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J Leukoc Biol ; 101(1): 39-52, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793959


Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine, expressed as 9 distinct isoforms. The most active isoform is the predominantly intracellular-functioning IL-32γ. Involvement of IL-32 in infectious diseases is increasingly being appreciated. Production of IL-32 promotes pathways that serve to control bacterial infection, especially those caused by mycobacteria. A similar role for this cytokine is observed in the cellular response to viral infections. In addition to its protective effects against microorganisms, IL-32 is involved in immunopathogenesis of some infectious diseases. In parasitic diseases, it has been demonstrated that this cytokine is induced by Leishmania infection. In this review, we summarize the present data on the role of IL-32 in infectious diseases, highlighting this cytokine as new target for control of infections.

Doenças Transmissíveis/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Viroses/metabolismo
Cytokine ; 88: 184-192, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649507


While the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been investigated in murine models of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the interaction between TLRs and Leishmania sp. has not been investigated in human cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of TLR4 in cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by L. braziliensis, and whether the parasite alters the expression of TLR4 on monocytes/macrophages. Amastigote forms were obtained from mice lesions and PBMCs were isolated from healthy donors. PBMCs were cultured in absence or presence of IFNγ, TLR4 neutralizing antibodies, natural antagonist of TLR4 (Bartonella LPS), TLR4 agonist (E. coli LPS), and amastigote forms. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were assayed by ELISA and TLR4 expression by flow cytometry. Amastigotes forms of L. braziliensis induced TNFα and IL-10 production only in IFNγ-primed PBMCs. The TNFα and IL-10 production was inhibited by TLR4 neutralization, both with anti-TLR4 antibodies and Bartonella LPS. Interestingly, addition of E. coli LPS further increased TNFα but not IL-10 production induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes. Amastigotes of L. braziliensis strongly reduced membrane TLR4 expression on monocytes/macrophages, apparently by internalization after the infection. The present study reveals that TLR4 drives the production of TNFα and IL-10 induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes and that the parasites decrease TLR4 expression on monocyte surface.

Interleucina-10/imunologia , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Molecules ; 20(12): 22435-44, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26694330


Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Clinically, leishmaniases range from cutaneous to visceral forms, with estimated global incidences of 1.2 and 0.4 million cases per year, respectively. The treatment of these diseases relies on multiple parenteral injections with pentavalent antimonials or amphotericin B. However, these pharmaceuticals are either too toxic or expensive for routine use in developing countries. These facts call for safer, cheaper, and more effective new antileishmanial drugs. In this investigation, we describe the results of the assessment of the activities of a series of isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones (phtalides) against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, which is the main causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. The compounds were tested at concentrations of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 6.25 µM over 24, 48, and 72 h. After 48 h of treatment at the 100 µM concentration, compounds 7 and 8 decreased parasite viability to 4% and 6%, respectively. The concentration that gives half-maximal responses (LC50) for the antileishmanial activities of compounds 7 and 8 against promastigotes after 24 h were 60.48 and 65.93 µM, respectively. Additionally, compounds 7 and 8 significantly reduced parasite infection in macrophages.

Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7