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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transportation noise has been associated with markers of obesity. We aimed to investigate whether road traffic and railway noise were associated with weight gain during and after pregnancy. METHODS: Among the women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, 74 065 reported on weight before and during the pregnancy (gestational week 30) and 52 661 reported on weight before and 18 months after pregnancy. Residential address history from conception to 18 months after pregnancy was obtained in national registers, and road traffic and railway noise were modelled for all addresses. Associations between noise and gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) were analysed using the linear and log-binomial regression. RESULTS: A 10 dB(A) higher road traffic noise was associated with an increase in GWG of 3.8 g/week (95% CI 2.3 to 5.3) and PPWR of 0.09 kg (95% CI 0.02 to 0.16). For PPWR, this association seemed confined to women who were overweight (0.17 kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.32) or obese (0.49 kg, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73) before pregnancy. Further adjustment by nitrogen dioxide reduced GWG risk estimates and slightly increased PPWR risk estimates. Railway noise ≥65 dB(A) was associated with an increase in GWG of 4.5 g/week (95% CI -2.7 to 11.6) and PPWR of 0.26 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.60) compared with levels <55 dB(A). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that road traffic noise is associated with weight gain during and after the pregnancy, which adds to the literature linking transportation noise to adiposity.

2.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105268, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675564

RESUMO

Studies on health effects of long-term exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents are few. Previous studies have reported an association between black carbon (BC) exposure and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and a few studies have found an association between sulfate exposure and mortality. These studies, however, relied mainly on exposure data from centrally located air-monitoring stations, which is a crude approximation of personal exposure. We focused on specific chemical constituents of PM2.5, i.e. elemental and primary organic carbonaceous particles (BC/OC), sea salt, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, i.e. NO3-, NH4+, and SO42-), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA), in relation to all-cause, CVD and respiratory disease mortality. We followed a Danish cohort of 49,564 individuals from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2015. We combined residential address history from 1979 onwards with mean annual air pollution concentrations obtained by the AirGIS air pollution modelling system, lifestyle information from baseline questionnaires and socio-demography obtained by register linkage. During 895,897 person-years of follow-up, 10,193 deaths from all causes occurred - of which 2319 were CVD-related and 870 were related to respiratory disease. The 15-year time-weighted average concentrations of PM2.5, BC/OC, sea salt, SIA and SOA were 13.8, 2.8, 3.4, 4.9, and 0.3 µg/m3, respectively. For all-cause mortality, a higher risk was observed with higher exposure to PM2.5, BC/OC and SOA with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.03 (95% confidence intervals: 1.01, 1.05), 1.06 (1.03, 1.09), and 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) per interquartile range, respectively. The associations for BC/OC and SOA remained after adjustment for PM2.5 in two-pollutant models. For CVD mortality, we observed elevated risks with higher exposure to PM2.5, BC/OC and SIA. The results showed no clear relationship between sea salt and mortality. In this study, we observed a relationship between long-term exposure to PM2.5, BC/OC, and SOA and all-cause mortality and between PM2.5, BC/OC, and SIA and CVD mortality.

3.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(6): 46, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664594

RESUMO

Nocturnal train noise exposure has been associated with hypertension and myocardial infarction. It remains unclear whether acute nighttime train exposure may induce subclinical atherosclerosis, such as endothelial dysfunction and other functional and/or biochemical changes. Thus, we aimed to expose healthy subjects to nocturnal train noise and to assess endothelial function, changes in plasma protein levels and clinical parameters. In a randomized crossover study, we exposed 70 healthy volunteers to either background or two different simulated train noise scenarios in their homes during three nights. After each night, participants visited the study center for measurement of vascular function and assessment of other biomedical and biochemical parameters. The three nighttime noise scenarios were exposure to either background noise (control), 30 or 60 train noise events (Noise30 or Noise60), with average sound pressure levels of 33, 52 and 54 dB(A), respectively. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was 11.23 ± 4.68% for control, compared to 8.71 ± 3.83% for Noise30 and 8.47 ± 3.73% for Noise60 (p < 0.001 vs. control). Sleep quality was impaired after both Noise30 and Noise60 nights (p < 0.001 vs. control). Targeted proteomic analysis showed substantial changes of plasma proteins after the Noise60 night, mainly centered on redox, pro-thrombotic and proinflammatory pathways. Exposure to simulated nocturnal train noise impaired endothelial function. The proteomic changes point toward a proinflammatory and pro-thrombotic phenotype in response to nocturnal train noise and provide a molecular basis to explain the increased cardiovascular risk observed in epidemiological noise studies.

4.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(3): 269-283, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509369

RESUMO

There is general consensus that environmental pollution and non-chemical stressors contribute to the incidence and prevalence of chronic noncommunicable disease (e.g. cardiovascular, metabolic and mental). Clinical and epidemiological studies support that air pollution and traffic noise are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and significantly contribute to overall mortality. In this respect, the "exposome" provides a comprehensive description of lifelong exposure history. A recent publication using an updated global exposure-mortality model found that the global all-cause mortality rate attributable to ambient air pollution by PM2.5 and O3 was 8.79 (95% CI 7.11-10.41) million in 2015 - much higher than previously calculated. For Europe this corresponds to 790,000 premature deaths due to ambient air pollution. Various large scale studies and expert commissions have identified air pollution as the leading health risk factor in the physical environment, followed by water and soil pollution with heavy metals, pesticides, other chemicals and occupational exposures, however neglecting the non-chemical environmental health risk factors: mental stress, light exposure, climatic changes and traffic noise. Especially for traffic noise-related health effects there are numerous clinical and epidemiological studies reporting significant impact on cardiovascular disease. We here provide an in-depth review on the health effects of the external exposome, with emphasis on air pollution and traffic noise and to a lesser degree mental stress and other environmental pollutants. In addition, we summarize our previously published experimental research investigating effects of aircraft noise exposure in mice and provide mechanistic insights on how noise contributes to noncommunicable disease.

6.
7.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(6): 1315-1323, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106794

RESUMO

The BODIPY dyes are a versatile family of chromophores that have found use in fluorescence based bioimaging and other applications. The BODIPY core can be substituted in a vast number of ways, but the photophysical changes, such as shifts in absorption spectra, are not always immediately obvious from the molecular structure. We introduce a simple model that let you vary the electron withdrawing or electron donating character of each substituent continuously to get an overview of the landscape of possible spectral shifts. The features of substituted BODIPY cores are compared to the corresponding linear system, giving a new perspective on BODIPY photophysics. Using the model, we are able to rationalize the trend seen in a family of BODIPY, with chalcogen-containing substituents, as being due to a change in electronegativity.

8.
Environ Res ; 172: 502-510, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that traffic noise is associated with markers of obesity. We investigated the association of exposure to road traffic noise with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in the Danish Nurse Cohort. METHODS: We used data on 15,501 female nurses (aged >44 years) from the nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort who, in 1999, reported information on self-measured height, weight, and waist circumference, together with information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle, work and health. Road traffic noise at the most exposed façade of the residence was estimated using Nord2000 as the annual mean of a weighted 24-h average (Lden). We used multiple linear regression models to examine associations of road traffic noise levels in 1999 (1-year mean) with BMI and waist circumference, adjusting for potential confounders, and evaluated effect modification by degree of urbanization, air pollution levels, night shift work, job strain, sedative use, sleep aid use, and family history of obesity. RESULTS: We did not observe associations between road traffic noise (per 10 dB increase in the 1-year mean Lden) and BMI (kg/m2) (ß: 0.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.07, 0.07) or waist circumference (cm) (ß: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.31, 0.31) in the fully adjusted model. We found significant effect modification of job strain and degree of urbanization on the associations between Lden and both BMI and waist circumference. Job strained nurses were associated with a 0.41 BMI-point increase, (95% CI: 0.06, 0.76) and a 1.00 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI: 0.00, 2.00). Nurses living in urban areas had a statistically significant positive association of Lden with BMI (ß: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.42), whilst no association was found for nurses living in suburban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that road traffic noise exposure in nurses with particular susceptibilities, such as those with job strain, or living in urban areas, may lead to increased BMI, a marker of adiposity.

9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(3): 37004, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) increases risk for cardiovascular disease, as observed for traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to WTN increases risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. METHODS: We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius 20 times the height of the closest WT and 25% of the dwellings within [Formula: see text] the height of the closest WT. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN for each dwelling and derived 1-y and 5-y running nighttime averages. We used hospital and mortality registries to identify all incident cases of MI ([Formula: see text]) and stroke ([Formula: see text]) among all adults age 25-85 y ([Formula: see text]), who lived in one of these dwellings for [Formula: see text] over the period 1982-2013. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: IRRs for MI in association with 5-y nighttime outdoor WTN [Formula: see text] (vs. [Formula: see text]) dB(A) and indoor LF WTN [Formula: see text] (vs. [Formula: see text]) dB(A) were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.62; 47 exposed cases] and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.73, 2.28; 12 exposed cases), respectively. IRRs for intermediate categories of outdoor WTN [24-30, 30-36, and [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]] were slightly above the null and of similar size: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.12), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.12), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.22), respectively. For stroke, IRRs for the second and third outdoor exposure groups were similar to those for MI, but near or below the null for higher exposures. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find convincing evidence of associations between WTN and MI or stroke. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3340.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(3): 37005, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants. METHODS: For all Danish dwellings within a radius of [Formula: see text] heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of [Formula: see text] heights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of [Formula: see text] was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of [Formula: see text]). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons [Formula: see text] of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group ([Formula: see text]) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons [Formula: see text] of age exposed to [Formula: see text] were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3909.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Environ Int ; 123: 265-272, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551059

RESUMO

Air pollutants such as NO2 and PM2.5 have consistently been linked to mortality, but only few previous studies have addressed associations with long-term exposure to black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3). We investigated the association between PM2.5, PM10, BC, NO2, and O3 and mortality in a Danish cohort of 49,564 individuals who were followed up from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2015. Residential address history from 1979 onwards was combined with air pollution exposure obtained by the state-of-the-art, validated, THOR/AirGIS air pollution modelling system, and information on residential traffic noise exposure, lifestyle and socio-demography. We observed higher risks of all-cause as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with higher long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, BC, and NO2. For PM2.5 and CVD mortality, a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.13-1.47) per 5 µg/m3 was observed, and correspondingly HRs of 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05-1.27) and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.17) were observed for BC (per 1 µg/m3) and NO2 (per 10 µg/m3), respectively. Adjustment for noise gave slightly lower estimates for the air pollutants and CVD mortality. Inverse relationships were observed for O3. None of the investigated air pollutants were related to risk of respiratory mortality. Stratified analyses suggested that the elevated risks of CVD and all-cause mortality in relation to long-term PM, NO2 and BC exposure were restricted to males. This study supports a role of PM, BC, and NO2 in all-cause and CVD mortality independent of road traffic noise exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fuligem/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
Plant Physiol ; 178(3): 1081-1095, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297456

RESUMO

Cyanogenic glucosides are a class of specialized metabolites widespread in the plant kingdom. Cyanogenic glucosides are α-hydroxynitriles, and their hydrolysis releases toxic hydrogen cyanide, providing an effective chemical defense against herbivores. Eucalyptus cladocalyx is a cyanogenic tree, allocating up to 20% of leaf nitrogen to the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic monoglucoside, prunasin. Here, mass spectrometry analyses of E. cladocalyx tissues revealed spatial and ontogenetic variations in prunasin content, as well as the presence of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin in flower buds and flowers. The identification and biochemical characterization of the prunasin biosynthetic enzymes revealed a unique enzyme configuration for prunasin production in E. cladocalyx This result indicates that a multifunctional cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP79A125, catalyzes the initial conversion of l-phenylalanine into its corresponding aldoxime, phenylacetaldoxime; a function consistent with other members of the CYP79 family. In contrast to the single multifunctional CYP known from other plant species, the conversion of phenylacetaldoxime to the α-hydroxynitrile, mandelonitrile, is catalyzed by two distinct CYPs. CYP706C55 catalyzes the dehydration of phenylacetaldoxime, an unusual CYP reaction. The resulting phenylacetonitrile is subsequently hydroxylatedby CYP71B103 to form mandelonitrile. The final glucosylation step to yield prunasin is catalyzed by a UDP-glucosyltransferase, UGT85A59. Members of the CYP706 family have not been reported previously to participate in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides, and the pathway structure in E. cladocalyx represents an example of convergent evolution in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants.

14.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 207-215, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216773

RESUMO

Noise from wind turbines (WTs) has been reported more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, and concerns have been raised about whether WT noise (WTN) can increase risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate if long-term exposure to WTN increases risk for hypertension, estimated as redemption of prescriptions for antihypertensive drugs. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights from a WT and 25% randomly selected dwellings within 20-40 WT heights radius. Using data on WT type and hourly wind conditions at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor (10-10,000 Hz) and low frequency (LF: 10-160 Hz) indoor WTN for all dwellings, and aggregated it as long-term nighttime running means. From nationwide registries, we identified 535,675 persons age 25-85 years living in these dwellings for >1 year from 1996 to 2013, of whom 83,729 fulfilled our case definition of redeeming ≥2 prescriptions and ≥180 defined daily doses of antihypertensive drugs within a year. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression according to categories of WTN exposure and adjustment for individual and area-level covariates. We found no associations between 5-year mean exposure to WTN during night and redemption of antihypertensives, with hazard ratios (HR) of 0.91 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.78-1.06) for outdoor WTN ≥ 42 dB(A) and of 1.06 (CI: 0.83-1.35) for indoor LF WTN ≥ 15 dB(A) when compared to the reference WTN levels (<24 dB(A) and <5 dB(A), respectively). The lack of association was consistent across sub-populations of people living on farms, far from major roads and with high validity of the noise estimate. For people younger than 65 years we found HRs of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.68-1.30) for outdoor WTN ≥ 42 dB(A) and indoor WTN ≥ 15 dB(A), respectively, whereas for people above 65 years the corresponding HRs were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.90-1.52) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.87-1.88). In conclusion, the present study does not support an association between WTN and redemption of antihypertensive medication.

15.
Environ Res ; 167: 770-775, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236517

RESUMO

Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) may negatively affect health, as reported for traffic noise. We aimed to investigate whether residential WTN is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Based on national registries, we identified all Danish dwellings situated within ≤ 20 wt heights radius and a random selection of 25% of dwellings situated within 20-40 wt heights radius of a WT. We identified 135,795 pregnant women living in the dwellings from 1982 to 2013, and collected information on gestational age and birth weight from a national birth registry. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN at the dwellings of the pregnant women and aggregated as mean nighttime WTN during pregnancy. We used logistic regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates for the analyses. We did not find evidence suggesting that mean pregnancy or trimester-specific exposure to outdoor or indoor LF WTN were associated with any of the three adverse birth outcomes investigated: preterm birth (n = 13,003), term small for gestational age (n = 12,220) or term low birth weight (n = 1127). However, the number of cases in the highest exposure categories of ≥ 42 dB outdoor WTN or ≥ 15 dB indoor LF WTN were low for all outcomes (n between 0 and 31). The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and adverse birth outcomes. However, there were few cases in the high exposure groups and the results call for reproduction.

16.
Environ Int ; 120: 163-171, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults. METHODS: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m3 of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13;3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I2 = 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88;3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I2 = 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5_S but not PM10_S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

17.
Environ Int ; 120: 72-80, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High arsenic concentration in drinking water is associated with a higher incidence rate of stroke, but only few studies have investigated an association with arsenic in drinking water at low concentration (<50 µg/L). OBJECTIVE: To examine if arsenic in drinking water at low concentration was associated with higher incidence rate of stroke in Denmark. METHODS: A total of 57,053 individuals from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort was included in the study (enrolment in 1993-1997, age 50-64 years), of which 2195 individuals had incident stroke between enrolment and November 2009. Individuals were enrolled in two major cities (Copenhagen and Aarhus). Residential addresses in the period 1973-2009 were geocoded and arsenic concentration in drinking water at each address was estimated by linking addresses with water supply areas. Associations between arsenic concentration and incidence rate of stroke were analysed using a generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were adjusted for differences in age, sex, calendar-year, lifestyle factors, and educational level. RESULTS: Median arsenic concentration in drinking water was 0.7 µg/L at enrolment addresses (range: 0.03 to 25 µg/L), with highest concentrations in the Aarhus area. The adjusted IRRs were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.04-1.32) for the highest arsenic quartile (1.93-25.3 µg/L) when compared with the lowest quartile (0.049-0.57 µg/L), but the highest IRR was seen in the second quartile (0.57-0.76 µg/L) (IRR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.07-1.36). The highest IRR in the upper quartile was seen in the Aarhus area (IRR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.41-2.26). Having ever been exposed to10 µg/L or more arsenic in drinking water resulted in an IRR at 1.44 (95% CI: 1.00-2.08) for all strokes and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.11-2.39) for ischemic strokes. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that arsenic in drinking water even at low concentration is associated with higher incidence rate of stroke.

18.
Epidemiology ; 29(5): 618-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and particulate matter [PM]) were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. We extrapolated concentrations back in time to exact pregnancy periods. Teachers or parents assessed ADHD symptoms at 3-10 years of age. We classified children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cutoffs. We combined all adjusted area-specific effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis and multiple imputations and applied inverse probability-weighting methods to correct for loss to follow-up. RESULTS: We classified a total of 2,801 children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range, and 1,590 within the clinical range. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was not associated with a higher odds of ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [OR] for ADHD symptoms of 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.01 per 10 µg/m increase in NO2 and 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.19 per 5 µg/m increase in PM2.5). We observed similar associations for ADHD within the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for an increase in risk of ADHD symptoms with increasing prenatal air pollution levels in children aged 3-10 years. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B379.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949863

RESUMO

Arsenic is a risk factor for several noncommunicable diseases, even at low doses. Urinary arsenic (UAs) concentration is a good biomarker for internal dose, and demographic, dietary, and lifestyle factors are proposed predictors in nonoccupationally exposed populations. However, most predictor studies are limited in terms of size and number of predictors. We investigated demographic, dietary, and lifestyle determinants of UAs concentrations in 744 postmenopausal Danish women who had UAs measurements and questionnaire data on potential predictors. UAs concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and determinants of the concentration were investigated using univariate and multivariate regression models. We used a forward selection procedure for model optimization. In all models, fish, alcohol, and poultry intake were associated with higher UAs concentration, and tap water, fruit, potato, and dairy intake with lower concentration. A forward regression model explained 35% (R²) of the variation in concentrations. Age, smoking, education, and area of residence did not predict concentration. The results were relatively robust across sensitivity analyses. The study suggested that UAs concentration in postmenopausal women was primarily determined by dietary factors, with fish consumption showing the strongest direct association. However, the majority of variation in UAs concentration in this study population is still unexplained.

20.
Environ Res ; 165: 40-45, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665463

RESUMO

Focus on renewable energy sources and reduced unit costs has led to increased number of wind turbines (WTs). WT noise (WTN) is reported to be highly annoying at levels from 30 to 35 dB and up, whereas for traffic noise people report to be highly annoyed from 40 to 45 dB and up. This has raised concerns as to whether WTN may increase risk for major diseases, as exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights and 25% of all dwellings within 20-40 WT heights from a WT. Using detailed data on WT type and hourly wind data at each WT position and height, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency indoor WTN for all dwellings, aggregated as nighttime 1- and 5-year running means. Using nationwide registries, we identified a study population of 614,731 persons living in these dwellings in the period from 1996 to 2012, of whom 25,148 developed diabetes. Data were analysed using Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-levels covariates. We found no associations between long-term exposure to WTN during night and diabetes risk, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.90 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.79-1.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.68-1.24) for 5-year mean nighttime outdoor WTN of 36-42 and ≥ 42 dB, respectively, compared to < 24 dB. For 5-year mean nighttime indoor low frequency WTN of 10-15 and ≥ 15 dB we found IRRs of 0.90 (0.78-1.04) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41-1.34), respectively, when compared to and < 5 dB. The lack of association was consistent across strata of sex, distance to major road, validity of noise estimate and WT height. The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and higher risk of diabetes. However, there were only few cases in the highest exposure groups and findings need reproduction.

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