía desde el 1990 a 2017 a la edad de 15 a 69 años.MEDIDAS DE RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES:El resultado principal fue la cirugía restaurativa y el resultado secundario fue el fracaso de la reconstrucción (definida como la necesidad de una nueva ileostomía después de la reconstrucción o la no-reversión de un estoma disfuncional dentro de los dos años posteriores a la reconstrucción). Para calcular los cocientes de riesgo para la cirugía restauradora después de la colectomía, así como el fracaso después de la cirugía restauradora, se realizaron modelos de regresión de Cox multivariables (ajustados por sexo, año de colectomía, diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal, educación, estado civil, país de nacimiento e ingresos (cuartiles 1- 4; donde Q4 representa los mayores ingresos), volumen de hospitales y estratificado por edad).RESULTADOS:En total 5969 pacientes con colitis ulcerosa se sometieron a colectomía, y de ellos 2794 (46,8%) se sometieron a cirugía restauradora. La cirugía restauradora fue más común en pacientes con altos ingresos en el momento de la colectomía (referencia del cuartil 1, cuartil 2: 1,09 (0,98-1,21), cuartil 3: 1,20 (1,07-1,34), cuartil 4: 1,27 (1,13-1,43)), y menos común en los nacidos en un país nórdico que en los inmigrantes nacidos en un país no-nórdico (0,86 (0,74-0,99)), mientras que no se observó asociación con el nivel educativo y el estado civil. No hubo asociación entre el nivel socioeconómico y el riesgo de fracaso después de la cirugía reparadora.LIMITACIONES:Restricción para registrar datos.CONCLUSIONES:La cirugía reparadora en colitis ulcerosa parece ser más común en pacientes con ingresos altos y en pacientes nacidos en un país no-nórdico, lo que indica desigualdad en la atención brindada. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B433.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Persons with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at an increased risk of death and liver-related endpoints, but the association with incident cancer is not well understood, and whether it differs across histopathological subgroups is undefined. METHODS: We investigated the risk of cancer in 3,410 persons with a diagnosis of ALD and an available liver biopsy in Sweden between 1969-2016, compared to a matched reference population. Administrative coding from national registers and liver biopsy data were used to define exposure and outcome status. Competing risk regression, adjusted for available confounders and using non-cancer mortality as the competing risk, was used to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) for incident cancer. RESULTS: At baseline, persons with ALD had a median age of 58.2 years, 67% were men, and 2,042 (60%) had cirrhosis. ALD was not associated with cancer in general (sHR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.92-1.11), although the risk was increased in persons surviving ≥1 year (sHR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.32). The risk of liver cancer was elevated sHR = 12.80, 95%CI = 9.38-17.45). HCC incidence among ALD persons with cirrhosis was 8.6 cases/1,000 person-years, corresponding to a cumulative incidence after 10 years of 5.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with biopsy-proven ALD that survive the initial time after diagnosis are at an elevated risk for cancer, in particular HCC compared with the general population. Although the risk for HCC was elevated, data do not suggest that routine surveillance for HCC in ALD cirrhosis is cost-effective.

9.
Gut ; 70(1): 170-179, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at increased risk of death, but studies have rarely investigated the significance of histological severity or estimated relative risks compared with a general population. We examined mortality in a nationwide cohort of biopsy-proven ALD. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study in Sweden comparing 3453 individuals with an International Classification of Disease (ICD) code for ALD and a liver biopsy from 1969 to 2017 with 16 535 matched general population individuals. Swedish national registers were used to ascertain overall and disease-specific mortality, starting follow-up at the latest of first ICD diagnosis or liver biopsy plus 3 months. Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders was used to estimate HRs in ALD and histopathological subgroups. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 58 years, 65% were men and 52% had cirrhosis at baseline. Five-year cumulative mortality was 40.9% in patients with ALD compared with 5.8% in reference individuals. The risk for overall mortality was significantly increased (adjusted HR (aHR)=4.70, 95% CI 4.35 to 5.08). The risk of liver-related death was particularly high (43% of all deaths, aHR=167.6, 95% CI 101.7 to 276.3). Mortality was significantly increased also in patients with ALD without cirrhosis and was highest in the first year after baseline but persisted after ≥10 years of follow-up (aHR=2.74, 95% CI 2.37 to 3.16). CONCLUSION: Individuals with biopsy-proven ALD have a near fivefold increased risk of death compared with the general population. Individuals with ALD without cirrhosis were also at increased risk of death, reaffirming the need to increase vigilance in the management of these individuals.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality risk over up to 14 years of follow-up in methotrexate-refractory patients with early RA randomized to a strategy starting with addition of infliximab vs addition of SSZ and HCQ. METHODS: Data was from the two-arm, parallel, randomized, active-controlled, open-label Swefot trial in which patients with early RA (symptom duration <1 y) were recruited from 15 rheumatology clinics in Sweden (2002-2005). Patients who did not achieve low disease activity after 3-4 months of MTX were randomized to addition of infliximab (n = 128) or SSZ and HCQ (n = 130). Participants were followed until death, emigration, or end of follow-up, whichever came first. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 13 years, there were 13 and 16 deaths, respectively [8.8 vs 10.6 deaths per 1000 person-years; mortality hazard ratio 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6, 2.5); P =0.62]. The 1-year mortality was 0.8% in both treatment arms, the 5-year mortality was 2.3% for the infliximab arm compared with 1.5% for the conventional combination treatment arm, while the 10-year mortality was 7.8% and 7.7%, respectively. After 5 years, ∼50% of patients in the conventional combination therapy arm had switched to biologic treatment, and 50% in the biologic arm had discontinued treatment with a biologic DMARD. CONCLUSION: No difference in mortality risk could be observed over up to 14 years of follow-up between treatment strategy groups. At 5 years (3 years after trial cessation), 50% of patients remained on their assigned therapy, reflecting that DMARD combination is an adequate treatment strategy in 50% of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00764725.

11.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although dermatitis herpetiformis is closely associated with celiac disease (CD), data on the relationship between CD and other dermatologic disorders have been mixed. We aimed to quantify the risk of skin disorders in patients after CD diagnosis in a population-based setting. METHODS: Using data from all 28 pathology departments in Sweden 1969-2016, we identified patients with CD. Each patient was matched by age, sex, calendar year, and geographic region to up to 5 population controls. We calculated the risk of any skin disease and specific skin diseases using Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: We identified 43,300 patients with CD and 198,532 matched controls. After a median follow-up time of 11.4 years, the incidences of skin disease in CD patients and controls were 22.6 and 14.8 per 1000 person-years respectively (HR=1.55; 95%CI 1.51-1.58). Increased risks were present for eczema (HR=1.67; 95%CI 1.56-1.79), psoriasis (HR=1.55; 95%CI 1.43-1.68), urticaria (HR=1.52; 95% CI 1.42-1.64), vitiligo (HR=1.90; 95%CI 1.52-2.39), acne (HR=1.39; 95%CI 1.29-1.50), and alopecia areata (HR=1.78; 95%CI 1.43-2.20). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, patients with CD are at increased risk of multiple common skin disorders, a risk that persists in the long-term.

12.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have more work disability than the general population. We aimed to estimate the monetary cost of IBD for the individual through assessment of earnings in relation to diagnosis. METHODS: Through linkage of national registers we identified patients aged 30-55 years at first IBD diagnosis in Sweden 2002-2011, and same-sex IBD-free siblings. We estimated taxable earnings and disposable income from 5 years before to 5 years after diagnosis. RESULTS: The 5,961 patients (27% Crohn's disease, 68% ulcerative colitis, 4.3% IBD unclassified) had similar taxable earnings as their 7,810 siblings until the year of diagnosis, when earnings decreased and remained lower than in siblings during follow-up. The adjusted difference in earnings over the entire 5-year period after diagnosis was -5% (-8,212€; 95%CI: -11,458 to-4,967). The difference was larger in women than in men, and larger in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis. When stratifying for sex and IBD subtype and comparing earnings during each year of follow-up, the median annual earnings were lower in women with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in their sisters during all years of follow-up, whereas the men had similar annual taxable earnings as their brothers. The disposable income was similar between patients and siblings during the investigated time period. CONCLUSION: From the year of diagnosis and at least 5 years onwards, patients with IBD had 5% lower earnings than siblings, mainly explained by differences between women with IBD and their sisters. However, there were no differences in disposable income.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and liver failure, but data on overall mortality in AIH are conflicting. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden from 1969-2017 of 6,016 adults with AIH and 28,146 matched general population reference individuals. AIH was defined by a combination of a medical diagnosis of AIH plus a liver biopsy from any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Through Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and cause-specific death. Liver transplant was included in our main outcome of death. RESULTS: During follow-up, 3,185 individuals with AIH died (41.4/1000 person-years) compared with 10,477 reference individuals (21.9/1000 person-years). The 10-year cumulative incidence of death was 32.3% (95%CI=31.1-33.6) for AIH individuals and 14.1% (95%CI=13.7-14.5) for reference individuals. This corresponded to an adjusted HR of 2.29 (95%CI=2.17-2.41), which remained elevated ≥20 years follow-up. AIH individuals with cirrhosis on biopsy had a high risk of death (HR=4.55; 95%CI=3.95-5.25), while mortality in patients with fibrosis, inflammation without fibrosis, or necrosis did not differ. Portal hypertension and overlap with cholestatic liver diseases were also associated with death. AIH was associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.27; 95%CI=1.15-1.40), liver disease (HR=66.24; 95%CI=48.19-91.03) and extrahepatic malignancy (HR=1.69; 95%CI=1.51-1.89). In a sibling comparison, AIH individuals remained at increased risk of death. CONCLUSION: AIH is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of death. Risks were particularly high in individuals with cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and overlap with cholestatic liver disease.

15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 655-668, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on population-wide assessment of cost in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To estimate the societal cost of actively treated CD and UC in Sweden. METHODS: We identified 10 117 prevalent CD and 19 762 prevalent UC patients, aged ≥18 years on 1 January 2014 and 4028 adult incident CD cases and 8659 adult incident UC cases (2010-2013) from Swedish Patient Register. Each case was matched to five population comparators. Healthcare costs were calculated from medications, outpatient visits, hospitalisations and surgery. Cost of productivity losses was derived from disability pension and sick leave. RESULTS: The mean annual societal costs per working-age patient (18-64 years) with CD and UC were $22 813 (vs $7533 per comparator) and $14 136 (vs $7351 per comparator), respectively. In patients aged ≥65 years, the mean annual costs of CD and UC were $9726 and $8072 vs $3875 and $4016 per comparator, respectively. The majority of cost for both CD (56%) and UC (59%) patients originated from productivity losses. Higher societal cost of working-age CD patients as compared to UC patients was related to greater utilisation of anti-TNF (22.2% vs 7.4%) and increased annual disability pension (44 days vs 25 days). Among incident CD and UC patients, the mean total cost over the first year per patient was over three times higher than comparators. CONCLUSION: In Sweden, the societal cost of incident and prevalent CD and UC patients was consistently two to three times higher than the general population.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Licença Médica , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Adulto , Colite Ulcerativa/economia , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Doença de Crohn/economia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Licença Médica/economia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Trabalho/economia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have explored the link between childhood celiac disease and long-term psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a population-based cohort study of associations between childhood celiac disease and psychiatric disorders and investigated whether risk persists into adulthood. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study in Sweden using data from the ESPRESSO cohort. In this cohort, 19,186 children with a diagnosis of biopsy-verified celiac disease from 1973 through 2016 were identified from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each patient was matched with as many as 5 reference children (controls, n=94,249). Data on psychiatric disorders were obtained from the patient register. We used Cox proportional modeling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 12.3 years, 3174 children (16.5%) with celiac disease received a new diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder, compared with 13,286 controls (14.1%). Corresponding incidence rates were 12.2 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 11.8-12.7) vs 10.3 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 10.2-10.5). Childhood celiac disease was associated with a 19% increase in risk of any psychiatric disorder (95% Cl, 1.14-1.23); the increase in risk was observed in all childhood age groups. The highest HRs were seen in the first year after celiac diagnosis (HR, 1.70; 95% Cl, 1.41-2.05). The risk increase persisted into adulthood (older than 18 years: HR, 1.11; 95% Cl, 1.04-1.17). We found increased risks of mood disorders (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.19), eating disorders (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.20-1.39), and autism spectrum disorder (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.64). We found no statistically significant risk increase for psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorders, personality disorders, suicide attempt, or suicide. Celiac disease was also linked to an increased use of psychiatric drugs (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43). A conditional logistic regression found that psychiatric disorders were also more common prior to diagnosis of celiac disease (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% Cl, 1.39-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood celiac disease is associated with increased risk of subsequent psychiatric disorders, which persists into adulthood. Mental health surveillance should be integral in the care of celiac disease.

17.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494820914802, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349623

RESUMO

Aims: The purpose of this research was to describe the current prevalence and historic trends in overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Sweden. Methods: Data on BMI, age, gender, education and geographic region were obtained in n=447,925 Swedish adults through a nationwide screening test (1995-2017). To account for sampling variations, we quantified prevalence estimates and time trends using standardized values (direct method) to all 18-74-year-old Swedes, using nationwide databases. Rates of overweight (BMI ⩾25 kg/m2), obesity (BMI ⩾30 kg/m2) and severe obesity (BMI ⩾35 kg/m2) were calculated across gender, age, education and geographic categories. Years were grouped into two-year sampling periods (except the first period where we used three years) for increased power. We used multivariable logistic regression to quantify independent associations between age, gender, education and region with obesity development and current prevalence rates. Results: In 2016/17 the unstandardized prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were 55.1%, 16.6% and 4.2%, respectively. Factors associated with a higher obesity prevalence were male gender, older age, lower education and residing in a rural region (all P<0.001). Between 1995 and 2017 the prevalence of severe obesity increased by 153%, compared to obesity (+86%) and overweight (+23%). While there were similar increases in obesity across gender and age groups, people with low education (vs high) and rural areas (vs urban) had a higher prevalence increase (both P<0.001). Conclusions: Rates of overweight, obesity and severe obesity have increased markedly in Swedish adults since 1995. Priority groups for prevention efforts include individuals with low education and those living in rural areas.

18.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1253-1263, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349030

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) affects 1% of the population. Its effect on healthcare cost, however, is barely understood. We estimated healthcare use and cost in CD, including their temporal relationship to diagnosis. METHODS: Through biopsy reports from Sweden's 28 pathology departments, we identified 40,951 prevalent patients with CD (villous atrophy) as of January 1, 2015, and 15,086 incident patients with CD diagnosed in 2008-2015, including 2,663 who underwent a follow-up biopsy to document mucosal healing. Each patient was compared with age- and sex-matched general population comparators (n = 187,542). Using nationwide health registers, we retrieved data on all inpatient and nonprimary outpatient care, prescribed diets, and drugs. RESULTS: Compared with comparators, healthcare costs in 2015 were, on average, $1,075 (95% confidence interval, $864-1,278) higher in prevalent patients with CD aged <18 years, $715 ($632-803) in ages 18-64 years, and $1,010 ($799-1,230) in ages ≥65 years. Half of all costs were attributed to 5% of the prevalent patients. Annual healthcare costs were $391 higher 5 years before diagnosis and increased until 1 year after diagnosis; costs then declined but remained 75% higher than those of comparators 5 years postdiagnosis (annual difference = $1,044). Although hospitalizations, nonprimary outpatient visits, and medication use were all more common with CD, excess costs were largely unrelated to the prescription of gluten-free staples and follow-up visits for CD. Mucosal healing in CD did not reduce the healthcare costs. DISCUSSION: The use and costs of health care are increased in CD, not only before, but for years after diagnosis. Mucosal healing does not seem to lower the healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/economia , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
JAMA ; 323(13): 1277-1285, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259229

RESUMO

Importance: Celiac disease may be associated with a modest but persistent increased long-term mortality risk. It is uncertain whether this risk has changed in the era of wider diagnosis rates, less severe clinical disease, and more widespread availability of gluten-free food. Objective: To evaluate the association between celiac disease and mortality risk in a population-based cohort in Sweden. Design, Setting, and Participants: All individuals in Sweden with celiac disease diagnosed between 1969 and 2017 were identified through the Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden (ESPRESSO) cohort. Participants (n = 49 829) were observed starting on the day of the biopsy. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2017. Exposures: Celiac disease was defined by the presence of small intestinal villus atrophy on histopathology specimens during the years 1969-2017 from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each individual was matched with as many as 5 control participants in the general population by age, sex, county, and calendar period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was cause-specific mortality. Patients with celiac disease were compared with controls using stratified Cox proportional modeling, stratifying by year of diagnosis. Results: There were 49 829 patients with celiac disease, including 24% who were diagnosed between the years 2010 and 2017. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 32.2 (25.2) years and 62.4% were women. During a median follow-up time of 12.5 years, 13.2% (n = 6596) died. Compared with controls (n = 246 426), overall mortality was increased in those with celiac disease (9.7 vs 8.6 deaths per 1000 person-years; absolute difference, 1.2 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21 [95% CI, 1.17-1.25]). The relative increase in mortality risk was present in all age groups and was greatest in those diagnosed in the age range of 18 to 39 years (1.9 vs 1.1 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.47-1.94]; P values for heterogeneity comparing 18-39 years with 40-59 years and with ≥60 years were both <.001). Individuals with celiac disease were at increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (3.5 vs 3.4 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.02-1.13]), cancer (2.7 vs 2.2 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.22-1.36]), and respiratory disease (0.6 vs 0.5 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.08-1.37]). When compared with controls, the overall mortality risk was greatest in the first year after diagnosis (15.3 vs 6.5 per 1000 person-years; HR, 2.34 [95% CI, 2.14-2.55]) but persisted beyond 10 years after diagnosis (10.5 vs 10.1 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.20]). The mortality risk was likewise present for patients diagnosed during the years 2010-2017 (7.5 vs 5.5 per 1000 person-years; HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.21-1.51]). Conclusions and Relevance: In a Swedish population studied between 1969 and 2017, a diagnosis of celiac disease compared with the general population was associated with a small but statistically significant increased mortality risk.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atrofia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/patologia , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 273-285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210631

RESUMO

Purpose: Patients with Crohn's disease have increased work loss. We aimed to describe changes in work ability in relation to pharmacological and surgical treatments. Patients and Methods: We linked data from the Swedish National Patient Register, The Swedish Quality Register for Inflammatory Bowel Disease SWIBREG, The Prescribed Drug Register, The Longitudinal Integrated Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies, and the Social Insurance Database. We identified working-age (19-59 years) patients with incident Crohn's disease 2006-2013 and population comparator subjects matched by sex, birth year, region, and education level. We assessed the number of lost workdays due to sick leave and disability pension before and after treatments. Results: Of 3956 patients (median age 34 years, 51% women), 39% were treated with aminosalicylates, 52% with immunomodulators, 22% with TNF inhibitors, and 18% with intestinal surgery during a median follow-up of 5.3 years. Most patients had no work loss during the study period (median=0 days). For all treatments, the mean number of lost workdays increased during the months before treatment initiation, peaked during the first month of treatment and decreased thereafter, and was heavily influenced by sociodemographic factors and amount of work loss before first Crohn's disease diagnosis. The mean increase in work loss days compared to pre-therapeutic level was ~3 days during the first month of treatment for all pharmacological therapies and 11 days for intestinal surgery. Three months after treatment initiation, 88% of patients treated surgically and 90-92% of patients treated pharmacologically had the same amount of work loss as before treatment start. Median time to return to work was 2 months for all treatments. Conclusion: In this regular clinical setting, patients treated surgically had more lost workdays than patients treated pharmacologically, but return to work was similar between all treatments.

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