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2.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a 2- to 7-fold risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment may reduce MVA risk. We further explored this issue in long-term CPAP users and untreated controls. METHODS: We used both before-after and case-control study designs. The observational cohort consisted of CPAP-treated and untreated patients matched for gender, age, and apnea-hypopnea index. All MVAs reported to the police were identified. RESULTS: A total of 2060 patients (75.8% male, mean age 56.0 ± 10.5 years) were included. The CPAP-treated patients (N = 1030) were screened for MVAs for a median of 9.0 years before and after treatment. The median CPAP usage was 6.4 h/day. The control patients (N = 1030) were screened for MVAs for a median of 6.5 years after discontinuation of CPAP. No significant differences were observed between the incidences of MVAs per 1000 person years before treatment (3.2), after treatment (3.9), or in controls (2.6). Compared with controls, patients who had MVA after treatment had a higher body mass index (BMI), but did not differ in terms of other baseline characteristics, sleep study data, or accident conditions. In the majority of these patients, daytime sleepiness was reduced, whereas BMI tended to increase during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The MVA incidence did not change after CPAP treatment. Among the patients who had MVA, BMI was the only baseline characteristic that differed between the groups and tended to further increase after CPAP treatment. Differences in sleep study data or accident conditions were not observed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common disabling symptom in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pitolisant, a selective histamine H3-receptor antagonist with wake-promoting effects, for treatment of daytime sleepiness in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea refusing continuous positive airway pressure treatment. METHODS: In an international multicenter, double-blind, randomized (3:1), placebo-controlled, parallel-design trial, pitolisant was individually titrated at up to 20 mg/day over 12 weeks. Primary endpoint was the change in the Epworth Sleepiness score. Key secondary endpoints were maintenance of wakefulness assessed by the Oxford Sleep Resistance Test, safety, clinical global impressions of severity, patient's global opinion, EQ-5D quality-of-life, and Pichot Fatigue questionnaire scores. RESULTS: 268 obstructive sleep apnea patients (75% male; mean age: 52 years, Apnea-hypopnea index: 49/hour, baseline sleepiness score: 15.7) were randomized (200 pitolisant; 68 placebo) and analyzed in intention to treat. The Epworth Sleepiness score was more reduced with pitolisant than with placebo -2.8 (95% CI: [-4.0;-1.5]) (p<.001). Wake maintenance tests were not improved. The Pichot fatigue score was reduced with pitolisant. The overall impact of pitolisant was confirmed by both physicians' and patients' questionnaires. Adverse event incidence, mainly headache, insomnia, nausea, and vertigo, was similar in the pitolisant and placebo groups (29.5% and 25.4%, respectively), with no cardiovascular or other significant safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Pitolisant significantly reduced self-reported daytime sleepiness, fatigue and improved patient-reported outcomes and physician disease severity assessment in sleepy patients with obstructive sleep apnea refusing or non-adherent to continuous positive airway pressure. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT01072968 This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

4.
Sleep Med ; 65: 121-126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the feasibility of automatically and manually scored cardiorespiratory polygraphy results for sleep apnea screening in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Prospective study included 204 ischemic stroke patients, who underwent nocturnal unattended portable monitoring with three-channel device during 48 h after onset of stroke symptoms. Sleep apnea diagnosis was determined as a respiratory event index (REI) ≥5/hour. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 67.7 years and 62.7% were males. Automatic scoring identified sleep apnea in 148/72.5% and manual scoring in 186/91.2% of patients, showing moderate agreement (Kappa value 0.407). Of the cohort, 39 (19.1%) patients fulfilled the criteria for diagnosis of central sleep apnea (CSA) (>50% of events central) and 165 (80.9%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Automatic scoring identified poorly the type of events, and missed 18.6% of recordings. Oxygen desaturation 4% index (ODI4), interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value 0.993, (95% CI 0.990-0.994), lowest saturation (ICC value 0.989, 95% CI 0.985-0.991) and percent of time spent <90% (ICC value 0.987, 95% CI 0.982-0.990) showed excellent agreement. Interclass correlation value for REI was 0.869 (95% CI 0.828 to 0.901) and ICC value 0.848 (95% CI 0.800 to 0.885) for obstructive apnea index, both indicating good agreement. Automatic scoring underestimated the severity of sleep apnea. CONCLUSIONS: Both automatically and manually scored results recognized sleep apnea, albeit manual scoring identified more sleep apnea. Sleep apnea diagnosis agreement was moderate. Underestimation of the severity of sleep apnea by automatic scoring may result in undertreatment of sleep apnea. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.cov. Unique identifier: NCT01861275.

5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(154)2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694839

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) have long been considered predominantly male-related conditions. The clinical presentation of sleep disordered breathing in females differs from males and can vary with age and physiological status, e.g. menopause and pregnancy. Overall, females appear to be more symptomatic, with lower apnoea-hypopnoea index scores compared to males. Furthermore, they appear to have more prolonged partial upper airway obstruction, and may report insomnia as a symptom of OSAHS more frequently. As a consequence of these differences in clinical presentation, females with sleep disordered breathing are often underdiagnosed and undertreated compared to males. This review is aimed at discussing the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and hormonal and metabolic differences in females who present with OSA/OSAHS in comparison to males.

6.
Int J Impot Res ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488884

RESUMO

Although it has been evaluated that even 76% of men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suffer from erectile dysfunction, the association has been poorly characterised. The aim of the study was to describe the association between forced expiratory volume in first second and erectile dysfunction in apparently healthy men. All together 331 men aged 45-70 years old were randomly drawn from a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in 2005 in Finland. Decreased forced expiratory volume was defined by performing mini-spirometry and erectile dysfunction by International Index of Erectile Function short form questionnaire. After adjustment for age and depressive symptoms predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV1 < 65%) was associated with 2.66 (95% CI, 1.18-5.99) increased risk of moderate to severe erectile dysfunction (International Index of Erectile Function short form score < 17). Therefore, the authors highlight the importance of erectile and sexual health evaluation and treatment, if necessary, in men with decreased lung function.

7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2481-2487, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277996

RESUMO

The Goal: The aim of the study was to investigate whether stroke volume or the presence of ischemic stroke lesion on follow-up computed tomography 1 day after admission had association with sleep apnea among ischemic stroke patients undergoing thrombolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively recruited 110 consecutive ischemic stroke patients and performed computed tomography on admission and after 24 hours after intravenous thrombolysis. Stroke volume was measured from post-thrombolysis computed tomography scans. Unattended cardiorespiratory polygraphy with a 3-channel device was performed during 48 hours after admission. FINDINGS: Of 110 ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolysis 65.5% were men. Mean age was 65.8 years and body mass index 27.5 kg/m2. The mean Epworth sleepiness scale score was 4.7. Eight patients (12.7%) with visible acute stroke after thrombolysis and none in the other group had hemorrhage as complication (P ˂ .001). Sleep apnea, determined as a respiratory event index greater than or equal to 5/hour, was diagnosed in 96.4% patients. Respiratory event index greater than 15/h was found in 72.8% of patients. Both mean baseline oxygen desaturation index (23.9 versus 16.5, P = .028) and obstructive apneas/hour (6.2 versus 2.7, P = .007) were higher in visible stroke group. Stroke volume (mean 15.9 mL) correlated with proportion of time spent below saturation less than 90%, P = .025. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolysis with visible stroke were more likely to have nocturnal hypoxemia than patients with not visible strokes. Stroke volume correlated with time spent below saturation of 90%.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Sleep Breath ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055727

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alleviates sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but part of OSAS patients keep gaining weight. Leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) interact with energy balance, and CPAP therapy has been suggested to influence these endocrine factors. We hypothesised that leptin would decrease during long-term CPAP therapy, and weight gain would associate with OSAS severity, lower CPAP adherence, lower IGF-1, and leptin concentrations. METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 223) referred to sleep study with suspected OSAS were enrolled. Patients underwent cardiorespiratory polygraphy at baseline. Questionnaires were completed, and blood samples were drawn both at baseline and after 3 years. A total of 149 (67%; M 65, F 84) patients completed the follow-up. Plasma samples were available from 114 patients, 109 of which with CPAP adherence data (49 CPAP users, 60 non-users). RESULTS: At baseline, the CPAP users were more obese and had more severe OSAS than the non-users. Leptin concentrations did not differ. After follow-up, leptin concentrations were higher in CPAP users (30.2 ng/ml vs. 16.8 ng/ml; p = 0.001). In regression analysis, increase in leptin concentrations was independent of age, baseline body mass index (BMI), or the change in BMI. Leptin concentrations increased among females (- 8.9 vs. 12.7 ng/ml; p < 0.001); whereas in men, CPAP did not have an effect, if not opposed the natural decrease in leptin observed in men not using CPAP. Change in IGF-1 levels did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest increase in leptin concentrations during long-term CPAP therapy among females.

11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(3): 483-487, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853052

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Growing interest in monitoring sleep and well-being has created a market for consumer home sleep monitoring devices. Additionally, sleep disorder diagnostics, and sleep and dream research would benefit from reliable and valid home sleep monitoring devices. Yet, majority of currently available home sleep monitoring devices lack validation. In this study, the sleep parameter assessment accuracy of Beddit Sleep Tracker (BST), an unobtrusive and non-wearable sleep monitoring device based on ballistocardiography, was evaluated by comparing it with polysomnography (PSG) measures. We measured total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE). Additionally, we examined whether BST can differentiate sleep stages. METHODS: We performed sleep studies simultaneously with PSG and BST in ten healthy young adults (5 female/5 male) during two non-consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. RESULTS: BST was able to distinguish SOL with some accuracy. However, it underestimated WASO and thus overestimated TST and SE. Also, it failed to discriminate between non-rapid eye movement sleep stages and did not detect the rapid eye movement sleep stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that BST is not a valid device to monitor sleep. Consumers should be careful in interpreting the conclusions on sleep quality and efficiency provided by the device.

12.
Sleep Breath ; 23(4): 1209-1217, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848437

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is suggested to predispose to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. It is uncertain whether compliance to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment could attenuate the risk. We explored this issue in long-term CPAP users and untreated controls. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of CPAP-treated and control patients were pairwise matched for gender, age, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The study end point was a composite of nonfatal and fatal CVD events. Cox regression model was used to determine the association between CPAP treatment and event-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 2060 patients (75.8% male, mean age 56.0 ± 10.5 years), of which 76.4% had moderate-severe OSA, were included. In the CPAP-treated group (N = 1030), the median use of CPAP was 6.4 h/day during a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The control group (N = 1030) was followed for a median of 6.2 years after the CPAP treatment had ended. The study end point occurred in 14.4% (N = 148) of the CPAP-treated and in 18.8% (N = 194) of the control patients (p = 0.006). Using the Cox regression model adjusted for gender, age, AHI, body mass index, and history of CVD, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at baseline, a beneficial association between CPAP treatment and CVD risk was observed (hazard ratio 0.64, confidence interval 95% 0.5-0.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CPAP treatment was associated with a decreased risk of nonfatal and fatal CVD events. Majority of the patients were compliant to CPAP. The association was demonstrated independent from common cardiovascular risk factors and AHI.

13.
Sleep Med ; 59: 56-65, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) reflects the clinician's assessment of the disease impact on patient's global functioning. We assessed predictors of CGI scale rating in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PATIENTS/METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected OSA (n = 7581) were identified in the European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA). Anthropometrics, comorbidities, apnea severity obtained by polygraphy or polysomnography, and daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] were assessed. The CGI 7-point scale was completed at the end of the diagnostic process (CGI-severity, ie, CGI-S) and, in a subpopulation, at treatment follow-up (CGI-Improvement). RESULTS: CGI-S was rated mild to moderate in 44% of patients. CGI rating at any given apnea intensity was worse in women than in men (p < 0.01). Patients undergoing polygraphy (n = 5075) were more frequently rated as severely ill compared to those studied with polysomnography (19.0% vs 13.0%, p < 0.001). In patients aged ≤65 years, CGI scoring was generally better than in the elderly despite a similar degree of OSA (eg, 'normal, not ill' 24.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). Independent predictors of CGI rating included age, BMI, AHI, ESS, cardio-metabolic comorbidities, and diagnosis based on polygraphy. CGI-improvement rating (Beta = -0.406, p < 0.01) was superior to sleep apnea severity or ESS-score (Beta = 0.052 and -0.021, p = 0.154 and 0.538 respectively) at baseline for prediction of good CPAP compliance at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: CGI rating is confounded by gender, age class and the type of sleep diagnostic method. As OSA phenotypes differ, CGI may contribute as a clinical tool to reflect the significance of clinical disease.

14.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(12): 2005-2011, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518443

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the evolution of prevalence, severity, and type of sleep apnea among patients who had an ischemic stroke, with or without treatment with thrombolysis after 6 months. METHODS: We prospectively studied 204 patients who had an ischemic stroke (110 in the thrombolysis and 94 in the non-thrombolysis group). After follow-up, 177 patients were eligible for a final analysis (98 in the thrombolysis group and 79 in the non-thrombolysis group). An unattended sleep study with a three-channel portable device was performed both on admission and after the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: The patients receiving thrombolysis were younger than those in the non-thrombolysis group (mean 65.5 versus 69.6 years P = .039). Sleep apnea, defined as a respiratory event index (REI) ≥ 5 events/h, was diagnosed in 92.7% patients, 93.9% versus 91.1% (P = .488) in the thrombolysis and non-thrombolysis groups, respectively. The prevalence remained unchanged during follow-up. Mild sleep apnea progressed to moderate or severe sleep apnea in 69.2% of the patients. Globally, mean central apneas per hour increased by 2.2% (P = .002), whereas obstructive apneas declined by 1.7% (P = .014). The mean change of oxygen desaturation index was -6.1% (P < .001) in the thrombolysis group, -1.8% (P = .327) in the non-thrombolysis group, and 4.2% (P = .001) in the whole group. In the non-thrombolysis group, the risk for new sleep apnea incidence increased by 6.1-fold (P = .024) at follow-up when compared to the thrombolysis group. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep apnea prevalence remained high in patients who had an ischemic stroke at 6 months post-stroke. The risk for developing sleep apnea after stroke was significantly lower among patients undergoing thrombolysis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: Ischaemic Stroke and Sleep Apnea in Northern Part of Finland; Identifier: NCT01861275; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01861275.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Sleep Med Clin ; 13(3): 443-456, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098758

RESUMO

The menopausal transition is associated with an increase in insomnia symptoms, especially difficulty staying asleep, which negatively impacts quality of life. Vasomotor symptoms are a key component of sleep disruption. Findings from polysomnographic studies are less consistent in showing disrupted sleep in menopausal transition independent of aging; further prospective studies are needed. Hormone therapy alleviates subjective sleep disturbances, particularly if vasomotor symptoms are present. However, because of contraindications, other options should be considered. Further work is needed to develop preventive and treatment strategies for alleviating sleep disturbances to ensure better health, quality of life, and productivity in midlife women.


Assuntos
Menopausa/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
16.
Chest ; 154(2): 326-334, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of treating OSA on renal function decline is controversial. Previous studies usually included small samples and did not consider specific effects of different CPAP modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective influence of fixed and autoadjusting CPAP modes on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a large sample of patients derived from the prospective European Sleep Apnea Database cohort. METHODS: In patients of the European Sleep Apnea Database, eGFR prior to and after follow-up was calculated by using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Three study groups were investigated: untreated patients (n = 144), patients receiving fixed CPAP (fCPAP) (n = 1,178), and patients on autoadjusting CPAP (APAP) (n = 485). RESULTS: In the whole sample, eGFR decreased over time. The rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the subgroup with eGFR above median (91.42 mL/min/1.73 m2) at baseline (P < .0001 for effect of baseline eGFR). This decline was attenuated or absent (P < .0001 for effect of treatment) in the subgroup of patients with OSA treated by using fCPAP. A follow-up duration exceeding the median (541 days) was associated with eGFR decline in the untreated and APAP groups but not in the fCPAP group (P < .0001 by two-way ANOVA for interaction between treatment and follow-up length). In multiple regression analysis, eGFR decline was accentuated by advanced age, female sex, cardiac failure, higher baseline eGFR, and longer follow-up duration, whereas there was a protective effect of fCPAP. CONCLUSIONS: fCPAP but not APAP may prevent eGFR decline in OSA.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
17.
Sleep Med ; 40: 40-46, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence, type, and severity of sleep apnea during the acute phase of ischemic stroke among patients either receiving or not receiving thrombolysis. METHODS: We recruited 246 consecutive adult ischemic stroke patients. Patients underwent cardiorespiratory sleep study with portable three-channel device during the first 48 h after the symptom onset of ischemic stroke. RESULTS: We enrolled 110 (65.5% male) stroke patients in the thrombolysis group and 94 (59.6% male) in the nonthrombolysis group. In the thrombolysis group, the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was higher (5.5) compared to the nonthrombolysis group (2.0) (p < 0.001). There was a lower incidence of lacunar (17.3% vs 36.2%, p = 0.002) and cerebellar (2.7% vs 16.0%, p < 0.001) strokes and a higher frequency of middle cerebral artery syndrome (60.9% vs 33.0%, p < 0.001) in the thrombolysis group compared to the nonthrombolysis group. Sleep apnea defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5/h was diagnosed in 186 (91.2%) patients, its prevalence being higher in the thrombolysis (96.4%) compared to the nonthrombolysis (85.1%) group (p = 0.007). The mean baseline AHI was 33.7/h in the thrombolysis group compared to 26.8/h in the nonthrombolysis group (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Sleep apnea was present in the vast majority of ischemic stroke patients. The stroke patients treated with thrombolysis were more likely to have sleep apnea, to have elevated NIHSS score at admission, and to be younger. Sleep apnea was more severe among those receiving thrombolysis as compared to those who were not. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.cov. Unique identifier: NCT01861275.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
18.
Sleep ; 40(7)2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525646

RESUMO

Study Objectives: Menopausal transition is associated with increased dissatisfaction with sleep, but the effects on sleep architecture are conflicting. This prospective 6-year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the changes in sleep stages and sleep continuity that occur in women during menopausal transition. Methods: Sixty women (mean age 46.0 years, SD 0.9) participated. All women were premenopausal at baseline, and at the 6-year follow-up, women were in different stages of menopausal transition. Polysomnography was used to study sleep architecture at baseline and follow-up. The effects of aging and menopause (assessed as change in serum follicle-stimulating hormone [S-FSH]) on sleep architecture were evaluated using linear regression models. Results: After controlling for body mass index, vasomotor, and depressive symptoms, aging of 6 years resulted in shorter total sleep time (B -37.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -71.5 to (-3.3)), lower sleep efficiency (B -6.5, 95%CI -12.7 to (-0.2)), as well as in increased transitions from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to wakefulness (B 1.0, 95%CI 0.1 to 1.9), wake after sleep onset (B 37.7, 95%CI 12.5 to 63.0), awakenings per hour (B 1.8, 95%CI 0.8 to 2.8), and arousal index (B 2.3, 95%CI 0.1 to 4.4). Higher S-FSH concentration in menopausal transition was associated with increased SWS (B 0.09, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.16) after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusions: A significant deterioration in sleep continuity occurs when women age from 46 to 52 years, but change from premenopausal to menopausal state restores some SWS.


Assuntos
Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa/sangue , Polissonografia , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Vigília/fisiologia
19.
Maturitas ; 94: 137-142, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This follow-up study aimed to evaluate risk factors for menopausal sleep disturbances already identifiable before menopause. METHODS: At baseline, all 81 women were premenopausal. At year-five follow-up, 27 of the women were premenopausal, 40 postmenopausal, and 14 postmenopausal and using hormone therapy. We used the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire to study sleep; additional questionnaires evaluated risk factors for sleep impairment. RESULTS: Sleep quality differed only marginally between the groups. The following baseline variables were associated with impaired sleep quality at follow-up: depressive symptoms increased the risk of nocturnal awakenings (OR 1.16 (95%CI 1.02-1.32), p=0.025), morning tiredness (OR 1.22 (95%CI 1.06-1.40), p=0.007), daytime tiredness (OR 1.24 (95%CI 1.06-1.44), p=0.007) and propensity to fall asleep during work or leisure time (OR 1.18 (95%CI 1.01-1.37), p=0.036). Personal crises increased the risk of longer sleep latency (OR 5.46 (95%CI 1.13-26.32), p=0.035) and of propensity to fall asleep when not active (OR 5.41 (95%CI 1.42-20.83), p=0.014). Use of medications affecting the CNS increased the risk of worse general sleep quality (OR 11.44 (95% CI 1.07-121.79), p=0.044). Perceived impaired general health (OR 2.87 (95%CI 1.04-7.94), p=0.043) and frequent night sweats (OR 10.50 (95%CI 2.25-49.01), p=0.003) increased the risk of difficulty falling asleep. CONCLUSIONS: Various premenopausal health-related factors seem to predict poor sleep in menopausal transition. Menopause itself appears to have only minor effects. Thus, it is essential to identify high-risk women to allow timely interventions that may prevent the development of sleep disturbances at menopause.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Menopausa , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163439, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical presentation phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and their association with comorbidity as well as impact on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment have not been established. METHODS: A prospective follow-up cohort of adult patients with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥5/h) from 17 European countries and Israel (n = 6,555) was divided into four clinical presentation phenotypes based on daytime symptoms labelled as excessive daytime sleepiness ("EDS") and nocturnal sleep problems other than OSA (labelled as "insomnia"): 1) EDS (daytime+/nighttime-), 2) EDS/insomnia (daytime+/nighttime+), 3) non-EDS/non-insomnia (daytime-/nighttime-), 4) and insomnia (daytime-/nighttime+) phenotype. RESULTS: The EDS phenotype comprised 20.7%, the non-EDS/non-insomnia type 25.8%, the EDS/insomnia type 23.7%, and the insomnia phenotype 29.8% of the entire cohort. Thus, clinical presentation phenotypes with insomnia symptoms were dominant with 53.5%, but only 5.6% had physician diagnosed insomnia. Cardiovascular comorbidity was less prevalent in the EDS and most common in the insomnia phenotype (48.9% vs. 56.8%, p<0.001) despite more severe OSA in the EDS group (AHI 35.0±25.5/h vs. 27.9±22.5/h, p<0.001, respectively). Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with insomnia like OSA phenotypes independent of age, gender and body mass index (HR 1.5 (1.188-1.905), p<0.001). The EDS phenotype tended to associate with higher CPAP usage (22.7 min/d, p = 0.069) when controlled for age, gender, BMI and sleep apnoea severity. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypes with insomnia symptoms comprised more than half of OSA patients and were more frequently linked with comorbidity than those with EDS, despite less severe OSA. CPAP usage was slightly higher in phenotypes with EDS.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Fenótipo , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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