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2.
Anesth Analg ; 132(3): 866-877, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesiologists typically care for patients having a broad range of procedures. Outcomes might be improved when care is provided by caregivers experienced in particular types of surgery. We tested the hypothesis that intraoperative care provided by pairs of anesthesia caregivers having significant experience with a particular type of surgery reduces a composite of in-hospital death and 6 serious complications, including bleeding, cardiac, gastrointestinal, infectious, respiratory, and urinary complications, compared to care provided by pairs of anesthesia caregivers with less experience. METHODS: We included patients having surgery lasting at least 30 minutes. Using cluster analysis, attending anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) were identified as experienced or inexperienced caregivers for each type of surgery at the case level. We then compared surgeries for which anesthesia was provided by a pair of experienced caregivers versus a pair of inexperienced caregivers on our composite outcome. We estimated the average relative effect (ie, the exponentiated average log odds ratio) of receiving anesthesia from an experienced versus inexperienced caregiver pair across the 7 components of the composite outcome using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model to adjust for between-component correlation and with inverse propensity score weighing to adjust for potential confounding from a host of variables. RESULTS: A total of 8968 patients who received anesthesia care by an experienced pair were compared with 25,361 patients who received care from an inexperienced pair, adjusting for potential confounding. The incidence of composite complications (ie, any component event) was 7.6% (677/8968) for experienced pairs and 12% (2976/25,361) for inexperienced pairs (P < .001). Care by experienced pairs of caregivers was associated with lower odds of the composite outcome with an estimated average relative effect odds ratio across the individual components of 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.71), P < .001. Among the 7 components of the primary outcome, experienced pairs of providers had significantly lower estimated odds of bleeding, infection, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesia care by experienced pairs was associated with fewer bleeding complications, fewer infections, shorter hospitalization, and reduced in-hospital mortality.

3.
J Clin Anesth ; 70: 110167, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493688

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Opioid administration for pain in general care floor patients remains common, and can lead to adverse outcomes, including respiratory compromise. The PRODIGY trial found that among ward patients receiving parenteral opioids, 46% experienced ≥1 respiratory depression episode. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the geographic differences of opioid administration and examine the association between opioid administration characteristics and the occurrence of respiratory depression. DESIGN: Prospective observational trial. SETTING: 16 general care medical and surgical wards in Asia, Europe, and the United States. PATIENTS: 1335 patients receiving parenteral opioids. INTERVENTIONS: Blinded, alarm-silenced continuous capnography and pulse oximetry monitoring. MEASUREMENTS: Opioid-induced respiratory depression, defined as respiratory rate ≤ 5 bpm, SpO2 ≤ 85%, or ETCO2 ≤ 15 or ≥ 60 mmHg for ≥3 min; apnea episode lasting >30 s; or any respiratory opioid-related adverse event. RESULTS: Across all patients, 58% received only long-acting opioids, 16% received only short-acting (<3 h) opioids, and 21% received a combination of short- and long-acting (≥3 h) opioids. The type and median total morphine milligram equivalent (MME) of opioid administered varied significantly by region, with 31.5 (12.5-76.7) MME, 31.0 (6.2-99.0) MME, and 7.2 (1.7-18.7) MME in the United States, Europe, and Asia, respectively (p < 0.001). Considering only postoperative opioids, 54% (N = 119/220) and 45% (N = 347/779) of patients receiving only short-acting opioids or only long-acting opioids experienced ≥1 episode of opioid-induced respiratory depression, respectively. Multivariable analysis identified post-procedure tramadol (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.424-0.905, p = 0.0133) and post-procedure epidural opioids (OR 0.485, 95% CI 0.322-0.731, p = 0.0005) being associated with a significant reduction in opioid-induced respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varying opioid administration characteristics between Asia, Europe, and the United States, opioid-induced respiratory depression remains a common global problem on general care medical and surgical wards. While the use of post-procedure tramadol or post-procedure epidural opioids may reduce the incidence of respiratory depression, continuous monitoring is also necessary to ensure patient safety when receiving postoperative opioids. REGISTRATION NUMBER: www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02811302.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1510-1519, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of sugammadex to the US clinical practice, scarce data are available to understand its utilization patterns. This study aimed to characterize patient, procedure, and provider factors associated with sugammadex administration in US patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted across 24 Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group institutions in the United States with sugammadex on formulary at the time of the study. All American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-IV adults undergoing noncardiac surgery from 2014 to 2018 receiving neuromuscular blockade (NMB) were eligible. The study established 3 periods based on the date of first documented sugammadex use at each institution: the presugammadex period, 0- to 6-month transitional period, and 6+ months postsugammadex period. The primary outcome was reversal using sugammadex during the postsugammadex period-defined as 6 months after sugammadex was first utilized at each institution. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model controlling for institution was developed to assess patient, procedure, and provider factors associated with sugammadex administration. RESULTS: A total of 934,798 cases met inclusion criteria. Following the 6-month transitional period, sugammadex was used on average in 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.8-40.2) of cases receiving NMB. Multivariable analysis demonstrated sugammadex use to be associated with train-of-four count of 0-1 (adjusted odds ratio = 4.06; 95% CI, 33.83-4.31) or 2 (2.45; 2.29-2.62) vs 3-4 twitches before reversal; the amount of NMB administered (3.01; 2.88-3.16) for the highest effective dose 95 quartile compared to the lowest quartile; advanced age (1.83; 1.71-1.95) compared to age <41; male sex (1.36; 1.32-1.39) compared to female sex; major thoracic surgery (1.26; 1.13-1.39); congestive heart failure (1.17, 1.07-1.28); and ASA III or IV (1.13; 1.10-1.16) versus ASA I or II. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate broad early clinical adoption of sugammadex following Food and Drug Administration approval. Sugammadex is used preferentially in cases with higher degrees of NMB before reversal and in patients with greater burden of comorbidities and known risk factors for residual blockade or pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Período Perioperatório , Sugammadex , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/estatística & dados numéricos , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are particularly susceptible to developing pressure injuries. Epidemiologic data is however unavailable. We aimed to provide an international picture of the extent of pressure injuries and factors associated with ICU-acquired pressure injuries in adult ICU patients. METHODS: International 1-day point-prevalence study; follow-up for outcome assessment until hospital discharge (maximum 12 weeks). Factors associated with ICU-acquired pressure injury and hospital mortality were assessed by generalised linear mixed-effects regression analysis. RESULTS: Data from 13,254 patients in 1117 ICUs (90 countries) revealed 6747 pressure injuries; 3997 (59.2%) were ICU-acquired. Overall prevalence was 26.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.9-27.3). ICU-acquired prevalence was 16.2% (95% CI 15.6-16.8). Sacrum (37%) and heels (19.5%) were most affected. Factors independently associated with ICU-acquired pressure injuries were older age, male sex, being underweight, emergency surgery, higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Braden score < 19, ICU stay > 3 days, comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunodeficiency), organ support (renal replacement, mechanical ventilation on ICU admission), and being in a low or lower-middle income-economy. Gradually increasing associations with mortality were identified for increasing severity of pressure injury: stage I (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8), stage II (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.9), and stage III or worse (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.3-3.3). CONCLUSION: Pressure injuries are common in adult ICU patients. ICU-acquired pressure injuries are associated with mainly intrinsic factors and mortality. Optimal care standards, increased awareness, appropriate resource allocation, and further research into optimal prevention are pivotal to tackle this important patient safety threat.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1012-1024, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related adverse events are a serious problem in hospitalized patients. Little is known about patients who are likely to experience opioid-induced respiratory depression events on the general care floor and may benefit from improved monitoring and early intervention. The trial objective was to derive and validate a risk prediction tool for respiratory depression in patients receiving opioids, as detected by continuous pulse oximetry and capnography monitoring. METHODS: PRediction of Opioid-induced respiratory Depression In patients monitored by capnoGraphY (PRODIGY) was a prospective, observational trial of blinded continuous capnography and oximetry conducted at 16 sites in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Vital signs were intermittently monitored per standard of care. A total of 1335 patients receiving parenteral opioids and continuously monitored on the general care floor were included in the analysis. A respiratory depression episode was defined as respiratory rate ≤5 breaths/min (bpm), oxygen saturation ≤85%, or end-tidal carbon dioxide ≤15 or ≥60 mm Hg for ≥3 minutes; apnea episode lasting >30 seconds; or any respiratory opioid-related adverse event. A risk prediction tool was derived using a multivariable logistic regression model of 46 a priori defined risk factors with stepwise selection and was internally validated by bootstrapping. RESULTS: One or more respiratory depression episodes were detected in 614 (46%) of 1335 general care floor patients (43% male; mean age, 58 ± 14 years) continuously monitored for a median of 24 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 17-26). A multivariable respiratory depression prediction model with area under the curve of 0.740 was developed using 5 independent variables: age ≥60 (in decades), sex, opioid naivety, sleep disorders, and chronic heart failure. The PRODIGY risk prediction tool showed significant separation between patients with and without respiratory depression (P < .001) and an odds ratio of 6.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.44-8.30; P < .001) between the high- and low-risk groups. Compared to patients without respiratory depression episodes, mean hospital length of stay was 3 days longer in patients with ≥1 respiratory depression episode (10.5 ± 10.8 vs 7.7 ± 7.8 days; P < .0001) identified using continuous oximetry and capnography monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: A PRODIGY risk prediction model, derived from continuous oximetry and capnography, accurately predicts respiratory depression episodes in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor. Implementation of the PRODIGY score to determine the need for continuous monitoring may be a first step to reduce the incidence and consequences of respiratory compromise in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Capnografia/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
7.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1060-1065, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous infusions of norepinephrine to treat perioperative hypotension are typically administered through a central venous line rather than a peripheral venous catheter to avoid the risk of localized tissue necrosis in case of drug extravasation. There is limited literature to estimate the risk of skin necrosis when peripheral norepinephrine is used to counteract anesthesia-associated hypotension in elective surgical cases. This study aimed to estimate the rate of occurrence of drug-related adverse effects, including skin necrosis requiring surgical management when norepinephrine peripheral extravasation occurs. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the perioperative databases of the University Hospitals in Amsterdam and Utrecht, the Netherlands, to identify surgical patients who received norepinephrine peripheral intravenous infusions (20 µg/mL) between 2012 and 2016. The risk of drug-related adverse effects, including skin necrosis, was estimated. Particular care was taken to identify patients who needed plastic surgical or medical attention secondary to extravasation of dilute, peripheral norepinephrine. RESULTS: A total of 14,385 patients who received norepinephrine peripheral continuous infusions were identified. Drug extravasation was observed in 5 patients (5/14,385 = 0.035%). The 95% confidence interval (CI) for infusion extravasation was 0.011%-0.081%, indicating an estimated risk of 1-8 events per every 10,000 patients. There were zero related complications requiring surgical or medical intervention, resulting in a 95% CI of 0%-0.021% and indicating a risk of approximately 0-2 events per 10,000 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the current database analysis, no significant association was found between the use of peripheral intravenous norepinephrine infusions and adverse events.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Resultados Negativos , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Pele/patologia
8.
Nervenarzt ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders during pregnancy are common. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be indicated in severely affective or psychotic disorders with the necessity of a rapid response. Currently available review articles greatly differ in the methodology, leading to divergent conclusions concerning the use of ECT during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Description of a new clinical case and interdisciplinary treatment suggestions for the safe application of ECT in pregnancy. METHODS: Clinical case report and selective review of the literature with special consideration of existing systematic reviews. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This case report shows the potentially high effectiveness and safe administration of ECT in pregnancy for both mother and fetus. The undesired adverse events associated with ECT described in the literature are largely qualitatively congruent with the risks of severe psychotic disorders in pregnancy per se. For a better risk-benefit analysis, larger case control studies would be desirable. Under the premise of a thorough evaluation of the indications, good interdisciplinary coordination and consideration of the specific practical requirements, ECT is a useful therapeutic option in pregnancy.

9.
Anesthesiology ; 132(6): 1371-1381, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five percent of adult patients undergoing noncardiac inpatient surgery experience a major pulmonary complication. The authors hypothesized that the choice of neuromuscular blockade reversal (neostigmine vs. sugammadex) may be associated with a lower incidence of major pulmonary complications. METHODS: Twelve U.S. Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group hospitals were included in a multicenter observational matched-cohort study of surgical cases between January 2014 and August 2018. Adult patients undergoing elective inpatient noncardiac surgical procedures with general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation receiving a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade agent and reversal were included. Exact matching criteria included institution, sex, age, comorbidities, obesity, surgical procedure type, and neuromuscular blockade agent (rocuronium vs. vecuronium). Other preoperative and intraoperative factors were compared and adjusted in the case of residual imbalance. The composite primary outcome was major postoperative pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, respiratory failure, or other pulmonary complications (including pneumonitis; pulmonary congestion; iatrogenic pulmonary embolism, infarction, or pneumothorax). Secondary outcomes focused on the components of pneumonia and respiratory failure. RESULTS: Of 30,026 patients receiving sugammadex, 22,856 were matched to 22,856 patients receiving neostigmine. Out of 45,712 patients studied, 1,892 (4.1%) were diagnosed with the composite primary outcome (3.5% sugammadex vs. 4.8% neostigmine). A total of 796 (1.7%) patients had pneumonia (1.3% vs. 2.2%), and 582 (1.3%) respiratory failure (0.8% vs. 1.7%). In multivariable analysis, sugammadex administration was associated with a 30% reduced risk of pulmonary complications (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.77), 47% reduced risk of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.62), and 55% reduced risk of respiratory failure (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.56), compared to neostigmine. CONCLUSIONS: Among a generalizable cohort of adult patients undergoing inpatient surgery at U.S. hospitals, the use of sugammadex was associated with a clinically and statistically significant lower incidence of major pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Neostigmina/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Sugammadex/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Anesth Analg ; 130(5): 1133-1146, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287121

RESUMO

Use of the electronic health record (EHR) has become a routine part of perioperative care in the United States. Secondary use of EHR data includes research, quality, and educational initiatives. Fundamental to secondary use is a framework to ensure fidelity, transparency, and completeness of the source data. In developing this framework, competing priorities must be considered as to which data sources are used and how data are organized and incorporated into a useable format. In assembling perioperative data from diverse institutions across the United States and Europe, the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group (MPOG) has developed methods to support such a framework. This special article outlines how MPOG has approached considerations of data structure, validation, and accessibility to support multicenter integration of perioperative EHRs. In this multicenter practice registry, MPOG has developed processes to extract data from the perioperative EHR; transform data into a standardized format; and validate, deidentify, and transfer data to a secure central Coordinating Center database. Participating institutions may obtain access to this central database, governed by quality and research committees, to inform clinical practice and contribute to the scientific and clinical communities. Through a rigorous and standardized approach to ensure data integrity, MPOG enables data to be usable for quality improvement and advancing scientific knowledge. As of March 2019, our collaboration of 46 hospitals has accrued 10.7 million anesthesia records with associated perioperative EHR data across heterogeneous vendors. Facilitated by MPOG, each site retains access to a local repository containing all site-specific perioperative data, distinct from source EHRs and readily available for local research, quality, and educational initiatives. Through committee approval processes, investigators at participating sites may additionally access multicenter data for similar initiatives. Emerging from this work are 4 considerations that our group has prioritized to improve data quality: (1) data should be available at the local level before Coordinating Center transfer; (2) data should be rigorously validated against standardized metrics before use; (3) data should be curated into computable phenotypes that are easily accessible; and (4) data should be collected for both research and quality improvement purposes because these complementary goals bolster the strength of each endeavor.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
11.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 738-749, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate anesthesiology procedure code data are essential to quality improvement, research, and reimbursement tasks within anesthesiology practices. Advanced data science techniques, including machine learning and natural language processing, offer opportunities to develop classification tools for Current Procedural Terminology codes across anesthesia procedures. METHODS: Models were created using a Train/Test dataset including 1,164,343 procedures from 16 academic and private hospitals. Five supervised machine learning models were created to classify anesthesiology Current Procedural Terminology codes, with accuracy defined as first choice classification matching the institutional-assigned code existing in the perioperative database. The two best performing models were further refined and tested on a Holdout dataset from a single institution distinct from Train/Test. A tunable confidence parameter was created to identify cases for which models were highly accurate, with the goal of at least 95% accuracy, above the reported 2018 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (Baltimore, Maryland) fee-for-service accuracy. Actual submitted claim data from billing specialists were used as a reference standard. RESULTS: Support vector machine and neural network label-embedding attentive models were the best performing models, respectively, demonstrating overall accuracies of 87.9% and 84.2% (single best code), and 96.8% and 94.0% (within top three). Classification accuracy was 96.4% in 47.0% of cases using support vector machine and 94.4% in 62.2% of cases using label-embedding attentive model within the Train/Test dataset. In the Holdout dataset, respective classification accuracies were 93.1% in 58.0% of cases and 95.0% among 62.0%. The most important feature in model training was procedure text. CONCLUSIONS: Through application of machine learning and natural language processing techniques, highly accurate real-time models were created for anesthesiology Current Procedural Terminology code classification. The increased processing speed and a priori targeted accuracy of this classification approach may provide performance optimization and cost reduction for quality improvement, research, and reimbursement tasks reliant on anesthesiology procedure codes.


Assuntos
Current Procedural Terminology , Bases de Dados Factuais/classificação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/classificação , Aprendizado de Máquina/classificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anesth Analg ; 130(6): 1702-1708, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986126

RESUMO

To study the impact of anesthesia opioid-related outcomes and acute and chronic postsurgical pain, we organized a multicenter study that comprehensively combined detailed perioperative data elements from multiple institutions. By combining pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcomes with automatically extracted high-resolution intraoperative data obtained through the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group (MPOG), the authors sought to describe the impact of patient characteristics, preoperative psychological factors, surgical procedure, anesthetic course, postoperative pain management, and postdischarge pain management on postdischarge pain profiles and opioid consumption patterns. This study is unique in that it utilized multicenter prospective data collection using a digital case report form integrated with the MPOG framework and database. Therefore, the study serves as a model for future studies using this innovative method. Full results will be reported in future articles; the purpose of this article is to describe the methods of this study.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Anesthesiology ; 132(3): 461-475, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant healthcare impact of acute kidney injury, little is known regarding prevention. Single-center data have implicated hypotension in developing postoperative acute kidney injury. The generalizability of this finding and the interaction between hypotension and baseline patient disease burden remain unknown. The authors sought to determine whether the association between intraoperative hypotension and acute kidney injury varies by preoperative risk. METHODS: Major noncardiac surgical procedures performed on adult patients across eight hospitals between 2008 and 2015 were reviewed. Derivation and validation cohorts were used, and cases were stratified into preoperative risk quartiles based upon comorbidities and surgical procedure. After preoperative risk stratification, associations between intraoperative hypotension and acute kidney injury were analyzed. Hypotension was defined as the lowest mean arterial pressure range achieved for more than 10 min; ranges were defined as absolute (mmHg) or relative (percentage of decrease from baseline). RESULTS: Among 138,021 cases reviewed, 12,431 (9.0%) developed postoperative acute kidney injury. Major risk factors included anemia, estimated glomerular filtration rate, surgery type, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status, and expected anesthesia duration. Using such factors and others for risk stratification, patients with low baseline risk demonstrated no associations between intraoperative hypotension and acute kidney injury. Patients with medium risk demonstrated associations between severe-range intraoperative hypotension (mean arterial pressure less than 50 mmHg) and acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.65 to 4.16 in validation cohort). In patients with the highest risk, mild hypotension ranges (mean arterial pressure 55 to 59 mmHg) were associated with acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.56). Compared with absolute hypotension, relative hypotension demonstrated weak associations with acute kidney injury not replicable in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery demonstrate varying associations with distinct levels of hypotension when stratified by preoperative risk factors. Specific levels of absolute hypotension, but not relative hypotension, are an important independent risk factor for acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/complicações , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/complicações , Pressão Arterial , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA ; 321(8): 762-772, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806696

RESUMO

Importance: Overlapping surgery, in which more than 1 procedure performed by the same primary surgeon is scheduled so the start time of one procedure overlaps with the end time of another, is of concern because of potential adverse outcomes. Objective: To determine the association between overlapping surgery and mortality, complications, and length of surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 66 430 operations in patients aged 18 to 90 years undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty; spine surgery; coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery; and craniotomy at 8 centers between January 1, 2010, and May 31, 2018. Patients were followed up until discharge. Exposures: Overlapping surgery (≥2 operations performed by the same surgeon in which ≥1 hour of 1 case, or the entire case for those <1 hour, occurs when another procedure is being performed). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality or complications (major: thromboembolic event, pneumonia, sepsis, stroke, or myocardial infarction; minor: urinary tract or surgical site infection) and surgery duration. Results: The final sample consisted of 66 430 operations (mean patient age, 59 [SD, 15] years; 31 915 women [48%]), of which 8224 (12%) were overlapping. After adjusting for confounders, overlapping surgery was not associated with a significant difference in in-hospital mortality (1.9% overlapping vs 1.6% nonoverlapping; difference, 0.3% [95% CI, -0.2% to 0.7%]; P = .21) or risk of complications (12.8% overlapping vs 11.8% nonoverlapping; difference, 0.9% [95% CI, -0.1% to 1.9%]; P = .08). Overlapping surgery was associated with increased surgery length (204 vs 173 minutes; difference, 30 minutes [95% CI, 24 to 37 minutes]; P < .001). Overlapping surgery was significantly associated with increased mortality and increased complications among patients having a high preoperative predicted risk for mortality and complications, compared with low-risk patients (mortality: 5.8% vs 4.7%; difference, 1.2% [95% CI, 0.1% to 2.2%]; P = .03; complications: 29.2% vs 27.0%; difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.3% to 4.3%]; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults undergoing common operations, overlapping surgery was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality or postoperative complication rates but was significantly associated with increased surgery length. Further research is needed to understand the association of overlapping surgery with these outcomes among specific patient subgroups.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Craniotomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Anesth ; 56: 77-84, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703672

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Muscular tone that inhibits anesthetic or surgical care characterizes insufficient neuromuscular block. The incidence of insufficient neuromuscular block is unknown, therefore we developed novel electronic search strategies to identify occurrences of insufficient neuromuscular block. Our primary goal was to determine the incidence of intraoperative insufficient neuromuscular block in abdominal and neurovascular surgery. Our secondary goal was to assess factors independently associated with insufficient block. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Operating rooms in a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Adults having abdominal, laparoscopic, and interventional neurovascular procedures under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation between April 2005 and February 2013. MEASUREMENTS: An expert panel of anesthesiologists used a Delphi process to develop criteria to identify insufficient intraoperative neuromuscular block. 10 final criteria were agreed upon and used to determine the incidence of insufficient neuromuscular block. MAIN RESULTS: 48,315 surgeries met our inclusion requirements. Intraoperative insufficient neuromuscular block was identified in 13,538 cases, representing 28% (95% CI: 27.6%, 28.4%) of the operations. Younger age, male sex, type of surgery, longer duration of surgery, pre-existing conditions, and use of volatile anesthetics were independently associated with insufficient block after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that episodes of insufficient block occur in over a quarter of operations that are generally thought to require muscle relaxation. Without neuromuscular monitoring, it is difficult to separate inadequate anesthesia from inadequate neuromuscular block, and both presumably contributed in many cases.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Técnica Delfos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitoração Neuromuscular , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
16.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(2): 149-160, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite growing evidence supporting the potential benefits of higher end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels in surgical patients, there is still insufficient data to formulate guidelines for ideal intraoperative ETCO2 targets. As it is unclear which intraoperative ETCO2 levels are currently used and whether these levels have changed over time, we investigated the practice pattern using the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, multicentre study included 317,445 adult patients who received general anesthesia for non-cardiothoracic procedures between January 2008 and September 2016. The primary outcome was a time-weighted average area-under-the-curve (TWA-AUC) for four ETCO2 thresholds (< 28, < 35, < 45, and > 45 mmHg). Additionally, a median ETCO2 was studied. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyse differences between years. Random-effect multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to study variability. RESULTS: Both TWA-AUC and median ETCO2 showed a minimal increase in ETCO2 over time, with a median [interquartile range] ETCO2 of 33 [31.0-35.0] mmHg in 2008 and 35 [33.0-38.0] mmHg in 2016 (P <0.001). A large inter-hospital and inter-provider variability in ETCO2 were observed after adjustment for patient characteristics, ventilation parameters, and intraoperative blood pressure (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Between 2008 and 2016, intraoperative ETCO2 values did not change in a clinically important manner. Interestingly, we found a large inter-hospital and inter-provider variability in ETCO2 throughout the study period, possibly indicating a broad range of tolerance for ETCO2, or a lack of evidence to support a specific targeted range. Clinical outcomes were not assessed in this study and they should be the focus of future research.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Capnografia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos
17.
J Clin Anesth ; 55: 33-41, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594097

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence burden and associated risk factors of residual neuromuscular block (rNMB) during routine U.S. hospital care. DESIGN: Blinded multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Operating and recovery rooms of ten community and academic U.S. hospitals. PATIENTS: Two-hundred fifty-five adults, ASA PS 1-3, underwent elective abdominal surgery with general anesthesia and ≥1 dose of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) for endotracheal intubation and/or maintenance of NMB between August 2012 and April 2013. INTERVENTIONS: TOF measurements using acceleromyography were performed on patients already receiving routine anesthetic care for elective open or laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Measurements allowed assessment of the presence of residual neuromuscular block (rNMB), defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio <0.9 at tracheal extubation. We recorded patient and procedural characteristics and assessed TOF ratios (T4/T1) at various times throughout the procedure and at tracheal extubation. Differences in patient and clinical characteristics were compared using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables. Multivariate logistic regression assessed risk factors associated with rNMB at extubation. MAIN RESULTS: Most of the study population, 64.7% (n = 165) had rNMB (TOF ratio < 0.9), among them, 31.0% with TOF ratio <0.6. Among those receiving neostigmine and/or qualitative peripheral nerve stimulation per clinical decision, 65.0% had rNMB. After controlling for confounders, we observed male gender (odds ratio: 2.60, P = 0.008), higher BMI (odds ratio: 1.04/unit, P = 0.043), and surgery at a community hospital (odds ratio: 3.15, P = 0.006) to be independently associated with increased odds of rNMB. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing TOF ratios blinded to the care team, we found that the majority of patients (64.7%) in this study had rNMB at tracheal extubation, despite neostigmine administration and qualitative peripheral nerve stimulation used for routine clinical care. Qualitative neuromuscular monitoring and clinical judgement often fails to detect rNMB after neostigmine reversal with potential severe consequences to the patient. Our data suggests that clinical care could be improved by considering quantitative neuromuscular monitoring for routine care.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Recuperação Demorada da Anestesia/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inibidores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Recuperação Demorada da Anestesia/complicações , Recuperação Demorada da Anestesia/diagnóstico , Recuperação Demorada da Anestesia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neostigmina/administração & dosagem , Neostigmina/efeitos adversos , Neostigmina/antagonistas & inibidores , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Monitoração Neuromuscular , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anesth Analg ; 127(4): 897-903, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory testing is a common component of preanesthesia evaluation and is designed to identify medical abnormalities that might otherwise remain undetected. While blood testing might optimally be performed shortly before surgery, it is often done earlier for practical reasons. We tested the hypothesis that longer periods between preoperative laboratory testing and surgery are associated with increased odds of having a composite of 30-day morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We obtained preoperative data from 2,320,920 patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program who were treated between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis was restricted to relatively healthy patients with American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I-II who had elective surgery and normal blood test results (n = 235,010). The primary relationship of interest was the odds of 30-day morbidity and mortality as a function of delay between preoperative testing and surgery. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for the 10 pairwise comparisons among the 5 laboratory timing groups (laboratory blood tests within 1 week of surgery; 1-2 weeks; 2-4 weeks; 1-2 months; and 2-3 months) on 30-day morbidity, adjusting for any imbalanced baseline covariables and type of surgery. RESULTS: A total of 4082 patients (1.74%) had at least one of the component morbidities or died within 30-days after surgery. The observed incidence (unadjusted) was 1.7% when the most recent laboratory blood tests measured within 1 week of surgery, 1.7% when it was within 1-2 weeks, 1.8% when it was within 2-4 weeks, 1.7% when it was between 1 and 2 months, and 2.0% for patients with most recent laboratory blood tests measured 2-3 months before surgery. None of the values within 2 months differed significantly: estimated odds ratios for patients within blood tested within 1 week were 1.00 (99.5% confidence interval, 0.89-1.12) as compared to 1-2 weeks, 0.88 (0.77-1.00) for 2-4 weeks, and 0.95 (0.79-1.14) for 1-2 months, respectively. The estimated odds ratio comparing 1-2 weeks to each of 2-4 weeks and 1-2 months were 0.88 (0.76-1.03) and 0.95 (0.78-1.16), respectively. Blood testing 2-3 months before surgery was associated with increased odds of outcome compared to patients whose most recent test was within 1 week (P = .002) and 1-2 weeks of the date of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients, risk of 30-day morbidity and mortality was not different with blood testing up to 2 months before surgery, suggesting that it is unnecessary to retest patients shortly before surgery.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Orthop Trauma ; 32(3): 105-110, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between surgical timing and 1-year mortality in patients requiring hip fracture repair. METHODS: We analyzed all 720 patients (>65 years) who had hip fracture surgery between March 2005 and February 2015, identifying patients by ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes using electronic data query. Mortality data were obtained from the institutional database, state and Social Security Death Indices. The relationship between surgical timing (defined as the interval from admission to the start of surgery) and 1-year mortality was assessed using a multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for baseline clinical status and surgical factors. RESULTS: Among the 720 patients, 159 patients (22%) died within 1 year. The median time from admission to surgery was 30 hours. A linear relationship between the surgical timing and 1-year mortality was demonstrated. Delaying surgery was significantly associated with increased 1-year mortality, odds ratio 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.08) per 10-hour delay (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A linear relationship was observed between surgical timing and 1-year mortality. Each 10-hour delay from admission to surgery was associated with an estimated 5% higher odds of 1-year mortality. Therefore, we suggest that hip fractures should be treated urgently similar to other time-sensitive pathology such as stroke and myocardial ischemia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Fixação de Fratura/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Anesth ; 43: 33-38, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972924

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The use of neuromuscular blockade agents (NMBA), had been associated with significant residual post-operative paralysis and morbidity. There is a lack of clinical evidence on incidence of postoperative complications within the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) in patients exposed to intraoperative NMBA's. This study aims to estimate the incidence of post-operative complications associated with use of NMBAs and assessing its association with healthcare resource utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Post-anesthesia care unit in tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Adults having non-cardiac surgery and receiving NMBAs between April-2005 and December-2013 MEASUREMENTS: We assessed: 1) incidences of major and minor PACU complications, 2) incidence of any postoperative complication in patients receiving a NMBA reversal (neostigmine) vs. without. 3) We secondarily assessed the relationship between PACU complications and use of healthcare resources. MAIN RESULTS: The incidence of any major complications was 2.1% and that of any minor complication was 35.2%. ICU admission rate was 1.3% in patients without any complications, versus 5.2% in patients with any minor and 30.6% in patients with any major complication. ICU length of stay was prolonged in patients with any major (52.1±203h), compared to patients with any minor (6.2±64h) and with no complications (1.7±28h). Patients who received a NMBA and neostigmine, compared to without neostigmine, had a lower incidence of any major complication (1.7% vs. 6.05%), rate of re-intubation (0.8% vs. 4.6%) and unplanned ICU admission (0.8% vs. 3.2%). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that incidence of major PACU complications after non-cardiac surgery was 2.1%, with the most frequent complications being re-intubation and ICU admission. Patients receiving NMBA reversal were at a lower risk of re-intubation and unplanned ICU admission, justifying routine use of reversals. Complete NMBA reversals are crucial in reducing preventable patient harm and healthcare utilization.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Neostigmina/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
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