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Health Promot Int ; 26 Suppl 2: ii187-93, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22080073


The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Meio Ambiente , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Política , Mudança Social
Eval Program Plann ; 33(4): 428-35, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20106527


The evaluation of community health promotion designed to create supportive social environments for health is still in its infancy. There is a lack of consensus on concepts, a lack of information on interventions that bring about social change, and a lack of feasible methods and tools. Consequently, the effectiveness of community health promotion may not be evaluated under all relevant headings. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the evaluation of change in the social environment by presenting a framework. On the basis of the relevant literature we describe the relation between social environment and health predicting mediators. We selected participation and collaboration as core concepts in moderating the social environment of health because these terms give insight into the actual dynamics of health promotion practice. We synthesize the results into a framework with operational variables and offer four guidelines on how to apply the framework: use the variables as a menu, set specific aims for social change processes, use an action research approach, and triangulate data. The framework and guidelines enable the start-up, facilitation and evaluation of social change and learning processes and provide common ground for researchers and practitioners to improve the practice of their professions.

Redes Comunitárias , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Meio Social , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Países Baixos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
Glob Health Promot ; 16(1): 39-47, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19276332


Health and well-being are the result of a series of complex processes in which an individual interacts with other people and the environment. A systematic approach ensures incorporation of individual, ecological, social and political factors. However, interactions between these factors can be overlooked within a systematical approach. A systemic approach can provide additional information by incorporating interactions and communication. The opportunities of a systems thinking perspective for health promotion were investigated for this paper. Although others have also made attempts to explore systems thinking in the field of health promotion, the implications of systems thinking in practice need attention. Other fields such as agricultural extension studies, organizational studies and development studies provide useful experiences with the use of a systems thinking perspective in practice. Building on experiences from these fields, we give a theoretical background in which processes of social learning and innovation play an important role. From this background, we derive an overview of important concepts for the practical application of a systems thinking perspective. These concepts are the structure of the system, meanings attached to actions, and power relations between actors. To make these concepts more explicit and reduce the theoretical character of systems thinking, we use an illustration to elaborate on these concepts in practice. For this purpose, we describe a health promotion partnership in The Netherlands using the concepts structure, meaning and power relations. We show how a systems perspective increases insight in the functioning of a partnership and how this can facilitate processes of social learning and innovation. This article concludes by identifying future opportunities and challenges in adopting systems thinking for health promotion practice. A systems perspective towards health promotion can help projects reaching a more integral and sustainable approach in which the complex nature of health promotion processes is supported. Practical applications of systems thinking are necessary to adapt this perspective.

Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Teoria de Sistemas , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Controle Interno-Externo , Sistemas Políticos , Poder Psicológico , Meio Social
Health Promot Int ; 21 Suppl 1: 91-8, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17307962


This paper reviews approaches to the mapping of resources needed to engage in health promotion at the country level. There is not a single way, or a best way to make a capacity map, since it should speak to the needs of its users as they define their needs. Health promotion capacity mapping is therefore approached in various ways. At the national level, the objective is usually to learn the extent to which essential policies, institutions, programmes and practices are in place to guide recommendations about what remedial measures are desirable. In Europe, capacity mapping has been undertaken at the national level by the WHO for a decade. A complimentary capacity mapping approach,, has been undertaken since 2000 by a consortium of European organizations including the EC, WHO, International Union for Health Promotion and Education, Health Development Agency (of England) and various European university research centres. The European approach emphasizes the need for multi-methods and the principle of triangulation. In North America, Canadian approaches have included large- and small-scale international collaborations to map capacity for sustainable development. US efforts include state-level mapping of capacity to prevent chronic diseases and reduce risk factor levels. In Australia, two decades of mapping national health promotion capacity began with systems needed by the health sector to design and deliver effective, efficient health promotion, and has now expanded to include community-level capacity and policy review. In Korea and Japan, capacity mapping is newly developing in collaboration with European efforts, illustrating the usefulness of international health promotion networks. Mapping capacity for health promotion is a practical and vital aspect of developing capacity for health promotion. The new context for health promotion contains both old and new challenges, but also new opportunities. A large scale, highly collaborative approach to capacity mapping is possible today due to developments in communication technology and the spread of international networks of health promoters. However, in capacity mapping, local variation will always be important, to fit variation in local contexts.

Saúde Global , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Planejamento em Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Desenvolvimento de Programas