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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 237-246, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly prolonged metastasis-free survival and overall survival (OS) versus ADT alone in patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) with rapidly rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The objective of this post hoc analysis of the PROSPER trial is to evaluate OS benefit and safety of enzalutamide in patients across age and regional subgroups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible men with nmCRPC, PSA doubling time ≤10 months and PSA ≥2 ng/mL with continued ADT use were randomised 2:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo. OS and safety were examined by age (<70 vs ≥70 years) and region (North America, Europe, Asia or the rest of the world). The impact of prior and subsequent therapy was also examined. RESULTS: In total, 1401 men were enrolled (median age, 74 years). Enzalutamide plus ADT reduced the risk of death, independent of age or region. Multivariate analyses identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (P < 0.0001), log (PSA; P = 0.0002) and subsequent therapy (P < 0.0001) as statistically significant factors impacting OS. Safety was consistent across age and regional subgroups. Any grade treatment-emergent adverse events were similar across age groups, were more common in the placebo group and had regional variation. CONCLUSIONS: In men with nmCRPC and rapidly rising PSA, the benefit and safety of enzalutamide were consistent across age and regional subgroups. Variables impacting OS included ECOG status, log (PSA) and subsequent therapy. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02003924.

2.
J Biomed Opt ; 26(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743445

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. An accurate diagnosis of its severity at detection plays a major role in improving their survival. Recently, machine learning models using biomarkers identified from Raman micro-spectroscopy discriminated intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) from cancer tissue with a ≥85 % detection accuracy and differentiated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) from IDC-P with a ≥97.8 % accuracy. AIM: To improve the classification performance of machine learning models identifying different types of prostate cancer tissue using a new dimensional reduction technique. APPROACH: A radial basis function (RBF) kernel support vector machine (SVM) model was trained on Raman spectra of prostate tissue from a 272-patient cohort (Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, CHUM) and tested on two independent cohorts of 76 patients [University Health Network (UHN)] and 135 patients (Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec-Université Laval, CHUQc-UL). Two types of engineered features were used. Individual intensity features, i.e., Raman signal intensity measured at particular wavelengths and novel Raman spectra fitted peak features consisting of peak heights and widths. RESULTS: Combining engineered features improved classification performance for the three aforementioned classification tasks. The improvements for IDC-P/cancer classification for the UHN and CHUQc-UL testing sets in accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) are (numbers in parenthesis are associated with the CHUQc-UL testing set): +4 % (+8 % ), +7 % (+9 % ), +2 % (6%), +9 (+9) with respect to the current best models. Discrimination between HGPIN and IDC-P was also improved in both testing cohorts: +2.2 % (+1.7 % ), +4.5 % (+3.6 % ), +0 % (+0 % ), +2.3 (+0). While no global improvements were obtained for the normal versus cancer classification task [+0 % (-2 % ), +0 % (-3 % ), +2 % (-2 % ), +4 (+3)], the AUC was improved in both testing sets. CONCLUSIONS: Combining individual intensity features and novel Raman fitted peak features, improved the classification performance on two independent and multicenter testing sets in comparison to using only individual intensity features.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Neoplasias da Próstata , Área Sob a Curva , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Espectral Raman
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel has immunostimulatory effects that may promote an immunoresponsive prostate tumour microenvironment, providing a rationale for combination with nivolumab (programmed death-1 inhibitor) for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In the non-randomised, multicohort, global phase II CheckMate 9KD trial, 84 patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC, ongoing androgen deprivation therapy and ≤2 prior novel hormonal therapies (NHTs) received nivolumab 360 mg and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks with prednisone 5 mg twice daily (≤10 cycles) and then nivolumab 480 mg every 4 weeks (≤2 years). The co-primary end-points were objective response rate (ORR) and prostate-specific antigen response rate (PSA50-RR; ≥50% decrease from baseline). RESULTS: The confirmed ORR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 40.0% (25.7-55.7), and the confirmed PSA50-RR (95% CI) was 46.9% (35.7-58.3). The median (95% CI) radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9.0 (8.0-11.6) and 18.2 (14.6-20.7) months, respectively. In subpopulations with versus without prior NHT, the ORR was 38.7% versus 42.9%, the PSA50-RR was 39.6% versus 60.7%, the median rPFS was 8.5 versus 12.0 months and the median OS was 16.2 months versus not reached. Homologous recombination deficiency status or tumour mutational burden did not appear to impact efficacy. The most common any-grade and grade III-IV treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (39.3%) and neutropenia (16.7%), respectively. Three treatment-related deaths occurred (1 pneumonitis related to nivolumab; 2 pneumonias related to docetaxel). CONCLUSIONS: Nivolumab plus docetaxel has clinical activity in patients with chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC. Safety was consistent with the individual components. These results support further investigation in the ongoing phase III CheckMate 7DX trial. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT03338790.

4.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test for differences in cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates in Hispanic/Latino prostate cancer patients according to treatment type, radical prostatectomy (RP) vs external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2010-2016), we identified 2290 NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network) high-risk (HR) Hispanic/Latino prostate cancer patients. Of those, 893 (39.0%) were treated with RP vs 1397 (61.0%) with EBRT. First, cumulative incidence plots and competing risks regression models tested for CSM differences after adjustment for other cause mortality (OCM). Second, cumulative incidence plots and competing risks regression models were refitted after 1:1 propensity score matching (according to age, PSA, biopsy Gleason score, cT-stage, cN-stage). RESULTS: In NCCN HR patients, 5-year CSM rates for RP vs EBRT were 2.4 vs 4.7%, yielding a multivariable hazard ratio of 0.37 (95% CI 0.19-0.73, p = 0.004) favoring RP. However, after propensity score matching, the hazard ratio of 0.54 was no longer statistically significant (95% CI 0.21-1.39, p = 0.2). CONCLUSION: Without the use of strictest adjustment for population differences, NCCN high-risk Hispanic/Latino prostate cancer patients appear to benefit more of RP than EBRT. However, after strictest adjustment for baseline patient and tumor characteristics between RP and EBRT cohorts, the apparent CSM benefit of RP is no longer statistically significant. In consequence, in Hispanic/Latino NCCN high-risk patients, either treatment modality results in similar CSM outcome.

5.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812730

RESUMO

Olaparib is the first Health Canadaapproved agent in metastatic prostate cancer to use a companion diagnostic to identify alterations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM. As olaparib is introduced, clinicians must learn to access and interpret germline and somatic next-generation sequencing (NGS) results, and how to manage affected patients who appear to have distinct clinical features. The traditional model of referring patients to a hereditary cancer clinic (HCC) for germline testing is likely impractical in this disease, as the metastatic prostate cancer patient population would be overwhelming. Alternate approaches to this are clinician-ordered genetic testing (so-called "mainstreaming"), out-of-pocket payment for third-party private company genetic testing, or germline testing done in conjunction with somatic testing, particularly cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).Germline testing alone is not sufficient for identifying Olaparib-eligible patients, as less than half of BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM alterations are germline in origin, but it is critically important to identify family members who are carriers so that risk-reduction measures can be undertaken. Somatic testing is not widely available in Canada, but some patients can access it through research protocols or by paying out-of-pocket. Somatic testing can be performed on archival or fresh solid tissue biopsy samples, or through whole blood samples to access plasma-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Both testing approaches have relative advantages and disadvantages, but neither may be informative in all patients and, therefore, ideal somatic NGS pathways should provide options for both tissue and ctDNA testing.We advocate that clinicians begin discussions with their provincial lab formularies, HCC, and molecular pathology labs to highlight the importance of germline and somatic testing in this population and identify pathways for patient access. While olaparib has approval for use in BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM-altered mCRPC, emerging evidence suggests that PARP inhibitors have variable activity in these three genes, with BRCA2 alterations appearing to be the most responsive. Retrospective and prospective series have reported varying outcomes to standard of care therapies, such as ARATs and taxane-based chemotherapy, in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients with DNA damage repair (DDR) gene alterations, such as BRCA2. In the absence of high-level evidence showing a lack of benefit, we believe this patient population should still be considered for these treatments.In addition, platinum-based chemotherapy appears to have activity in DDR gene-altered mCRPC and should be considered another option when access to olaparib is not possible.At present, there is no evidence to support an optimal treatment sequence in this patient population, therefore, physician and patient preferences will need to be taken into consideration when selecting therapies. As olaparib and other PARP inhibitors are tested in different disease states and in combination with other therapies, we will likely see a more refined approach to use of these agents and management of this new biomarker-defined patient population.

7.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797483

RESUMO

AIM: To compare cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical prostatectomy (RP) vs. external beam radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ductal carcinoma (DC) of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2016), we identified 369 DC patients, of whom 303 (82%) vs. 66 (18%) were treated with RP vs. RT, respectively. Kaplan-Meier plots and uni- and stepwise multivariate Cox regression models addressed CSM in the unmatched population. After propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression models tested the effect of RP vs RT on CSM. RESULTS: Overall, RT patients were older, harbored higher PSA values, higher clinical T and higher Gleason grade groups. 5-year CSM rates were respectively 4.2 vs. 10% for RP vs. RT (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.99, p = 0.048, favoring RP). At step-by-step multivariate Cox regression, after adding possible confounders, the central tendency of the HR for RP vs. RT approached 1. PSM resulted into 124 vs. 53 patients treated respectively with RP vs. RT. After PSM, as well as after IPTW, the protective effect of RP was no longer present (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.23-5.73, p = 0.9 and 0.97, 95% CI 0.35-2.66, p = 0.9, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although CSM rate of ductal carcinoma RP patients is lower of that of RT patients, this apparent benefit disappears after statistical adjustment for population differences.

8.
Prostate ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The survival benefit of primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has never been formally tested in elderly men who were newly diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). We hypothesized that elderly patients may not benefit of EBRT to the extent as younger newly diagnosed mPCa patients, due to shorter life expectancy. METHODS: We relied on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (2004-2016) to identify elderly newly diagnosed mPCa patients, aged >75 years. Kaplan-Meier, univariable and multivariable Cox regression models, as well as Competing Risks Regression models tested the effect of EBRT versus no EBRT on overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). RESULTS: Of 6556 patients, 1105 received EBRT (16.9%). M1b stage was predominant in both EBRT (n = 823; 74.5%) and no EBRT (n = 3908; 71.7%, p = 0.06) groups, followed by M1c (n = 211; 19.1% vs. n = 1042; 19.1%, p = 1) and M1a (n = 29; 2.6% vs. n = 268; 4.9%, p < 0.01). Median overall survival (OS) was 23 months for EBRT and 23 months for no EBRT (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97, p = 0.6). Similarly, median cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 29 months for EBRT versus 30 months for no EBRT (HR: 1.04, p = 0.4). After additional multivariable adjustment, EBRT was not associated with lower OM or lower CSM in the entire cohort, as well as after stratification for M1b and M1c substages. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly men who were newly diagnosed with mPCa, EBRT does not affect OS or CSS. In consequence, our findings question the added value of local EBRT in elderly newly diagnosed mPCa patients.

9.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We relied on the most contemporary Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and tested the hypothesis that chemotherapy may improve survival in metastatic urachal carcinoma (m-UraC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Within the SEER database (2004-2016), we identified m-UraC patients aged ≥ 18 years. Propensity score matching (PSM: cystectomy status, age and sex), Kaplan-Meier plots, cumulative incidence plots, Cox regression models and competing risks regression (CRR) models addressed overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). RESULTS: Overall, 274 m-UraC patients were identified with a median age of 70 years. Most were male (66%) and Caucasian (72%). Overall, 32% received chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-exposed patients were younger (62 vs. 73 years, p<0.001) and more frequently underwent cystectomy (19 vs. 8%, P = 0.014). In 274 m-UraC patients, median OM and CSM were 6 (4 -10) months and 8 (6 -14) months, respectively. After 1:1 PSM, chemotherapy-exposed patients exhibited lower OM (median 16 vs. 3 months; multivariable HR 0.38, P <0.001) and lower CSM (median 17 vs. 4 months; multivariable CRR HR 0.52, P = 0.001). The association between chemotherapy and better survival was even stronger in younger (≤70 years) patients (OM HR: 0.23, P <0.001; CSM CRR HR: 0.42, P = 0.001), but not in older (≥71 years) patients (OM HR: 0.61, P = 0.2; CSM CRR HR: 1.02, P = 1), after PSM and multivariable adjustments. CONCLUSION: Overall, we validated the very aggressive nature of UraC, when distant metastases are present, and observed that m-UraC patients exposed to chemotherapy exhibited lower OM and CSM.

10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 754996, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692543

RESUMO

Background: This study aims to test the effect of the 10 most common nonurological primary cancers (skin, rectal, colon, lymphoma, leukemia, pancreas, stomach, esophagus, liver, lung) on overall mortality (OM) after secondary prostate cancer (PCa). Material and Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, patients with 10 most common primary cancers and concomitant secondary PCa (diagnosed 2004-2016) were identified and were matched in 1:4 fashion (age, year at diagnosis, race/ethnicity, treatment type, TNM stage) with primary PCa controls. OM was compared between secondary and primary PCa patients and was stratified according to primary cancer type, as well as according to time interval between primary cancer vs. secondary PCa diagnoses. Results: We identified 24,848 secondary PCa patients (skin, n = 3,871; rectal, n = 798; colon, n = 3,665; lymphoma, n = 2,583; leukemia, n = 1,102; pancreatic, n = 118; stomach, n = 361; esophagus, n = 219; liver, n = 160; lung, n = 1,328) vs. 531,732 primary PCa patients. Secondary PCa characteristics were less favorable than those of primary PCa patients (PSA and grade), and smaller proportions of secondary PCa patients received active treatment. After 1:4 matching, all secondary PCa exhibited worse OM than primary PCa patients. Finally, subgroup analyses showed that the survival disadvantage of secondary PCa patients decreased with longer time interval since primary cancer diagnosis and subsequent secondary PCa. Conclusion: Patients with secondary PCa are diagnosed with less favorable PSA and grade. Even after matching for PCa characteristics, secondary PCa patients still exhibit worse survival. However, the survival disadvantage is attenuated, when secondary PCa diagnosis is made after longer time interval, since primary cancer diagnosis.

11.
Prostate ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To test for differences in cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical prostatectomy (RP) vs external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk African American patients, as well as Johns Hopkins University (JHU) high-risk and very high-risk patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2010-2016), we identified 4165 NCCN high-risk patients, of whom 1944 (46.7%) and 2221 (53.3%) patients qualified for JHU high-risk or very high-risk definitions. Of all 4165 patients, 1390 (33.5%) were treated with RP versus 2775 (66.6%) with EBRT. Cumulative incidence plots and competing risks regression models addressed CSM before and after 1:1 propensity score matching between RP and EBRT NCCN high-risk patients. Subsequently, analyses were repeated separately in JHU high-risk and very high-risk subgroups. Finally, all analyses were repeated after landmark analyses were applied. RESULTS: In the NCCN high-risk cohort, 5-year CSM rates for RP versus EBRT were 2.4 versus 5.2%, yielding a multivariable hazard ratio of 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.84, p = 0.009) favoring RP. In JHU very high-risk patients 5-year CSM rates for RP versus EBRT were 3.7 versus 8.4%, respectively, yielding a multivariable hazard ratio of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.28-0.95, p = 0.03) favoring RP. Conversely, in JHU high-risk patients, no significant CSM difference was recorded between RP vs EBRT (5-year CSM rates: 1.3 vs 1.3%; multivariable hazard ratio: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.16-1.90, p = 0.3). Observations were confirmed in propensity score-matched and landmark analyses adjusted cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In JHU very high-risk African American patients, RP may hold a CSM advantage over EBRT, but not in JHU high-risk African American patients.

12.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636627

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate real-world clinical outcomes of radium-223 or alternative novel hormonal therapy (NHT) following first-line NHT for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients & methods: Retrospective analysis of the US Flatiron database (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03896984). Results: In the radium-223 cohort (n = 120) versus the alternative NHT cohort (n = 226), proportionally more patients had prior symptomatic skeletal events and bone-only metastases, and first-line NHT duration was shorter. Following second-line therapy, 49 versus 39% of patients received subsequent life-prolonging therapy; of these, 47 versus 76% received taxane. Median overall survival was 10.8 versus 11.2 months. Conclusion: Real-world patients with mCRPC had similar median overall survival following second-line radium-223 or alternative NHT after first-line NHT. Many patients received subsequent therapy, with less taxane use after radium-223.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Controversy regarding cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of elderly and very elderly patients with muscle-invasive, non-metastatic, urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) vs radiotherapy (RT) still exists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the 2004-2016 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 2663 UCUB patients aged 75-79 (1808 RC vs 855 RT) and 3569 UCUB patients aged 80-89 (1551 RC vs 2018 RT). After stratification for concomitant chemotherapy, propensity score matching (PSM) between RC and RT was applied and competing-risks regression models addressed CSM and OCM. RESULTS: In the cohort aged 75-79, five-year CSM rates were 22.0 vs 49.0% for RC only vs RT only and yielded a HR of 0.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.57, p<0.001) favoring RC only. Five-year CSM rates were 28.3 vs 44.3% for RC with chemotherapy vs trimodal therapy (TMT) and yielded a HR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.65, p<0.001) favoring RC with chemotherapy. In the cohort aged 80-89, five-year CSM rates were 24.2 vs 48.9% for RC only vs RT only and yielded a HR of 0.42 (95% CI 0.33-0.52, p<0.001) favoring RC only. Five-year CSM rates were 19.6 vs 43.2% for RC with chemotherapy vs TMT and yielded a HR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.28-0.67, p<0.001) favoring RC with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly and very elderly patients, radical cystectomy is associated with virtually half the CSM rate than radiotherapy, regardless of concomitant chemotherapy administration.

14.
BJU Int ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intra-patient inter-metastatic heterogeneity based on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and to determine the prevalence of neuroendocrine disease in these patients and their eligibility for radioligand therapies (RLTs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicentre observational prospective clinical study will include 100 patients with mCRPC from five Canadian academic centres. Patients with radiological or biochemical progression and harbouring at least three metastases by conventional imaging will be accrued. Intra-patient inter-metastatic heterogeneity will be determined with triple-tracer imaging using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG), gallium-68-(68 Ga)-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-617 and 68 Ga-DOTATATE, which are a glucose analogue, a PSMA receptor ligand and a somatostatin receptor ligand, respectively. The 68 Ga-PSMA-617 and 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans will be performed first. If at least one PSMA-negative/FDG-positive lesion is observed, an additional PET/CT scan with 68 Ga-DOTATATE will be performed. The tracer uptake of individual lesions will be assessed for each PET tracer and patients with lesions presenting discordant uptake profiles will be considered as having inter-metastatic heterogeneous disease and may be offered a biopsy. EXPECTED RESULTS: The proposed triple-tracer approach will allow whole-body mCRPC characterisation, investigating the inter-metastatic heterogeneity in order to better understand the phenotypic plasticity of prostate cancer, including the neuroendocrine transdifferentiation that occurs during mCRPC progression. Based on 68 Ga-PSMA-617 or 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET positivity, the potential eligibility of patients for PSMA and DOTATATE-based RLT will be assessed. Non-invasive whole-body determination of mCRPC heterogeneity and transdifferentiation is highly innovative and might establish the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Comparison of molecular imaging findings with biopsies will also link metastasis biology to radiomic features. CONCLUSION: This study will add novel, biologically relevant dimensions to molecular imaging: the non-invasive detection of inter-metastatic heterogeneity and transdifferentiation to neuroendocrine prostate cancer by using a multi-tracer PET/CT strategy to further personalise the care of patients with mCRPC.

16.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(11): 1541-1559, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) will have disease progression of a uniformly fatal disease. mCRPC is driven by both activated androgen receptors and elevated intratumoural androgens; however, the current standard of care is therapy that targets a single androgen signalling mechanism. We aimed to investigate the combination treatment using apalutamide plus abiraterone acetate, each of which suppresses the androgen signalling axis in a different way, versus standard care in mCRPC. METHODS: ACIS was a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 study done at 167 hospitals in 17 countries in the USA, Canada, Mexico, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, Africa, and South America. We included chemotherapy-naive men (aged ≥18 years) with mCRPC who had not been previously treated with androgen biosynthesis signalling inhibitors and were receiving ongoing androgen deprivation therapy, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, and a Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form question 3 (ie, worst pain in the past 24 h) score of 3 or lower. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a centralised interactive web response system with a permuted block randomisation scheme (block size 4) to oral apalutamide 240 mg once daily plus oral abiraterone acetate 1000 mg once daily and oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily (apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone group) or placebo plus abiraterone acetate and prednisone (abiraterone-prednisone group), in 28-day treatment cycles. Randomisation was stratified by presence or absence of visceral metastases, ECOG performance status, and geographical region. Patients, the investigators, study team, and the sponsor were masked to group assignments. An independent data-monitoring committee continually monitored data to ensure ongoing patient safety, and reviewed efficacy data. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was reported for all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is completed and no longer recruiting and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02257736. FINDINGS: 982 men were enrolled and randomly assigned from Dec 10, 2014 to Aug 30, 2016 (492 to apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone; 490 to abiraterone-prednisone). At the primary analysis (median follow-up 25·7 months [IQR 23·0-28·9]), median radiographic progression-free survival was 22·6 months (95% CI 19·4-27·4) in the apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone group versus 16·6 months (13·9-19·3) in the abiraterone-prednisone group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·69, 95% CI 0·58-0·83; p<0·0001). At the updated analysis (final analysis for overall survival; median follow-up 54·8 months [IQR 51·5-58·4]), median radiographic progression-free survival was 24·0 months (95% CI 19·7-27·5) versus 16·6 months (13·9-19·3; HR 0·70, 95% CI 0·60-0·83; p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse event was hypertension (82 [17%] of 490 patients receiving apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone and 49 [10%] of 489 receiving abiraterone-prednisone). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 195 (40%) patients receiving apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone and 181 (37%) patients receiving abiraterone-prednisone. Drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events with fatal outcomes occurred in three (1%) patients in the apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone group (2 pulmonary embolism, 1 cardiac failure) and five (1%) patients in the abiraterone-prednisone group (1 cardiac failure and 1 cardiac arrest, 1 mesenteric arterial occlusion, 1 seizure, and 1 sudden death). INTERPRETATION: Despite the use of an active and established therapy as the comparator, apalutamide plus abiraterone-prednisone improved radiographic progression-free survival. Additional studies to identify subgroups of patients who might benefit the most from combination therapy are needed to further refine the treatment of mCRPC. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002252, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546767

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Four recent first-line clinical trials leveraging immune-oncology agents demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit relative to sunitinib. We aimed to provide formal comparisons among immune-oncology combinations in terms of OS, progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rates (ORR) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed® database was searched for studies indexed from January 1, 2016 through March 6, 2021. Only phase III randomized clinical trials with proven OS benefit relative to sunitinib were included: CheckMate 214 (nivolumab plus ipilimumab [N+I]), KEYNOTE-426 (pembrolizumab plus axitinib [P+A]), CheckMate 9ER (nivolumab plus cabozantinib [N+C]) and KEYNOTE-581 (lenvatinib plus permbrolizumab [L+P]). OS represented the primary outcome. PFS, ORR and AEs represented secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 3,320 patients were included. Regarding OS, N+C ranked first, followed by L+P, P+A and N+I. Regarding PFS and ORR, L+P ranked first, followed by N+C, P+A and N+I. Finally, N+I ranked first with respect to lowest grade 3+ AEs, followed by P+A, N+C and L+P. Differences in followup duration, risk grouping and nephrectomy rates distinguish the studies. CONCLUSIONS: N+C may provide the most favorable OS, L+P the most favorable PFS and ORRs, and N+I the lowest toxicity. Population differences may potentially undermine the generalizability and the robustness of findings of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

18.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002250, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555930

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our goal was to compare cancer specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical prostatectomy (RP) vs external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in National Comprehensive Cancer Network© (NCCN©) high risk (HR) patients, as well as in Johns Hopkins University (JH) HR and very high risk (VHR) subgroups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2010-2016), we identified 24,407 NCCN HR patients, of whom 10,300 (42%) vs 14,107 (58%) patients that qualified for JH HR vs VHR, respectively. Overall, 9,823 (40%) underwent RP vs 14,584 (60%) EBRT. Cumulative incidence plots and competing-risks regression addressed CSM after 1:1 propensity score matching (according to age, prostate specific antigen, clinical T and N stages, and biopsy Gleason score) between RP and EBRT patients. All analyses addressed the combined NCCN HR cohort, as well as in JH HR and JH VHR subgroups. RESULTS: In the combined NCCN HR cohort 5-year CSM rates were 2.3% for RP vs 4.1% for EBRT and yielded a multivariate hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% CI 0.54-0.86, p <0.001) favoring RP. In VHR patients 5-year CSM rates were 3.5% for RP vs 6.0% for EBRT, yielding a multivariate hazard ratio of 0.58 (95% CI 0.44-0.77, p <0.001) favoring RP. Conversely, in HR patients no significant difference was recorded between RP vs EBRT (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.39-1.25, p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that RP holds a CSM advantage over EBRT in the combined NCCN HR cohort, and in its subgroup of JH VHR patients.

19.
Prostate ; 81(16): 1294-1302, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze postoperative, in-hospital, complication rates in patients with organ transplantation before radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: From National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2000-2015) prostate cancer patients treated with RP were abstracted and stratified according to prior organ transplant versus nontransplant. Multivariable logistic regression models predicted in-hospital complications. RESULTS: Of all eligible 202,419 RP patients, 216 (0.1%) underwent RP after prior organ transplantation. Transplant RP patients exhibited higher proportions of Charlson comorbidity index ≥2 (13.0% vs. 3.0%), obesity (9.3% vs. 5.6%, both p < 0.05), versus to nontransplant RP. Of transplant RP patients, 96 underwent kidney (44.4%), 44 heart (20.4%), 40 liver (18.5%), 30 (13.9%) bone marrow, <11 lung (<5%), and <11 pancreatic (<5%) transplantation before RP. Within transplant RP patients, rates of lymph node dissection ranged from 37.5% (kidney transplant) to 60.0% (bone marrow transplant, p < 0.01) versus 51% in nontransplant patients. Regarding in-hospital complications, transplant patients more frequently exhibited, diabetic (31.5% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001), major (7.9% vs. 2.9%) cardiac complications (3.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.01), and acute kidney failure (5.1% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001), versus nontransplant RP. In multivariable logistic regression models, transplant RP patients were at higher risk of acute kidney failure (odds ratio [OR]: 4.83), diabetic (OR: 2.81), major (OR: 2.39), intraoperative (OR: 2.38), cardiac (OR: 2.16), transfusion (OR: 1.37), and overall complications (1.36, all p < 0.001). No in-hospital mortalities were recorded in transplant patients after RP. CONCLUSIONS: Of all transplants before RP, kidney ranks first. RP patients with prior transplantation have an increased risk of in-hospital complications. The highest risk, relative to nontransplant RP patients appears to acute kidney failure.

20.
Prostate ; 81(16): 1374-1381, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, multiple clinical trials demonstrated improved survival after chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). However, real-world data validating this effect within large-scale epidemiological data sets are scarce. We addressed this void. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with de novo mPCa were identified and systemic chemotherapy status was ascertained within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016). Patients were divided between historical (2004-2013) versus contemporary (2014-2016). Chemotherapy rates were plotted over time. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression models with additional multivariable adjustments addressed overall and cancer-specific mortality. All tests were repeated in propensity-matched analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 19,913 patients had de novo mPCa between 2004 and 2016. Of those, 1838 patients received chemotherapy. Of 1838 chemotherapy-exposed patients, 903 were historical, whereas 905 were contemporary. Chemotherapy rates increased from 5% to 25% over time. Median overall survival was not reached in contemporary patients versus was 24 months in historical patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.55, p < 0.001). After propensity score matching and additional multivariable adjustment (age, prostate-specific antigen, GGG, cT-stage, cN-stage, cM-stage, and local treatment) a HR of 0.55 (p < 0.001) was recorded. Analyses were repeated for cancer-specific mortality after adjustment for other cause mortality in competing risks regression models and recorded virtually the same findings before and after propensity score matching (HR: 0.55, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In mPCa patients, chemotherapy rates increased over time. A concomitant increase in survival was also recorded.

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