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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4761, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628306

RESUMO

Stochastic processes are highly relevant in research fields as different as neuroscience, economy, ecology, chemistry, and fundamental physics. However, due to their intrinsic unpredictability, stochastic mechanisms are very challenging for any kind of investigations and practical applications. Here we report the deliberate use of stochastic X-ray pulses in two-dimensional spectroscopy to the simultaneous mapping of unoccupied and occupied electronic states of atoms in a regime where the opacity and transparency properties of matter are subject to the incident intensity and photon energy. A readily transferable matrix formalism is presented to extract the electronic states from a dataset measured with the monitored input from a stochastic excitation source. The presented formalism enables investigations of the response of the electronic structure to irradiation with intense X-ray pulses while the time structure of the incident pulses is preserved.

2.
Catal Sci Technol ; 9(6): 1365-1371, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131076

RESUMO

The use of enzymes for synthetic applications is a powerful and environmentally-benign approach to increase molecular complexity. Oxidoreductases selectively introduce oxygen and hydrogen atoms into myriad substrates, catalyzing the synthesis of chemical and pharmaceutical building blocks for chemical production. However, broader application of this class of enzymes is limited by the requirements of expensive cofactors and low operational stability. Herein, we show that morpholine-based buffers, especially 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), promote photoinduced flavoenzyme-catalyzed asymmetric redox transformations by regenerating the flavin cofactor via sacrificial electron donation and by increasing the operational stability of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases. The stabilization of the active forms of flavin by MOPS via formation of the spin correlated ion pair 3[flavin˙--MOPS˙+] ensemble reduces the formation of hydrogen peroxide, circumventing the oxygen dilemma under aerobic conditions detrimental to fragile enzymes.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(11): 3140-3146, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117685

RESUMO

We have successfully investigated the simultaneous injection of hot electrons and holes upon excitation of gold localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The studies were performed on all-solid-state plasmonic system composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) p-n junctions with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The study revealed that both charge carriers are transferred within 200 fs to the respective charge acceptors, exhibiting a free carrier transport behavior. We also confirmed that the transfer of charge carriers are accompanied by change in the initial relaxation dynamics of Au NPs.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(8): 1743-1749, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920838

RESUMO

Hydrated electrons are important in radiation chemistry and charge-transfer reactions, with applications that include chemical damage of DNA, catalysis, and signaling. Conventionally, hydrated electrons are produced by pulsed radiolysis, sonolysis, two-ultraviolet-photon laser excitation of liquid water, or photodetachment of suitable electron donors. Here we report a method for the generation of hydrated electrons via single-visible-photon excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of supported sub-3 nm copper nanoparticles in contact with water. Only excitations at the LSPR maximum resulted in the formation of hydrated electrons, suggesting that plasmon excitation plays a crucial role in promoting electron transfer from the nanoparticle into the solution. The reactivity of the hydrated electrons was confirmed via proton reduction and concomitant H2 evolution in the presence of a Ru/TiO2 catalyst.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3335-3338, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801592

RESUMO

A water-stable FeIV clathrochelate complex catalyses fast and homogeneous photochemical oxidation of water to dioxygen with a turnover frequency of 2.27 s-1 and a maximum turnover number of 365. An FeV intermediate generated under catalytic conditions is trapped and characterised using EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

6.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 1): 145-151, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655479

RESUMO

X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provide a unique opportunity to probe both the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied states in matter with bulk sensitivity. In this work, a combination of valence-to-core XES and pre-edge XAS techniques are used to determine changes induced in the electronic structure of titanium dioxide doped with nitrogen atoms. Based on the experimental data it is shown that N-doping leads to incorporation of the p-states on the occupied electronic site. For the conduction band, a decrease in population of the lowest unoccupied d-localized orbitals with respect to the d-delocalized orbitals is observed. As confirmed by theoretical calculations, the N p-states in TiO2 structure are characterized by higher binding energy than the O p-states which gives a smaller value of the band-gap energy for the doped material.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(35): 29574-29582, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088920

RESUMO

All-inorganic halide perovskite nanowires (NWs) exhibit improved thermal and hydrolysis stability and could thus play a vital role in nanoscale optoelectronics. Among them, blue-light-based devices are extremely limited because of the lack of a facile method to obtain high-purity CsPbCl3 NWs. Herein, we report a direct and facile method for the synthesis of CsPbCl3 NWs assisted by inorganic ions that served both as a morphology controlling agent for the anisotropic growth of nanomaterials and a surface passivation species modulating the surface of nanomaterials. This new approach allows us to obtain high-purity and size-uniform NWs as long as 500 nm in length and 20 nm in diameter with high reproducibility. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultrafast spectroscopic measurements confirmed that a reduced band gap caused by the surface species of NWs relative to nanocubes (NCs) was achieved at the photon energy of 160 eV because of the hybrid surface passivation contributed by adsorbed inorganic ions. The resulting NWs demonstrate significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical performances, 3.5-fold increase in the photocurrent generation, and notably improved stability compared to their NC counterparts. Our results suggest that the newly designed NWs could be a promising material for the development of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 644: 287-297, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981976

RESUMO

Herein, it is presented a catalytic system for gas-phase hydrodechlorination of tetrachloromethane at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, using iridium supported on silica as parent catalyst. Iridium electronic configuration is suitable to catalyse the hydrodechlorination reactions, however, it has been rarely used in this reaction to date. The catalytic abilities were significantly improved when a second transition metal was added. Catalysts' stability and selectivity to the desired products (i.e. C1-C4 hydrocarbons) improved compared to conventional activation in hydrogen when catalysts were activated shortly with microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation of catalysts favourably influences the homogeneity of the metallic active phase, both in terms of the size of metal crystals and the homogeneity of bimetallic systems. Addition of platinum to the 'parent' iridium catalyst improved its catalytic properties and decreased deactivation. Fresh and spent catalysts were comprehensively characterized using several techniques (BET, CO-chemisorption, XRD, XPS, electron microscopy and mass spectrometry) to determine structure-activity relationships and potential causes for catalyst deactivation. No significant changes in crystalline size or bimetallic phase composition were observed for spent catalysts (with the exception of Ir-Pd catalysts which underwent bulk carbide during the reaction).

9.
J Inorg Biochem ; 187: 56-61, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055396

RESUMO

Herein we report on the hydrolysis mechanism of [Pt{N(p-HC6F4)CH2}2(NC5H5)2(OH)2], a platinum(IV) complex that exhibits anti-cancer properties. Atomic telemetry, an in situ technique based on electron structure sensitive X-ray spectroscopy, revealed that hydrolysis preceded any reduction of the metal center. The obtained results are complemented with 19F NMR measurements and theoretical calculations and support the observation that this PtIV complex does not reduce spontaneously to PtII in HEPES buffer solution at pH 7.4 and after 24 h incubation. These results are of importance for the design of novel Pt-based coordination complexes as well as understanding their behavior under physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Platina/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(56): 7770-7773, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926035

RESUMO

The molecular water oxidation catalyst [Ru(bda)(L)2] has been incorporated into pyridine-decorated MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic frameworks. The resulting MIL-101@Ru materials exhibit turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to ten times higher compared to the homogenous reference. An unusual dependence of the formal TOFs on oxidant concentration is observed that ultimately arises from differing amounts of catalysts in the MOF crystals being active.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8670, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819324

RESUMO

The efficient conversion of light energy into chemical energy is key for sustainable human development. Several photocatalytic systems based on photovoltaic electrolysis have been used to produce hydrogen via water reduction. However, in such devices, light harvesting and proton reduction are carried separately, showing quantum efficiency of about 10-12%. Here, we report a nano-hybrid photocatalytic assembly that enables concomitant reductive hydrogen production and pollutant oxidation with solar-to-fuel efficiencies up to 20%. The modular architecture of this plasmonic material allows the fine-tuning of its photocatalytic properties by simple manipulation of a reduced number of basic components.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(4): 805-811, 2017 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151686

RESUMO

The lack of molecular mechanistic understanding of the interaction between metal complexes and biomolecules hampers their potential medical use. Herein we present a robust procedure combining resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy and multiscale molecular dynamics simulations, which allows for straightforward elucidation of the precise interaction mechanism at the atomic level. The report unveils an unforeseen hydrolysis process and DNA binding of [Pt{N(p-HC6F4)CH2}2py2] (Pt103), which showed potential cytotoxic activity in the past. Pt103 preferentially coordinates to adjacent adenine sites, instead of guanine sites as in cisplatin, because of its hydrogen bond ability. Comparison with previous research on cisplatin suggests that selective binding to guanine or adenine may be achieved by controlling the acidity of the compound.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , DNA/química , Modelos Moleculares , Adenina/química , Cisplatino/química , Guanina/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Telemetria
13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 33292, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27620067

RESUMO

X-ray techniques have evolved over decades to become highly refined tools for a broad range of investigations. Importantly, these approaches rely on X-ray measurements that depend linearly on the number of incident X-ray photons. The advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is opening the ability to reach extremely high photon numbers within ultrashort X-ray pulse durations and is leading to a paradigm shift in our ability to explore nonlinear X-ray signals. However, the enormous increase in X-ray peak power is a double-edged sword with new and exciting methods being developed but at the same time well-established techniques proving unreliable. Consequently, accurate knowledge about the threshold for nonlinear X-ray signals is essential. Herein we report an X-ray spectroscopic study that reveals important details on the thresholds for nonlinear X-ray interactions. By varying both the incident X-ray intensity and photon energy, we establish the regimes at which the simplest nonlinear process, two-photon X-ray absorption (TPA), can be observed. From these measurements we can extract the probability of this process as a function of photon energy and confirm both the nature and sub-femtosecond lifetime of the virtual intermediate electronic state.

14.
Biophys J ; 110(6): 1304-11, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028640

RESUMO

The biological influence of radiation on living matter has been studied for years; however, several questions about the detailed mechanism of radiation damage formation remain largely unanswered. Among all biomolecules exposed to radiation, DNA plays an important role because any damage to its molecular structure can affect the whole cell and may lead to chromosomal rearrangements resulting in genomic instability or cell death. To identify and characterize damage induced in the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone, in this work we performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the P K-edge on DNA irradiated with either UVA light or protons. By combining the experimental results with theoretical calculations, we were able to establish the types and relative ratio of lesions produced by both UVA and protons around the phosphorus atoms in DNA.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , DNA/efeitos da radiação , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Prótons , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
Analyst ; 141(4): 1226-32, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805912

RESUMO

Platinum-based drugs are commonly used in cancer treatment. The biological activity of a metallodrug is obviously closely related to its chemical and stereochemical characteristics. An overlooked aspect is the effect of the ligand to the electronic structure of the metal atom (coordinated atom). We report herein a Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (RXES) study on the chemical speciation of chiral platinum complexes in which diastereomers are distinguished on the basis of their metal electronic configuration. This demonstrates RXES high chemical speciation capabilities, a necessary property to further investigate the reactivity of the Pt atom towards nucleophiles or bionucleophiles, and an important complement the previously reported RXES abilities, namely that it can be employed for in situ studies at physiological concentrations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Flúor/química , Ligantes , Estereoisomerismo
16.
Drug Discov Today Technol ; 16: 1-6, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26547415

RESUMO

This review presents a new application of Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (RXES) to study the mechanism of action of metal containing anticancer derivatives and in particular platinum in situ and in vivo. The technique is an example of a photon-in photon-out X-ray spectroscopic approach, which enables chemical speciation of drugs to be determined and therefore to derive action mechanisms, and to determine drug binding rates under physiological conditions and therapeutic concentrations. This is made feasible due to the atomic specificity and high penetration depth of RXES. The review presents examples of the three main types of information that can be obtained by RXES and establishes an experimental protocol to perfect the measurements within cells.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Radiografia
17.
Anal Chem ; 87(21): 10815-21, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458105

RESUMO

Grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) is well suited for nondestructive elemental-sensitive depth-profiling measurements on samples with nanometer-sized features. By varying the grazing emission angle under which the X-ray fluorescence signal is detected, the probed depth range can be tuned from a few to several hundred nanometers. The dependence of the XRF intensity on the grazing emission angle can be assessed in a sequence of measurements or in a scanning-free approach using a position-sensitive area detector. Hereafter, we will show that the combination of scanning-free GEXRF and fluorescence detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) allows for depth-resolved chemical speciation measurements with nanometer-scale accuracy. While the conventional grazing emission geometry is advantageous to minimize self-absorption effects, the use of a scanning-free setup makes the sequential scanning of the grazing emission angles obsolete and paves the way toward time-resolved depth-sensitive XAS measurements. The presented experimental approach was applied to study the surface oxidation of an Fe layer on the top of bulk Si and of a Ge bulk sample. Thanks to the penetrating properties and the insensitivity toward the electric conduction properties of the incident and emitted X-rays, the presented experimental approach is well suited for in situ sample surface studies in the nanometer regime.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(54): 10914-6, 2015 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26060844

RESUMO

Understanding electron mobility on TiO2 is crucial because of its applications in photocatalysis and solar cells. This work shows that shallow traps believed to be involved in electron migration in TiO2 conduction band are formed upon band gap excitation, i.e., are not pre-existing states. The shallow traps in TiO2 results from large polarons and are not restricted to surface.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(28): 18262-4, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26105785

RESUMO

We report on the reactivity of grafted tantalum organometallic catalysts with molecular oxygen. The changes in the local Ta electronic structure were followed by in situ high-energy resolution off-resonant spectroscopy (HEROS). The results revealed agglomeration and formation of Ta dimers, which cannot be reversed. The process occurs independently of starting grafted complex.

20.
Nanoscale ; 7(20): 9320-30, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25946258

RESUMO

Nanoparticles are considered for applications in domains as various as medical and pharmaceutical sciences, opto- and microelectronics, catalysis, photovoltaics, spintronics or nano- and biotechnology. The applications realized with nanocrystals depend strongly on the physical dimensions (shape and size) and elemental constitution. We demonstrate here that grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) is an element sensitive technique that presents the potential for a reliable and accurate determination of the morphology of nanoparticles deposited on a flat substrate (ready-to-use devices). Thanks to the scanning-free approach of the used GEXRF setup, the composition, shape and average size of nanoparticles are determined in short time intervals, minimizing the exposure to radiation. The (scanning-free) GEXRF technique allows for in situ investigations of the nanoparticulate systems thanks to the penetration properties of both the probe X-ray beam and the emitted X-ray fluorescence signal.

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