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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22401177

RESUMO

In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , África , América , Animais , Venenos de Abelha/química , Venenos de Abelha/imunologia , Venenos de Abelha/toxicidade , Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/imunologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Ecossistema , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/história , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/terapia , Dinâmica Populacional/história
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 17(2): 226-229, 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-587784

RESUMO

Venous ulcers of the lower limbs complicated by infection or chronicity represent a serious public health problem. The elevated number of those afflicted burdens the health services, interferes in quality of life and causes absenteeism. Although there are 2,500 items on the market, ranging from the simplest dressing up to the most complex types of dressing, treatment remains a challenge. Among the substances used, fibrin sealant is the one that promotes diminution of bacterial colonization and of edema, controls hemorrhaging, alters the pain threshold by protecting the nerve endings, hydrates the wound bed and forms granulation tissue that favors healing. Its disadvantages include higher cost and utilization of human fibrinogen that can transmit infectious diseases. The Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP) at São Paulo State University (UNESP) developed a new sealant made up of fibrinogen extracted from large animals and from an enzyme obtained from snake venom. The present study, developed in the Health Education Clinic (CEPS) of Sacred Heart University (USC) aimed to evaluate the effect of the new sealant on the healing process of venous ulcers in 24 adult patients, seven of whom were male and 17 female. Two study groups were formed as follows: Group 1 (G1) - control group of 11 patients treated with essential fatty acid (EFA) and Unna's boot, and Group 2 (G2) - 13 patients treated with essential fatty acid (EFA), fibrin sealant and Unna's boot. The follow-up lasted eight weeks and the sealant was applied at only the first and fourth weeks. The results showed that Group 2 presented worse lesion conditions as to healing, but, when comparing the two groups, it was noteworthy that the the sealant was effective in healing venous ulcers...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Venenos de Serpentes , Úlcera Varicosa , Cicatrização
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 17(1): 23-33, 2011. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-576879

RESUMO

Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin, presents coagulant and neurotoxic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such coagulant and toxic properties. Gyroxin was isolated using only two chromatographic steps - namely gel filtration (Sephadex G-75) and affinity (Benzamidine Sepharose 6B) - resulting in a sample of high purity, as evaluated by RP-HPLC C2/C18 and electrophoretic analysis that showed a molecular mass of 30 kDa. Gyroxin hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrates, which caused it to be classified as a serine proteinase and thrombin-like enzyme. It was stable from pH 5.5 to 8.5 and inhibited by Mn²+, Cu²+, PMSF and benzamidine. Human plasma coagulation was more efficient at pH 6.0. An in vivo toxicity test showed that only behavioral alterations occurred, with no barrel rotation. Gyroxin was not able to block neuromuscular contraction in vitro, which suggests that its action, at the studied concentrations, has no effect on the peripheral nervous system.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Trombina/isolamento & purificação , Trombina/toxicidade
4.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 12(8): 553-71, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20183534

RESUMO

Fibrin sealant, a widely available tissue adhesive, has been used since 1940 in a variety of clinical applications. Commercially available fibrin sealant products are synthesized from bovine thrombin and human fibrinogen, which may transmit infectious diseases, and recipients may also develop antibodies against bovine thrombin. Bearing these disadvantages in mind, a new fibrin sealant was developed in 1989 by a group of researchers from the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The main purpose was to produce an adhesive fibrin without using human blood, to avoid transmitting infectious diseases. The components of this novel sealant were extracted from large animals and a serine proteinase extracted from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. The applicability of this sealant was tested in animals and humans with beneficial results. The new fibrin sealant can be a useful tool clinically due to its flexibility and diversity of applications. This sealant is a biological and biodegradable product that (1) does not produce adverse reactions, (1) contains no human blood, (3) has a good adhesive capacity, (4) gives no transmission of infectious diseases, and (5) may be used as an adjuvant in conventional suture procedures. The effectiveness of this new fibrin sealant is reviewed and its development and employment are described.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/uso terapêutico , Crotalus , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Adesivos Teciduais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Venenos de Crotalídeos/efeitos adversos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/isolamento & purificação , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/efeitos adversos , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/isolamento & purificação , Hemostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hemostáticos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adesivos Teciduais/efeitos adversos , Adesivos Teciduais/isolamento & purificação
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 13(4): 857-873, 2007. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-471146

RESUMO

Fibrin glue has been researched as an alternative method for tissue synthesis and is known for its capability to promote hemostasis at the application site, good approximation of wound edges and fast healing. The current study consisted in the application of fibrin glue derived from snake venom as treatment for experimental corneal ulcers. Twenty-one dogs had their corneas experimentally prepared through lamellar keratectomy (of standardized diameter and depth). Animals were divided into seven groups of three animals each. Six experimental groups were periodically evaluated and collection was carried out on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th post-operative days, whereas one control group was evaluated throughout the experiment. Analyses consisted in the clinical evolution and in the histopathological study of all operated on eyes. Results indicated that fibrin glue was efficient in repairing keratectomy wounds in dogs and contributed to an earlier healing phenomenon, avoiding edema formation and keeping corneal clearness. The use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom showed to be easy to apply, feasible with animal models and of low cost, avoiding the lesion progress and allowing fast and appropriate corneal healing.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Úlcera da Córnea , Venenos de Serpentes/uso terapêutico
6.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 11(2): 102-108, May-Aug. 2005. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-402359

RESUMO

Sheep and cattle parapoxviruses cause in human beings diseases of very similar aspect, named orf and milker's nodules, respectively. These infections are generically called farmyard pox. In the present article, we show the epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological aspects, as well as the treatment of these two viral diseases that are very similar, being differentiated only by their epidemiological aspects


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ectima Contagioso/diagnóstico , Ectima Contagioso/patologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/patologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/terapia , Bovinos , Ovinos
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 56(3): 312-319, jun. 2004. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-364952

RESUMO

Avaliou-se a influência da cola de fibrina, derivada do veneno de serpente, na fixação e integração de enxerto de pele. Foram utilizados nove cães, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 15kg. Foi induzida ferida de 4I4cm de área, na face crânio-proximal dos antebraços direito e esquerdo. Um enxerto de espessura total foi colhido da região torácica e expandido por meio de expansor de pele. No membro direito o enxerto foi estabilizado no leito receptor por meio de pontos isolados simples; no esquerdo foi fixado pela aplicação de cola de fibrina e oito pontos de sutura. O sítio doador foi fechado empregando-se retalho cutâneo bipediculado. As bandagens do leito receptor foram oclusivas e não aderentes e aplicou-se pomada de neomicina com bacitracina. A troca de bandagens ocorreu diariamente até o sétimo dia de pós-operatório e, posteriormente, a cada três dias. A área de sobrevivência do enxerto foi obtida pela subtração das áreas não viáveis e total medidas com fotomicroscópio Nikon conectado a um sistema de análise de imagem KS-300 aos três, sete, 15 e 30 dias de pós-operatório. Para a avaliação microscópica, a área do enxerto foi colhida em três animais aos sete, 15 e 30 dias de pós-operatório. Não houve diferença entre momentos de avaliação e técnicas de fixação quanto à área de enxerto viável. Os enxertos fixados com cola apresentaram estágio de reparação mais avançado em todos os momentos. Concluiu-se que a cola de fibrina derivada do veneno de serpente tem moderado poder adesivo e, pela análise microscópica, favorece a integração do enxerto cutâneo em malha de espessura total.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina , Transplante de Pele , Venenos de Serpentes , Técnicas de Sutura
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 10(2): 161-172, 2004. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-363349

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of snake venom derived from fibrin glue on the viability of split-thickness skin graft. Nine crossbreed dogs were used. Full-thickness skin segments measuring 4X4 cm were bilaterally excised from the proximal radial area on each dog. A split-thickness skin graft was harvested from left lateral thoracic area using a freehand graft knife, and was secured to the left recipient bed using several simple interrupted sutures of 3-o nylon (sutured graft). A split-thickness skin graft was harvested from the right lateral thoracic area using a graft knife. Fibrin glue derived from snake venom was applied to the recipient bed, and 8 equidistant simple interrupted sutures of 3-0 nylon were used to secure the skin graft (glued graft). Viable and nonviable areas were traced on a transparent sheet and measured using a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to a KS-300 image analysis system. The skin graft and recipient bed were collected from three dogs at day 7,15, and 30 postoperative. The glued grafs had statistically higher graft viability than sutured grafts. Histological examination showed that the tissue repair process in the glued grafts was more accentuated than sutured grafts. It was possible to conclude that fibrin glue derived from snake venom increased survival of autogenous split-thickness skin graft.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Cães , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina , Transplante de Pele , Venenos de Serpentes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-356909

RESUMO

Syphilis is an infectious disease presenting stages associated with specific oral lesions. Therefore, health professionals should be familiar with the different syphilis oral manifestations at each stage and be prepared to refer any suspected patient for further evaluation. This report describes the most important clinical factors of each stage, emphasizing the oral manifestations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Boca , Sífilis , Sífilis/classificação , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/etiologia , Sífilis/terapia , Sífilis/transmissão
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins ; 7(2): 159-171, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-303712

RESUMO

The authors have performed a literature review of surgical adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate, collagen gelatin, and fibrin glue. They have included different types of commercial and non-commercial fibrin sealants and have reported on the different components in these adhesives, such as fibrinogen, cryoprecipitate, bovine thrombin, and thrombin-like fraction of snake venom.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Colágeno , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina , Fibrinogênio , Venenos de Serpentes , Trombina
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