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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857089

RESUMO

Vibrational relaxation of adsorbates is a sensitive tool to probe energy transfer at gas/solid and liquid/solid interfaces. The most direct way to study relaxation dynamics uses time-resolved spectroscopy. Here we report on a non-equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics (NE-AIMD) methodology to model vibrational relaxation of OH vibrations on a hydroxylated, water-covered α-Al2O3(0001) surface. In our NE-AIMD approach, after exciting selected O-H bonds their coupling to surface phonons and to the water adlayer is analyzed in detail, by following both the energy flow in time, as well as the time-evolution of Vibrational Density of States (VDOS) curves. The latter are obtained from Time-dependent Correlation Functions (TCFs) and serve as prototypical, generic representatives of time-resolved vibrational spectra. As most important results, (i) we find a few-picosecond lifetime of the excited modes and (ii) identify both hydrogen-bonded aluminols and water molecules in the adsorbed water layer as main dissipative channels, while the direct coupling to Al2O3 surface phonons is of minor importance on the timescales of interest. Our NE-AIMD/TCF methodology is powerful for complex adsorbate systems, in principle even reacting ones, and opens a way towards time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(41): 8871-8880, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536349

RESUMO

Diamondoids are hydrogen-saturated molecular motifs cut out of diamond, forming a class of materials with tunable optoelectronic properties. In this work, we extend previous work on neutral, closed-shell diamondoids by computing with hybrid density functional theory and time-dependent correlation functions vibrationally broadened absorption spectra of cations and radicals derived from the simplest diamondoid, adamantane, namely, the neutral 1- and 2-adamantyl radicals (C10H15), the 1- and 2-adamantyl cations (C10H15+), and the adamantane radical cation (C10H16+). For selected cases, we also report vibrationally broadened emission, photoelectron, and resonance Raman spectra. Furthermore, the effect of the damping factor on the vibrational fine-structure is studied. The following trends are found: (1) Low-energy absorptions of the adamantyl radicals and cations, and of the adamantane cation, are all strongly red-shifted with respect to adamantane; (2) also, emission spectra are strongly red-shifted, whereas photoelectron spectra are less affected for the cases studied; (3) vibrational fine-structures are reduced compared to those of adamantane; (4) the spectroscopic signals of 1- and 2-adamantyl species are significantly different from each other; and (5) reducing the damping factor has only a limited effect on the vibrational fine-structure in most cases. This suggests that removing hydrogen atoms and/or electrons from adamantane leads to new optoelectronic properties, which should be detectable by vibronic spectroscopy.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 150(24): 244701, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255084

RESUMO

Water can adsorb molecularly or dissociatively onto different sites of metal oxide surfaces. These adsorption sites can be disentangled using surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy. Here, we model Vibrational Sum Frequency (VSF) spectra for various forms of dissociated, deuterated water on a reconstructed, Al-terminated α-Al2O3(0001) surface at submonolayer coverages (the so-called 1-2, 1-4, and 1-4' modes). Using an efficient scheme based on velocity-velocity autocorrelation functions, we go beyond previous normal mode analyses by including anharmonicity, mode coupling, and thermal surface motion in the framework of ab initio molecular dynamics. In this way, we calculate vibrational density of states curves, infrared, and VSF spectra. Comparing computed VSF spectra with measured ones, we find that relative frequencies of resonances are in quite good agreement and linewidths are reasonably well represented, while VSF intensities coincide not well. We argue that intensities are sensitively affected by local interactions and thermal fluctuations, even at such low coverage, while absolute peak positions strongly depend on the choice of the electronic structure method and on the appropriate inclusion of anharmonicity.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 150(23): 234114, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228917

RESUMO

High Harmonic Generation (HHG) is a nonlinear optical process that provides a tunable source for high-energy photons and ultrashort laser pulses. Recent experiments demonstrated that HHG spectroscopy may also be used as an analytical tool to discriminate between randomly oriented configurational isomers of polyatomic organic molecules, namely, between the cis- and trans-forms of 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) [M. C. H. Wong et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 051403 (2011)]. Here, we suggest as an economic and at the same time a reasonably accurate method to compute HHG spectra for polyatomic species, Time-Dependent Configuration Interaction Singles (TD-CIS) theory in combination with extended atomic orbital bases and different models to account for ionization losses. The HHG spectra are computed for aligned and unaligned cis- and trans-DCE. For the unaligned case, a coherent averaging over possible rotational orientations is introduced. Furthermore, using TD-CIS, possible differences between the HHG spectra of cis- and trans-DCE are studied. For aligned molecules, spectral differences between cis and trans emerge, which can be related to their different point group symmetries. For unaligned, randomly oriented molecules, we also find distinct HHG spectra in partial agreement with experiment. In addition to HHG response in the frequency space, we compute time-frequency HHG spectra to gain insight into which harmonics are emitted at which time. Further differences between the two isomers emerge, suggesting time-frequency HHG as another tool to discriminate configurational isomers.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 149(14): 144112, 2018 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316280

RESUMO

Pump-probe near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (PP-NEXAFS) spectra of molecules offer insight into valence-excited states, even if optically dark. In PP-NEXAFS spectroscopy, the molecule is "pumped" by UV or visible light enforcing a valence excitation, followed by an X-ray "probe" exciting core electrons into (now) partially empty valence orbitals. Calculations of PP-NEXAFS have so far been done by costly, correlated wavefunction methods which are not easily applicable to medium-sized or large molecules. Here we propose an efficient, first principles method based on density functional theory in combination with the transition potential and ΔSCF methodology (TP-DFT/ΔSCF) to compute molecular ground state and PP-NEXAFS spectra. We apply the method to n → π * pump/O-K-edge NEXAFS probe spectroscopy of thymine (for which both experimental and other theoretical data exist) and to n → π * or π → π * pump/N-K-edge NEXAFS probe spectroscopies of trans- and cis-azobenzene.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 149(1): 014707, 2018 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981538

RESUMO

Using gradient- and dispersion-corrected density functional theory in connection with ab initio molecular dynamics and efficient, parametrized Velocity-Velocity Autocorrelation Function (VVAF) methodology, we study the vibrational spectra (Vibrational Sum Frequency, VSF, and infrared, IR) of hydroxylated α-Al2O3(0001) surfaces with and without additional water. Specifically, by considering a naked hydroxylated surface and the same surface with a particularly stable, "ice-like" hexagonal water later allows us to identify and disentangle main spectroscopic bands of OH bonds, their orientation and dynamics, and the role of water adsorption. In particular, we assign spectroscopic signals around 3700 cm-1 as being dominated by perpendicularly oriented non-hydrogen bonded aluminol groups, with and without additional water. Furthermore, the thin water layer gives spectroscopic signals which are already comparable to previous theoretical and experimental findings for the solid/(bulk) liquid interface, showing that water molecules closest to the surface play a decisive role in the vibrational response of these systems. From a methodological point of view, the effects of temperature, anharmonicity, hydrogen-bonding, and structural dynamics are taken into account and analyzed, allowing us to compare the calculated IR and VSF spectra with the ones based on normal mode analysis and vibrational density of states. The VVAF approach employed in this work appears to be a computationally accurate yet feasible method to address the vibrational fingerprints and dynamical properties of water/metal oxide interfaces.

7.
ACS Nano ; 12(4): 3172-3177, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489330

RESUMO

The oxidation and spin state of a metal-organic molecule determine its chemical reactivity and magnetic properties. Here, we demonstrate the reversible control of the oxidation and spin state in a single Fe porphyrin molecule in the force field of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Within the regimes of half-integer and integer spin state, we can further track the evolution of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Our experimental results are corroborated by density functional theory and wave function theory. This combined analysis allows us to draw a complete picture of the molecular states over a large range of intramolecular deformations.

8.
J Chem Phys ; 148(4): 044310, 2018 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390801

RESUMO

Vibrationally resolved lowest-energy bands of the photoelectron spectra (PES) of adamantane, diamantane, and urotropine were simulated by a time-dependent correlation function approach within the harmonic approximation. Geometries and normal modes for neutral and cationic molecules were obtained from B3LYP hybrid density functional theory (DFT). It is shown that the simulated spectra reproduce the experimentally observed vibrational finestructure (or its absence) quite well. Origins of the finestructure are discussed and related to recurrences of autocorrelation functions and dominant vibrations. Remaining quantitative and qualitative errors of the DFT-derived PES spectra refer to (i) an overall redshift by ∼0.5 eV and (ii) the absence of satellites in the high-energy region of the spectra. The former error is shown to be due to the neglect of many-body corrections to ordinary Kohn-Sham methods, while the latter has been argued to be due to electron-nuclear couplings beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation [Gali et al., Nat. Commun. 7, 11327 (2016)].

9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 14(4): 2042-2051, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466663

RESUMO

Azobenzene-based molecular photoswitches are becoming increasingly important for the development of photoresponsive, functional soft-matter material systems. Upon illumination with light, fast interconversion between a more stable trans and a metastable cis configuration can be established resulting in pronounced changes in conformation, dipole moment or hydrophobicity. A rational design of functional photosensitive molecules with embedded azo moieties requires a thorough understanding of isomerization mechanisms and rates, especially the thermally activated relaxation. For small azo derivatives considered in the gas phase or simple solvents, Eyring's classical transition state theory (TST) approach yields useful predictions for trends in activation energies or corresponding half-life times of the cis isomer. However, TST or improved theories cannot easily be applied when the azo moiety is part of a larger molecular complex or embedded into a heterogeneous environment, where a multitude of possible reaction pathways may exist. In these cases, only the sampling of an ensemble of dynamic reactive trajectories (transition path sampling, TPS) with explicit models of the environment may reveal the nature of the processes involved. In the present work we show how a TPS approach can conveniently be implemented for the phenomenon of relaxation-isomerization of azobenzenes starting with the simple examples of pure azobenzene and a push-pull derivative immersed in a polar (DMSO) and apolar (toluene) solvent. The latter are represented explicitly at a molecular mechanical (MM) and the azo moiety at a quantum mechanical (QM) level. We demonstrate for the push-pull azobenzene that path sampling in combination with the chosen QM/MM scheme produces the expected change in isomerization pathway from inversion to rotation in going from a low to a high permittivity (explicit) solvent model. We discuss the potential of the simulation procedure presented for comparative calculation of reaction rates and an improved understanding of activated states.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(14): 146101, 2017 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053313

RESUMO

Complete sticking at low incidence energies and broad angular scattering distributions at higher energies are often observed in molecular beam experiments on gas-surface systems which feature a deep chemisorption well and lack early reaction barriers. Although CO binds strongly on Ru(0001), scattering is characterized by rather narrow angular distributions and sticking is incomplete even at low incidence energies. We perform molecular dynamics simulations, accounting for phononic (and electronic) energy loss channels, on a potential energy surface based on first-principles electronic structure calculations that reproduce the molecular beam experiments. We demonstrate that the mentioned unusual behavior is a consequence of a very strong rotational anisotropy in the molecule-surface interaction potential. Beyond the interpretation of scattering phenomena, we also discuss implications of our results for the recently proposed role of a precursor state for the desorption and scattering of CO from ruthenium.

12.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(31): 314002, 2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557809

RESUMO

The thermal [Formula: see text] (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes is a prototypical reaction occurring in molecular switches. It has been studied for decades, yet its kinetics is not fully understood. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations are performed to model the kinetics of an experimental benchmark system, where a modified azobenzene (AzoBiPyB) is embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF). The molecule can be switched thermally from cis to trans, under solvent-free conditions. We critically test the validity of Eyring transition state theory for this reaction. As previously found for other azobenzenes (albeit in solution), good agreement between theory and experiment emerges for activation energies and activation free energies, already at a comparatively simple level of theory, B3LYP/6-31G* including dispersion corrections. However, theoretical Arrhenius prefactors and activation entropies are in qualitiative disagreement with experiment. Several factors are discussed that may have an influence on activation entropies, among them dynamical and geometric constraints (imposed by the MOF). For a simpler model-[Formula: see text] isomerization in azobenzene-a systematic test of quantum chemical methods from both density functional theory and wavefunction theory is carried out in the context of Eyring theory. Also, the effect of anharmonicities on activation entropies is discussed for this model system. Our work highlights capabilities and shortcomings of Eyring transition state theory and quantum chemical methods, when applied for the [Formula: see text] (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes under solvent-free conditions.

13.
J Chem Phys ; 146(10): 104703, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28298105

RESUMO

We report on photoinduced remote control of work function and surface potential of a silicon surface modified with a photosensitive self-assembled monolayer consisting of chemisorbed azobenzene molecules (4-nitroazobenzene). It was found that the attachment of the organic monolayer increases the work function by hundreds of meV due to the increase in the electron affinity of silicon substrates. The change in the work function on UV light illumination is more pronounced for the azobenzene jacketed silicon substrate (ca. 250 meV) in comparison to 50 meV for the unmodified surface. Moreover, the photoisomerization of azobenzene results in complex kinetics of the work function change: immediate decrease due to light-driven processes in the silicon surface followed by slower recovery to the initial state due to azobenzene isomerization. This behavior could be of interest for electronic devices where the reaction on irradiation should be more pronounced at small time scales but the overall surface potential should stay constant over time independent of the irradiation conditions.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(1): 335-341, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27997152

RESUMO

A variety of azobenzenes were synthesized to study the behavior of their E and Z isomers upon electrochemical reduction. Our results show that the radical anion of the Z isomer is able to rapidly isomerize to the corresponding E configured counterpart with a dramatically enhanced rate as compared to the neutral species. Due to a subsequent electron transfer from the formed E radical anion to the neutral Z starting material the overall transformation is catalytic in electrons; i.e., a substoichiometric amount of reduced species can isomerize the entire mixture. This pathway greatly increases the efficiency of (photo)switching while also allowing one to reach photostationary state compositions that are not restricted to the spectral separation of the individual azobenzene isomers and their quantum yields. In addition, activating this radical isomerization pathway with photoelectron transfer agents allows us to override the intrinsic properties of an azobenzene species by triggering the reverse isomerization direction (Z → E) by the same wavelength of light, which normally triggers E → Z isomerization. The behavior we report appears to be general, implying that the metastable isomer of a photoswitch can be isomerized to the more stable one catalytically upon reduction, permitting the optimization of azobenzene switching in new as well as indirect ways.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(18): 3591-6, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542538

RESUMO

While azobenzenes readily photoswitch in solution, their photoisomerization in densely packed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be suppressed. Reasons for this can be steric hindrance and/or electronic quenching, e.g., by exciton coupling. We address these possibilities by means of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics with trajectory surface hopping calculations, investigating the trans → cis isomerization of azobenzene after excitation into the ππ* absorption band. We consider a free monomer, an isolated dimer and a dimer embedded in a SAM-like environment of additional azobenzene molecules, imitating in this way the gradual transition from an unconstrained over an electronically coupled to an electronically coupled and sterically hindered, molecular switch. Our simulations reveal that in comparison to the single molecule the quantum yield of the trans → cis photoisomerization is similar for the isolated dimer, but greatly reduced in the sterically constrained situation. Other implications of dimerization and steric constraints are also discussed.

16.
Chemphyschem ; 17(19): 3129-3138, 2016 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27428813

RESUMO

Action spectroscopy has emerged as an analytical tool to probe excited states in the gas phase. Although comparison of gas-phase absorption properties with quantum-chemical calculations is, in principle, straightforward, popular methods often fail to describe many molecules of interest-such as xanthene analogues. We, therefore, face their nano- and picosecond laser-induced photofragmentation with excited-state computations by using the CC2 method and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Whereas the extracted absorption maxima agree with CC2 predictions, the TDDFT excitation energies are blueshifted. Lowering the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange in the DFT functional can reduce this shift but at the cost of changing the nature of the excited state. Additional bandwidth observed in the photofragmentation spectra is rationalized in terms of multiphoton processes. Observed fragmentation from higher-lying excited states conforms to intense excited-to-excited state transitions calculated with CC2. The CC2 method is thus suitable for the comparison with photofragmentation in xanthene analogues.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(22): 14822-32, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109875

RESUMO

The interaction of water with α-alumina (i.e. α-Al2O3) surfaces is important in a variety of applications and a useful model for the interaction of water with environmentally abundant aluminosilicate phases. Despite its significance, studies of water interaction with α-Al2O3 surfaces other than the (0001) are extremely limited. Here we characterize the interaction of water (D2O) with a well defined α-Al2O3(11[combining macron]02) surface in UHV both experimentally, using temperature programmed desorption and surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy, and theoretically, using periodic-slab density functional theory calculations. This combined approach makes it possible to demonstrate that water adsorption occurs only at a single well defined surface site (the so-called 1-4 configuration) and that at this site the barrier between the molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed forms is very low: 0.06 eV. A subset of OD stretch vibrations are parallel to this dissociation coordinate, and thus would be expected to be shifted to low frequencies relative to an uncoupled harmonic oscillator. To quantify this effect we solve the vibrational Schrödinger equation along the dissociation coordinate and find fundamental frequencies red-shifted by more than 1500 cm(-1). Within the context of this model, at moderate temperatures, we further find that some fraction of surface deuterons are likely delocalized: dissociatively and molecularly absorbed states are no longer distinguishable.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(12): 8654-61, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26948544

RESUMO

In Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy X-Ray photons are used to excite tightly bound core electrons to low-lying unoccupied orbitals of the system. This technique offers insight into the electronic structure of the system as well as useful structural information. In this work, we apply NEXAFS to two kinds of imidazolium based ionic liquids ([C(n)C1im](+)[NTf2](-) and [C4C1im](+)[I](-)). A combination of measurements and quantum chemical calculations of C K and N K NEXAFS resonances is presented. The simulations, based on the transition potential density functional theory method (TP-DFT), reproduce all characteristic features observed by the experiment. Furthermore, a detailed assignment of resonance features to excitation centers (carbon or nitrogen atoms) leads to a consistent interpretation of the spectra.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 144(4): 044301, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26827211

RESUMO

We combine the stochastic pulse optimization (SPO) scheme with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles method in order to control the high frequency response of a simple molecular model system to a tailored femtosecond laser pulse. For this purpose, we use H2 treated in the fixed nuclei approximation. The SPO scheme, as similar genetic algorithms, is especially suited to control highly non-linear processes, which we consider here in the context of high harmonic generation. Here, we will demonstrate that SPO can be used to realize a "non-harmonic" response of H2 to a laser pulse. Specifically, we will show how adding low intensity side frequencies to the dominant carrier frequency of the laser pulse and stochastically optimizing their contribution can create a high-frequency spectral signal of significant intensity, not harmonic to the carrier frequency. At the same time, it is possible to suppress the harmonic signals in the same spectral region, although the carrier frequency is kept dominant during the optimization.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(19): 3055-70, 2016 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709622

RESUMO

Molecular photoswitches such as azobenzenes, which undergo photochemical trans ↔ cis isomerizations, are often mounted for possible applications on a surface and/or surrounded by other switches, for example, in self-assembled monolayers. This may suppress the isomerization cross section due to possible steric reasons, or, as recently speculated, by exciton coupling to neighboring switches, leading to ultrafast electronic quenching (Gahl et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 1831). The presence of exciton coupling has been anticipated from a blue shift of the optical absorption band, compared to molecules in solution. From the theory side the need arises to properly analyze and quantify the change of absorption spectra of interacting and adsorbed switches. In particular, suitable methods should be identified, and effects of intermolecule and molecule-surface interactions on spectra should be disentangled. In this paper by means of time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), various flavors of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), and the correlated wave function based coupled-cluster (CC2) method we investigated the 4-nitroazobenzene molecule as an example: The low-lying singlet excited states in the isolated trans monomer and dimer as well as their composites with a silicon pentamantane nanocluster, which serves also as a crude model for a silicon surface, were determined. As most important results we found that (i) HF, CC2, range-separated density functionals, or global hybrids with large amount of exact exchange are able to describe exciton (Davydov) splitting properly, while hybrids with small amount of exact exchange fail producing spurious charge transfer. (ii) The exciton splitting in a free dimer would lead to a blue shift of the absorption signal; however, this effect is almost nullified or even overcompensated by the shift arising from van der Waals interactions between the two molecules. (iii) Adsorption on the Si "surface" leads to a further, strong red shift for the present system. (iv) At a next-nearest neighbor distance (of ∼3.6 Å), the exciton splitting is ∼0.3 eV, with or without "surface", suggesting a rapid quenching of the molecular π → π* excitation. At larger distances, exciton splitting decreases rapidly.

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