Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 357
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220838, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased body mass index (BMI = weight/height2; kg/m2) and weight gain is associated with increased mortality, wherefore weight loss and avoided weight gain should be followed by lower mortality. This is achieved in clinical settings, but in the general population weight loss appears associated with increased mortality, possibly related to the struggles with body weight control (BWC). We investigated whether attitudes to and experiences with BWC in combination with recent changes in body weight influenced long-term mortality among normal weight and overweight individuals. POPULATION AND METHODS: The study population included 6,740 individuals attending the 3rd cycle in 1991-94 of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, providing information on BMI, educational level, health behaviours, well-being, weight half-a-year earlier, and answers to four BWC questions about caring for body weight, assumed benefit of weight loss, current and past slimming experiences. Participants reporting previous unintended weight loss (> 4 kg during one year) were excluded. Cox regression models estimated the associations of prior changes in BMI and responses to the BWC questions with approximately 22 years all-cause mortality with age as 'time scale'. Participants with normal weight (BMI < 25.0 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) were analysed separately, and stratified by gender and educational level, health behaviours and well-being as co-variables. RESULTS: Compared with stable weight, weight loss was associated with significantly increased mortality in the normal weight group, but not in the overweight group, and weight gain was not significantly associated with mortality in either group. Participants with normal weight who claimed that it would be good for their health to lose weight or that they were currently trying to lose weight had significantly higher mortality than those denying it. There were no other significant associations with the responses to the BWC questions in either the normal weight or the overweight group. When combining the responses to the BWC questions with the weight changes, using the weight change as either a continuous or categorical variable, there were no significant interaction in their relation to mortality in either the normal weight or the overweight group. CONCLUSION: Attitudes to and experiences with BWC did not notably modify the association of changes in body weight with mortality in either people with normal weight or people with overweight.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11528, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395930

RESUMO

Studies in mice suggest that early life represents a critical time window, where antibiotics may exert profound and lasting effects on the gut microbiota and metabolism. We aimed to test the hypothesis that prenatal antibiotic exposure is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight in a population-based cohort study. We linked 43,365 mother-child dyads from a nationwide cohort of pregnant women and their offspring to the Danish National Prescription Registry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations between prenatal exposure to antibiotics and BMI z-score and overweight (including obesity) at age seven and 11 years. Prenatal antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight were both associated with high pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal diabetes, multi-parity, smoking, low socioeconomic status, high paternal BMI, and short duration of breastfeeding. After adjustment for confounders, no associations were observed between prenatal antibiotic exposure and odds of overweight at age seven and 11 years. Whereas no association was observed between broad-spectrum antibiotics and overweight at age 11 years, exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics was associated with higher odds of overweight at age seven years with an odds ratio of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.05-1.53) for ampicillin and an odds ratio of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.97) for amoxicillin. As we did not account for underlying infections, the observed associations with early childhood overweight could be explained by confounding by indication. In conclusion, our population-based study suggests that prenatal exposure to narrow-spectrum antibiotics is not associated with overweight in offspring. Exposure to some broad-spectrum antibiotics may increase the odds of overweight in early childhood, but the association does not persist in later childhood.

4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(9): 1520-1526, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) are among the most rapidly increasing cancers in Western countries. Elevated BMI in adulthood is a known risk factor, but associations in early life are unclear. METHODS: This study assessed weight change between childhood and early adulthood in relation to EA/GCA. Measured weights and heights during childhood (7-13 years) and early adulthood (17-26 years) were available for 64,695 young men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and the Danish Conscription Database. Individuals were categorized as having normal weight or overweight. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry identified 275 EA/GCA cases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The risk of EA/GCA was 2.5 times higher in men who were first classified as having overweight at age 7 (HR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.50-4.14) compared with men who were never classified as having overweight. Men who had persistent overweight at ages 7 and 13 and in early adulthood had an EA/GCA risk that was 3.2 times higher (HR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57-6.44). However, there was little evidence of increased EA/GCA risk for men with overweight during childhood and subsequent remittance by early adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent overweight in early life is associated with increased EA/GCA risk, which declines if body weight is reduced.

6.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12869, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267694

RESUMO

Observed associations between breastfeeding and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood may be confounded. We examined if the duration of breastfeeding in infancy was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood after adjustment for a range of prenatal and postnatal risk factors. We prospectively followed 6,044 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort born 1959-1961. Duration of any breastfeeding (≤0.5, >0.5-1, >1-2, >2-4, >4 months) was assessed at the infant's 1-year health examination. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes (at age ≥30 years, 237 persons) by breastfeeding duration without and with adjustment for parental social status and education, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal diabetes and smoking during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, sex, and BMI at ages 7 and 41-43 years. In the unadjusted analysis, compared with infants breastfed for ≤0.5 month, those breastfed for >4 months had a 51% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (HR = 0.49; 95% CI [0.32, 0.75]). After the stepwise adjustment for putative early life confounders, this was attenuated to a nonsignificant 31% reduced risk (HR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.44, 1.07]). Adjustment for childhood and adulthood BMI minimally changed the results. We found that the inverse association between the duration of breastfeeding and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood is considerably weakened and no longer significant after adjustment for prenatal and postnatal factors in the infant and mother.

7.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(8): 1314-1322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen (paracetamol), a medication commonly used in pregnancy, has hormonal effects, as has been suggested in experimental studies. Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors could predispose individuals to weight gain. This study evaluated the associations between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and overweight in childhood. METHODS: A total of 30,127 (age 7) and 24,934 (age 11) children in the Danish National Birth Cohort born during 1996 to 2002 were studied. Mothers reported acetaminophen use in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy, and children's BMI and waist circumference were reported by parents at 7 and 11 years. Differences for BMI z score and waist circumference were estimated, as well as risk ratios for overweight in girls and boys adjusting for indications of use and other confounders. RESULTS: There were no consistent associations found for prenatal acetaminophen exposure and BMI z score or waist circumference in girls and boys at both ages. Prenatal acetaminophen exposure was associated with overweight in girls at age 11 (risk ratio 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56, if exposed in all three trimesters; P < 0.001 for cumulative weeks of exposure), but no association was found in boys. CONCLUSIONS: There was no strong association between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and childhood BMI, but the findings on frequent prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and overweight in girls warrant further investigation.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2176, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092817

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal colonizer, but can also cause life-threatening invasive diseases such as empyema, bacteremia and meningitis. Genetic variation of host and pathogen is known to play a role in invasive pneumococcal disease, though to what extent is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of human and pathogen we show that human variation explains almost half of variation in susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis and one-third of variation in severity, identifying variants in CCDC33 associated with susceptibility. Pneumococcal genetic variation explains a large amount of invasive potential (70%), but has no effect on severity. Serotype alone is insufficient to explain invasiveness, suggesting other pneumococcal factors are involved in progression to invasive disease. We identify pneumococcal genes involved in invasiveness including pspC and zmpD, and perform a human-bacteria interaction analysis. These genes are potential candidates for the development of more broadly-acting pneumococcal vaccines.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Meningite Pneumocócica/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6360, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015530

RESUMO

Body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased future risk of inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) particularly Crohn's disease(CD), where associations with high and low BMI have been observed. Most studies are based on adult women. We aimed to explore the impact of BMI in men entering adult life on their long-term risk of developing IBD. A total of 377,957 men born during 1939-1959, with BMI measured at draft boards at mean age 19, were followed from 1977, or time of examination, to end of 2015. Risk of IBD was assessed using Cox regression. During 13 million person-years of follow-up, 1,523 developed CD and 3,323 UC. Using normal weight as reference, for CD the following HRs were observed: BMI < 18.5, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.62, BMI 25-29.9; 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.02. and BMI > 30 1.20; 95% CI, 0.75-1.90). The increased risk of CD in underweight was maintained up until age 60 not explained by known effects of smoking. For UC, minor inverse associations were observed. Restricted cubic splines revealed a U-shape association between BMI and CD, but not UC. Low BMI of men entering adult life is associated with an increased incidence of CD and UC up to 40 years later.

11.
Obes Surg ; 29(8): 2554-2561, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The weight loss after bariatric surgery shows considerable individual variation. Twin studies of response to dietary interventions and studies of bariatric surgery patients suggest that genetic differences may play a role. This study aimed to examine the effect of three genetic risk scores on the inter-individual variation in excess body mass index loss (EBMIL) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Furthermore, we searched among known adiposity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic determinants of the inter-individual variation in EBMIL. METHODS: Patients with morbid obesity underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and were genotyped (n = 577). Two genetic risk scores for weight loss after bariatric surgery and a genetic risk score for body mass index were calculated. Associations between the genetic risk scores and EBMIL were evaluated. Lasso regression was performed on 126 SNPs known to be associated with adiposity. RESULTS: The average EBMIL was 76.9% (range 21.7-149.2%). EBMIL was 81.1% (SD 20.6) and 73.9% (SD 21.7) in the high and low tertile groups of a genetic risk score for weight loss. Patients with a low genetic risk score for body mass index (in the lowest 5% percentile) had an EBMIL of 68.8% (SD 20.6, p = 0.018). Thirteen adiposity-related SNPs were identified to associate with EBMIL through lasso regression. DISCUSSION: A genetic risk score was associated with EBMIL after bariatric surgery, but may not yet be applicable to clinical practice. Patients genetically predisposed to low body mass index had lower weight loss after bariatric surgery.

12.
Obes Rev ; 20(8): 1121-1131, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985072

RESUMO

Obesity has inconsistent associations with broad personality domains, possibly because the links pertain to only some facets of these domains. Collating published and unpublished studies (N = 14 848), we meta-analysed the associations between body mass index (BMI) and Five-Factor Model personality domains as well as 30 Five-Factor Model personality facets. At the domain level, BMI had a positive association with Neuroticism and a negative association with Conscientiousness domains. At the facet level, we found associations between BMI and 15 facets from all five personality domains, with only some Neuroticism and Conscientiousness facets among them. Certain personality-BMI associations were moderated by sample properties, such as proportions of women or participants with obesity; these moderation effects were replicated in the individual-level analysis. Finally, facet-based personality "risk" scores accounted for 2.3% of variance in BMI in a separate sample of individuals (N = 3569), 409% more than domain-based scores. Taken together, personality-BMI associations are facet specific, and delineating them may help to explain obesity-related behaviours and inform intervention designs. Preprint and data are available at https://psyarxiv.com/z35vn/.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e011407, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873894

RESUMO

Background Childhood weight trajectories may influence cardiometabolic traits and thereby the risk of venous thromboembolism ( VTE ) later in life. We examined whether overweight and changes in weight status during childhood were associated with risk of VTE in adulthood. Methods and Results We used Danish medical registries to conduct a population-based cohort study of Danish schoolchildren aged 7 to 13 years and born during 1930-1989. We calculated body-mass index ( BMI ) z-scores based on weight and height measurements. We estimated hazard ratios using Cox regressions to examine associations between changes in BMI z-scores from 7 to 13 years of age and the subsequent risk of VTE . Among 313 998 children, 5007 girls and 5397 boys were diagnosed with VTE as adults. Compared with children with a normal BMI (25th to 75th percentile category) at both ages, children with a BMI persistently above the 75th percentile had a 1.30- to 1.50-fold increased risk of VTE in adulthood. Children who experienced a BMI increase from the 25th to 75th or >75th to 90th percentile to a higher percentile category had a 1.35- to 1.70-fold increased risk of adulthood VTE . Children whose BMI percentile category decreased between 7 and 13 years of age had a VTE risk similar to that of children with a persistently normal BMI . Conclusions Risk of VTE in adulthood was higher in children with a persistently above-average BMI . Whereas weight gain from 7 to 13 years of age additionally increased VTE risk, remission from overweight by 13 years of age completely reverted the risk.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals respond differently to dietary intake leading to different associations between diet and traits. Most studies have investigated large cohorts without subgrouping them. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to identify non-uniform associations between diets and anthropometric traits that appeared to be in conflict with one another across subgroups. DESIGN: We used a cohort comprising 43,790 women and men, the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, which includes a baseline examination at age 50-64 years and a follow-up about 5 years later. The baseline examination involved anthropometrics, body fat percentage, a food frequency questionnaire and information on lifestyle. From the questionnaire data we computed association rules between the intake of food groups and changes in waist circumference and body weight. Using association rule mining on subgroups and gender-specific cohorts, we identified non-uniform associations. The two gender-specific cohorts were stratified into subgroups using a non-linear, self-organizing map based method. RESULTS: We found 22 and 7 cases of conflicting rules in 8 participant subgroups for different anthropometric traits in women and men, respectively. For example, in a subgroup of women moderate waist loss was associated with a dietary pattern characterized by low intake in both cabbages and wine, in conflict with the association trends of both dietary factors in the female cohort. The finding of more conflicting rules in women suggests that inter-individual differences in response to dietary intake are stronger in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS: This combined stratification and association discovery approach revealed epidemiological relationships between dietary factors and changes in anthropometric traits in subgroups that take food group interactions into account. Conflicting rules adds an additional layer of complexity that should be integrated into the study of these relationships, for example in relation to genotypes.

15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(4): 684-693, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649157

RESUMO

Children with obesity have a cardiometabolic risk profile that may predispose them to cardiovascular diseases. We examined the associations of childhood body mass index (BMI) and changes in BMI with the risk of atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) in adulthood. We conducted a population-based cohort study of Danish schoolchildren aged 7-13 years born from 1930 to 1989. Among 314,140 children, 17,594 were diagnosed with AFF as adults (1977-2014). In both men and women, above-average BMIs in childhood were associated with increased risks of AFF. Children who were persistently heavy at ages 7 and 13 years and children whose BMIs increased from the internal 25.0th-75.0th percentiles or from the internal 75.1th-90.0th percentiles between ages 7 and 13 years had higher risks of AFF in adulthood than children whose BMIs remained in the internal 25.0th-75.0th percentiles at both ages. A decrease in BMI percentile categories between 7 and 13 years of age reduced risks of AFF in adulthood, with risks of AFF reverting to levels similar to those in the reference group for women but not for men. In conclusion, risks of AFF in adulthood increased with higher childhood BMIs. Remission from overweight by age 13 years reduced AFF risks, especially in women.

16.
J Stroke ; 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558401

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: As risk of hemorrhagic stroke may have early life origins, we investigated associations of birth weight and childhood body mass index (BMI) with adult intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: We included 240,234 Danish schoolchildren, born 1936 to 1989, with information on birth weight and measured weights and heights from 7 to 13 years. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between early life anthropometrics and ICH or SAH, identified through linkage with national registers. Results: During the study period, 1,947 individuals (39% women) experienced an ICH and 797 individuals (64% women) experienced a SAH. Per 500 g increase in birth weight, women had a 10% decreased risk of SAH (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97) and men had a 10% decreased risk of ICH (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95). Birth weight was not associated with risks of ICH in women or SAH in men. In men, a childhood BMI below average (BMI z-score <0) was associated with increased risks of ICH. The association was stronger at older childhood ages, and at 13 years a BMI z-score of -1 was associated with a HR of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), and a BMI z-score of -2 with a HR of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.82) for ICH. Childhood BMI was not associated with risks of ICH in women or with risks of SAH in both sexes. Conclusions: Early life body size is associated with ICH and SAH, and the associations differ by sex.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 913-921, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475965

RESUMO

Background: Body fat distribution is a marker of metabolic health independent of body size. Visceral fat accumulation has been suggested to result from a decreased expandability of the subcutaneous fat depots. Furthermore, the visceral fat may be easier to mobilize than the peripheral fat. We examined whether differences in abdominal obesity at baseline influenced prospective body-weight changes. Objective: In this study we examined whether body-fat distribution at baseline was associated with long-term and short-term weight changes. Design: We included 3 observational studies (ntotal = 7271) with mean follow-up times of 5-9 y and two 8-10-wk weight loss intervention studies (ntotal = 1091). We examined the association between baseline waist circumference and weight changes in a substitution regression model, where body weight, height, and fat-free mass were fixed so that a difference in waist circumference would reflect a difference in body fat distribution alone. The results were summarized in meta-analyses. Results: In the observational studies, we found no associations between baseline waist circumference and subsequent weight change in men (ß: 0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.08 kg; P = 0.19), but a negligible inverse association in women (ß: -0.05 kg; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01 kg; P = 0.01). There was no association between baseline waist circumference and weight loss in the intervention studies (men: ß: -0.05 kg; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.03 kg; P = 0.25; women: ß: -0.00 kg; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.03 kg; P = 0.84). However, in all studies, the SDs of the weight change residuals were greater, the greater the waist circumference at baseline. This trend was statistically significant in women in most studies as well as in men in 1 of the studies. Conclusions: With narrow CIs in 3 observational studies and 2 weight loss interventions, we did not find any clinically or epidemiologically relevant association between baseline abdominal obesity and weight change. However, the present study suggests that a greater baseline abdominal obesity is a marker for greater weight fluctuations. The CCHS trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02993172. The Health2006 trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00316667. The ORG study was conducted before trial registration was required. The NUGENOB trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN25867281. The DiOGenes trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult body size is related to ovarian cancer risks, but size in childhood may also influence risks. We investigated if childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), height, and growth patterns were associated with ovarian cancer overall and by histologic subtypes, including effects of birthweight. METHODS: A cohort of 155,958 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1989 with measured weights and heights from 7-13 years were included. During follow-up, 1,041 ovarian cancers were recorded. Overweight was defined using International Obesity Task Force criteria. Cox regressions were performed. RESULTS: Compared with non-overweight girls, at most ages girls with overweight had increased risks of ovarian cancer overall (hazard ratio (HR) range: 1.24-1.34), mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers, but not serous and other ovarian cancers. Childhood height had positive and significant associations with ovarian cancer overall (HR range: 1.07-1.10 per z-score) and the endometrioid subtype but not with the other sub-types. Adjusting for birthweight minimally altered the associations with childhood body size. In growth analyses, girls with overweight or who were tall at 7 and 13 years had increased risks of ovarian cancer overall compared with average-sized girls at both ages. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian carcinogenesis is linked to childhood overweight, tallness and growth, with variations across histological subtypes, suggesting that early life play a role in the origins of this disease. IMPACT: These findings emphasize that healthy body size and growth during childhood are important as they may contribute to reducing ovarian cancer risks.

19.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 180(24)2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886885
20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(9): 832-837, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that birth weight is positively associated with education, but it remains unclear whether this association is explained by familial environmental factors, genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birth weight and educational years within twin pairs, which controls for genetic factors and the environment shared between co-twins. METHODS: The data were derived from nine twin cohorts in eight countries including 6116 complete twin pairs. The association between birth weight and educational attainment was analysed both between individuals and within pairs using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: In between-individual analyses, birth weight was not associated with educational years. Within-pairs analyses revealed positive but modest associations for some sex, zygosity and birth year groups. The greatest association was found in dizygotic (DZ) men (0.65 educational years/kg birth weight, p=0.006); smaller effects of 0.3 educational years/kg birth weight were found within monozygotic (MZ) twins of both sexes and opposite-sex DZ twins. The magnitude of the associations differed by birth year in MZ women and opposite-sex DZ twins, showing a positive association in the 1915-1959 birth cohort but no association in the 1960-1984 birth cohort. CONCLUSION: Although associations are weak and somewhat inconsistent, our results suggest that intrauterine environment may play a role when explaining the association between birth weight and educational attainment.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA