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1.
S D Med ; 74(8): 380-383, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The severity of clinical presentation of COVID-19 myocarditis ranges from incidental identification of depressed left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiogenic shock requiring percutaneous mechanical circulatory support, to fatal fulminant myocarditis. In previously reported cases, surviving patients experienced improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction with the use of glucocorticoids and antivirals (+/- intravenous immunoglobulin/ convalescent plasma). We report the first case of COVID-myocarditis in a surviving patient where a persistently depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35 percent) despite optimal therapy prompted implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 67-year-old man, diagnosed with mild COVID-19 pneumonia five days prior, presented to the emergency department with suspected STEMI (hypoxia, substernal chest pain and known left bundle branch block). Left heart catheterization showed patent coronary arteries. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severely depressed ejection fraction (15-20 percent). CT showed bilateral infiltrates: treatment was started with dexamethasone, remdesivir and convalescent plasma for acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. After a four-day hospitalization, guideline-directed medical therapy at maximum tolerated doses over three months did not improve left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSION: This is the index case of COVID-19 myocarditis-mediated heart failure with reduced ejection fraction requiring ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Miocardite , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/terapia , Prevenção Primária , SARS-CoV-2 , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
2.
S D Med ; 74(6): 248-249, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449162

RESUMO

Coronary vasospasm is an underdiagnosed cause of myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Systemic inflammation is one of several triggers associated with coronary vasospasm. We report the case of a 47-year woman incidentally found to be COVID-positive (RT-PCR) during evaluation of constitutional symptoms and breast cellulitis. Later in the hospitalization, she developed sudden-onset typical angina at rest; 12 lead EKG showed inferolateral ST-elevations. Urgent coronary angiogram showed nitrate-responsive subtotal focal occlusions in the right coronary and circumflex arteries. In the absence of sepsis, it is difficult to attribute coronary vasospasm solely to cellulitis. Focal coronary artery spasm mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction successfully managed solely with intracoronary nitroglycerine in an incidentally COVID-positive patient adds to the diverse manifestations of COVID infection. The exact mechanism of focal, as opposed to diffuse coronary vasospasm is unclear.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vasoespasmo Coronário , Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Angiografia Coronária , Vasoespasmo Coronário/complicações , Vasoespasmo Coronário/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico
5.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8375, 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626619

RESUMO

Background It is unclear if the WATCHMAN device (Boston Scientific, St. Paul, Minnesota) can be implanted without contrast to prevent complications in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or contrast allergy. Objective The efficiency and safety of WATCHMAN implantation under transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guidance and fluoroscopy without contrast use. Methods This was a retrospective single-center study at Albany Medical Center between June 2016 and June 2019. Consecutive procedure notes for all WATCHMAN devices implanted between June 2016 and June 2019 were screened to identify patients who did not receive contrast. Patients with incomplete information on the calculation of the 'Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age [>75 years], Stroke, Diabetes mellitus, Vascular disease, Age [65 to 74 years], Sex category' (CHA2DS2VASc)/'Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol' (HAS-BLED) score and reason(s) precluding safe contrast use were excluded. Efficiency was measured as i) accuracy of device size estimation based on TEE-measured left atrial appendage (LAA) dimensions were determined by the need to change the size of the device initially selected, ii) number of implantation attempts, irrespective of change in device size, iii) whether more than one device was used secondary to inaccurate initial size estimation or other procedural complexities, and iv) successful LAA seal on TEE immediately and 45-days post-implantation (peri-device leak of < 5 mm by color Doppler). Procedure-related complications, immediate and delayed (0-45 days), were recorded. Results Twelve patients received WATCHMAN without contrast. The mean age was 79.2 years, with male predominance (n=8). The mean CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scores were 5.50 (+/-1.24) and 4.08 (+/-1.08), respectively. Contrast was avoided because of a history of CKD stage IV (n=5), rapidly progressive CKD stage III (n=1), and contrast allergy (n=6). In 11 out of 12 patients, initial TEE-based device size estimation was accurate with successful implantation at the first attempt. One patient required a change in initial device size and, therefore, required a second attempt for successful implantation. There was no peri-device leak immediately post-implantation in any patient; only one patient had a significant device leak on day 45 TEE requiring continuation of anticoagulation for four months until a successful device seal. There were no immediate or late complications up to 45-days post-implantation. Conclusion Our experience shows no significant compromise in the efficiency and safety of the WATCHMAN implantation without contrast in patients with advanced CKD or a contrast allergy.

7.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(2): 1-4, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352069

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent American College of Cardiology and European Society of Cardiology guidelines for syncope evaluation help distinguish high-cardiac risk patients from those with low-risk orthostatic and neurogenic syncope. Inpatient evaluation is recommended if at least one high-risk feature is present. Objective: To assess guideline adherence and its impact on hospitalization in patients who presented with syncope before and after the introduction of guideline-based syncope protocol in the emergency department (ED). Methods: All adult patients admitted to general medicine from the ED with the primary diagnosis of syncope in the months of October 2016 and October 2018 (before and after the introduction of syncope protocol in 2017). Electronic charts were retrospectively reviewed for high-risk cardiac features and orthostatic blood pressure measurement. Results: Sixty patients were admitted for syncope in October 2016 (n = 32) and October 2018 (n = 28), out of which 33 (55%) were female and 47 (78.3%) were over age 50. Forty-five patients had at least one high-risk feature. Excluding one patient with an alternate diagnosis at discharge, 14 out of 60 patients (23.3%) admitted for syncope did not have any high-risk feature. Orthostatic blood pressure was measured in 3 patients (5%) in the ED and 27 patients (45%) later in the hospitalization. Six out of eight patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or pacemaker had their devices interrogated. After the introduction of syncope protocol, there was an improvement in the proportion of high-risk patients admitted [68.7% (22/32) in October 2016 vs. 82.1% (23/28) in October 2018]. Conclusion: Utilizing syncope protocol in the ED may improve guideline adherence, direct appropriate disposition, and reduce healthcare expenses.

9.
Cureus ; 12(1): e6591, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating cardiogenic shock is associated with increased mortality. We hypothesize that renal replacement therapy (RRT) improves survival in cardiogenic shock supported by Impella-CP (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) complicated by AKI. METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified 34 patients on Impella-CP for cardiogenic shock between January 2015 and December 2017. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline. Three groups were analyzed: AKI plus RRT, AKI minus RRT, and no AKI. Pre-existing dialysis patients were excluded. The only indication for RRT was AKI not responding to diuretics. Thirty-day mortality was analyzed. RESULTS: There were 13 patients with no AKI, 9 with AKI plus RRT groups, and 12 with AKI minus RRT. Thirty-day mortality was similar between no AKI and AKI plus RRT groups [30.8% (4/13) vs.22.2% (2/9), p=0.48; relative risk [RR] 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-22.1)]. Thirty-day mortality was higher in AKI minus RRT group compared to the no AKI group [75.0% (9/12) vs. 30.8% (4/13); p=0.03; RR 6.75 (95% CI 1.16-39.2)]. CONCLUSION: In cardiogenic shock patients on Impella-CP, AKI minus RRT is associated with a higher 30-day mortality compared to patients without AKI and/or patients with AKI plus RRT. Short-term mortality may improve in cardiogenic shock patients with AKI who are treated with RRT.

10.
Cureus ; 11(8): e5344, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602349

RESUMO

A 39-year-old diabetic female with Behcet's disease presented with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and underwent successful angioplasty of the occluded circumflex artery with a bare-metal stent (balancing increased the bleeding risk with Behcet's). Other coronary vessels were free of obstructive atherosclerosis. Optimal coronary artery disease (CAD) therapy was commenced, and Behcet's disease treatment was intensified with the normalization of C-reactive protein. Two years later, she presented with an acute left anterior descending artery occlusion that was managed with a drug-eluting stent this time. There was no evidence of diffuse atherosclerosis on coronary angiogram or coronary calcifications on the chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Compound heterozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and high-normal plasma homocysteine were detected. With the long-term continuation of dual anti-platelet, lipid-lowering, immunosuppressive, and folic-acid therapies, she did not have cardiac events during the three-year follow-up. This is the first report of recurrent thrombotic acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a patient with diabetes, compound heterozygous MTHFR mutations, Behcet's disease with normal C-reactive protein (CRP), and no evidence of diffuse coronary artery disease.

12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(10)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611225

RESUMO

We describe a patient who was admitted to our medical centre with acute renal failure, hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed a retroperitoneal mass with bilateral ureteral obstruction. Biopsy revealed fibrosis with inflammatory infiltrate, but rare IgG4-positive plasma cells. After placement of bilateral pigtail nephrostomy catheters, renal failure improved but metabolic derangements remained. Morning serum cortisol level was equivocal, but with blunted response on cosyntropin stimulation testing indicating adrenal insufficiency. Serology for 21-hydroxylase antibodies was strongly positive, supporting the diagnosis of Addison's disease. In addition to nephrostomy catheters for obstructive uropathy, idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis was treated with mycophenolate mofetil. Physiological doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone for Addison's disease were also initiated. The patient continues to be monitored for regression of the mass. Based on review of the literature, this is the first reported case of IgG4-negative idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis presenting with autoimmune primary adrenal insufficiency.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/complicações , Fibrose Retroperitoneal/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Doença de Addison/imunologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibrose Retroperitoneal/imunologia
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(9)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488453

RESUMO

A 77-year-old woman without traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent coronary CT-angiography for evaluation of palpitations after negative Holter monitoring and non-diagnostic ECG exercise stress test. Coronary artery calcium score was reported zero; 1 day later, she was admitted with anterior-wall ST elevation myocardial infarction. Acute left anterior descending artery thrombus was treated with mechanical thrombectomy and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Interestingly, the coronary arteries were angiographically normal. During hospitalisation, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was noted followed by initiation of anticoagulation. Echocardiogram did not show thrombus or atrial shunt. Cardioversion with Sotalol was successful. Myocardial infraction was most likely cardioembolic secondary to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation-consistent with longstanding history of palpitations. Accounting for 3% of acute coronary syndromes, coronary embolism is treated with therapeutic anticoagulation for at least 3 months irrespective of cause and carries a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Embolia/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(6)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167768

RESUMO

We present a case of a 23-year-old man coming with palpitations, found to be in atrial fibrillation (AF). He was initially managed with metoprolol for rate-controlled therapy-reverted to normal sinus rhythm and discharged home. He returned a few days later-this time in varying degrees of atrioventricular block including transient complete heart block. He was empirically started on intravenous ceftriaxone for suspected Lyme carditis, which subsequently led to the resolution of high-degree heart block. Lyme immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM returned positive. Follow-up ECG after the course of antibiotic exhibited normal sinus rhythm. AF is a rare presentation of Lyme disease but still exists. It should be considered in terms of appropriate treatment, especially in Lyme-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4424, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245211

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an alternative to surgical treatment in severe aortic valve stenosis, with expanding indications and rapidly growing number of performed procedures. Poor opposition of TAVR prosthesis to the aortic root causes paravalvular leak, while mitral regurgitation and stenosis have been associated with valve implantation low in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). We report an unusual case of a patient with combined severe aortic stenosis and moderate aortic insufficiency who underwent elective TAVR, which resulted in significant increase of a pre-existing mitral valve gradient. Rapid post-TAVR increase in mitral valve gradient was likely due to improvement in aortic regurgitation and decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP).

16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(4)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948415

RESUMO

A 54-year-old woman was referred to our centre for the third recurrence of colchicine-intolerant, corticosteroid dependent iatrogenic post-traumatic pericarditis after pacemaker placement 3 months prior to the first episode. The initial episode and each recurrence were associated with a pericardial effusion requiring drainage. Evaluation for pericardial infection, malignancy, autoimmune disease and pacemaker lead perforation was negative. After fourth recurrence and fifth pericardial drainage in 3 months, a trial of anakinra (interleukin-1 inhibitor), in addition to swift symptom resolution successfully prevented subsequent symptomatic and echocardiographic recurrence. Corticosteroids were tapered and eventually discontinued. At 4-month follow-up, the patient continues to be on daily anakinra 100 mg subcutaneous (SQ) daily without adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/administração & dosagem , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericardite/etiologia , Recidiva
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(3)2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852511

RESUMO

A previously healthy 44-year-old Caucasian man presented with recurrent syncope and was found to have a complete heart block with a ventricular rate of 24 bpm. No biochemical abnormalities were identified. Tick borne illnesses were ruled out. Paced echocardiogram revealed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with septal hypokinesis. Chest radiography and subsequent CT scan did not reveal adenopathy. However, a positron emission tomography scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the spleen, a right retro-clavicular lymph node, right ventricle and the interventricular septum of the heart. Excision biopsy of the retro-clavicular lymph node revealed non-caseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. Complete heart block persisted despite steroid treatment. A pacemaker/biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator was placed for complete heart block and primary prevention of ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/complicações , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/provisão & distribuição , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Bloqueio Cardíaco/terapia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Doenças Raras , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoidose/patologia , Baço/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798275

RESUMO

We present a case of sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm from sinus node artery (SNA) thrombus in a 55-year-old man after revascularisation of right coronary and proximal circumflex arteries for infero-posterior wall ST-segement elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Sinus arrest from occlusion of the SNA is uncommon. The ensuing bradycardia may have haemodynamic consequences requiring temporary pacing but is almost always self-limited.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Coronário/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Parada Sinusal Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Seio Coronário/fisiopatologia , Trombose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Trombose Coronária/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Parada Sinusal Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Parada Sinusal Cardíaca/terapia , Fumantes , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Infection ; 44(4): 505-11, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26922583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare but fatal infection caused by Naegleria fowleri. The infection is acquired by deep nasal irrigation with infected water. Patients present with signs and symptoms similar to pneumococcal meningitis, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment and hence high mortality. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comparing culture proven cases of PAM with pneumococcal meningitis presenting to our center between April 2008 and September 2014. Only patients with blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae during the same time period were included for comparison. RESULTS: There were 19 cases of PAM and pneumococcal meningitis, each. When comparing PAM with pneumococcal meningitis, patients with PAM were more likely to be male (89.5 vs. 36.8 %), younger (mean age: 30 vs. 59 years), present with seizures (42.1 vs. 5.3 %). Both groups of patients presented with similar vital signs and there were no remarkable differences on physical examinations, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, laboratory and radiological investigations and cerebrospinal fluid parameters. PAM was also more likely to present if the city's average maximum temperature was higher in the previous week (mean: 34.6 vs. 30 °C). There was history of fresh water contact in only one patient. On multivariate analysis, PAM was more likely if patients presented when the city's average maximum temperature was high, being young males. CONCLUSION: PAM and pneumococcal meningitis remain virtually indistinguishable; however, these predictive features should be validated in a prospective study and may lead to a viable algorithm for early management of these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Naegleria fowleri , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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