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1.
Neurology ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess support for a causal relationship between hemostatic measures and migraine susceptibility using genetic instrumental analysis. METHODS: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) instrumental leveraging available genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics was applied to hemostatic measures as potential causal for migraine and its subtypes, migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Twelve blood-based measures of hemostasis were examined, including plasma level or activity of eight hemostatic factors and two fibrinopeptides together with two hemostasis clinical tests. RESULTS: There were significant instrumental effects between increased coagulation factor VIII activity (FVIII, OR [95% CI]=1.05[1.03, 1.08]/SD, P=6.08×10-05), von Willebrand factor level (VWF, 1.05[1.03, 1.08]/SD, P=2.25×10-06), and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A level (1.13[1.07, 1.19]/SD, P=5.44×10-06) with migraine susceptibility. When extended to migraine subtypes, FVIII, VWF, and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A showed slightly stronger effects with MA than overall migraine. Fibrinogen level was inversely linked with MA (0.76[0.64, 0.91]/SD, P=2.32×10-03) but not overall migraine. None of the hemostatic factors was linked with MO. In sensitivity analysis, effects for fibrinogen and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A were robust, while independent effects of FVIII and VWF could not be distinguished, and FVIIII associations were potentially affected by pleiotropy at the ABO locus. Causal effects from migraine to the hemostatic measures were not supported in reverse MR. However, MA was not included due to lack of instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support potential causality of increased FVIII, VWF, and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A, and decreased fibrinogen in migraine susceptibility, especially for MA, potentially revealing etiologic relationships between hemostasis and migraine.

2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729461

RESUMO

The development of organs-on-chip has revolutionized in vitro cell culture experiments by allowing a better mimicry of human physiology and pathophysiology that has consequently led researchers to gain more meaningful insights into disease mechanisms. Several models of hearts-on-chips and vessels-on-chips have been demonstrated to recapitulate fundamental aspects of the human cardiovascular system in the recent past. These 2D and 3D systems include synchronized beating cardiomyocytes in hearts-on-chips, and vessels-on-chips with layer-based structures and the inclusion of physiological and pathological shear stress conditions. The opportunities to discover novel targets and to perform drug testing with chip-based platforms have substantially enhanced thanks to the utilization of patient-derived cells and precise control of their microenvironment. These organ models will provide an important asset for future approaches to personalized cardiovascular medicine and improved patient care. However, certain technical and biological challenges remain, making the global utilization of organs-on-chips to tackle unanswered questions in cardiovascular science still rather challenging. This review article aims to introduce and summarize published work on hearts- and vessels-on chips but also to provide an outlook and perspective on how these advanced in vitro systems can be used to tailor disease models with patient-specific characteristics.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517400

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed-effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on Chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313847, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3479, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661250

RESUMO

Genetic factors contribute to the risk of thrombotic diseases. Recent genome wide association studies have identified genetic loci including SLC44A2 which may regulate thrombosis. Here we show that Slc44a2 controls platelet activation and thrombosis by regulating mitochondrial energetics. We find that Slc44a2 null mice (Slc44a2(KO)) have increased bleeding times and delayed thrombosis compared to wild-type (Slc44a2(WT)) controls. Platelets from Slc44a2(KO) mice have impaired activation in response to thrombin. We discover that Slc44a2 mediates choline transport into mitochondria, where choline metabolism leads to an increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production. Platelets lacking Slc44a2 contain less ATP at rest, release less ATP when activated, and have an activation defect that can be rescued by exogenous ADP. Taken together, our data suggest that mitochondria require choline for maximum function, demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial metabolism to platelet activation, and reveal a mechanism by which Slc44a2 influences thrombosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Trombose/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ativação Plaquetária/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Trombose/genética
6.
Epigenetics ; 15(12): 1396-1406, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543954

RESUMO

To translate circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) into the clinic, a deeper understanding of the factors affecting their expression is needed. In this study, we explored the features affecting the expression of miRNAs and their genetic regulation using the expression data of 103 miRNAs obtained by qPCR in the platelet-poor plasma of 104 subjects. The principal components (PCs) of the expression of the miRNAs were associated with technical and biological features (e.g., synthetic controls or sex) and with blood cell counts. Also, the associations with proximal genetics variants were analysed. We found that haemolysis marker (dCt hsa-miR-23a-3p-hsa-miR-451a) was correlated strongly (ß = 0.84, p = 2.07x10-29) with the second PC, which explained 10.1% of the overall variability. Thus, we identified haemolysis as a source of variability for miRNA expression even in mild hemolyzed samples (haemolysis marker dCt <5). In addition to hsa-miR-23a-3p and hsa-miR-451a, the miRNAs most stable and most susceptible to haemolysis were identified. Then, we discovered that the expression of miRNAs in platelet-poor plasma was not biased by any blood cell count, and thus, our results supported their role as biomarkers of tissue-specific conditions. Finally, we identified 1,323 genetic variants that corresponded to 158 miRNA expression quantitative trait loci for 14 miRNAs (FDR <0.2), which were enriched in promoter regions (p = 0.03). This enrichment corresponded to a range of specific tissues (e.g., breast or fat) although not to blood tissue, supporting the concept that the expression of circulating miRNAs is under the genetic control of different tissues.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344696

RESUMO

A variety of disorders are known to be related with aortic geometry, among them abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This work aims to present the main determinants of abdominal aortic diameter in a new cohort of families at high risk of AAA. The Triple-A Genomic Analysis (TAGA) study comprises 407 individuals related in 12 families. Each family was collected through a proband with AAA. We calculated heritability and genetic correlations between abdominal aortic diameter and clinical parameters. A genome-wide linkage scan was performed based on 4.6 million variants. A predictive model was calculated with conditional forest. Heritability of the abdominal aortic diameter was 34%. Old age, male sex, higher height, weight, creatinine levels in serum, and better lung capacity were the best predictors of aortic diameter. Linkage analyses suggested the implication of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Betacellulin (BTC) genes with aortic diameter. This is the first study to evaluate genetic components of variation of the aortic diameter in a population of AAA high-risk individuals. These results reveal EGFR, a gene that had been previously implicated in AAA, as a determinant of aortic diameter variation in healthy genetically enriched individuals, and might indicate that a common genetic background could determine the diameter of the aorta and future risk of AAA.

8.
Circ Res ; 126(5): 571-585, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893970

RESUMO

RATIONALE: PCSKs (Proprotein convertase subtilisins/kexins) are a protease family with unknown functions in vasculature. Previously, we demonstrated PCSK6 upregulation in human atherosclerotic plaques associated with smooth muscle cells (SMCs), inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and mitogens. OBJECTIVE: Here, we applied a systems biology approach to gain deeper insights into the PCSK6 role in normal and diseased vessel wall. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic analyses revealed association of intronic PCSK6 variant rs1531817 with maximum internal carotid intima-media thickness progression in high-cardiovascular risk subjects. This variant was linked with PCSK6 mRNA expression in healthy aortas and plaques but also with overall plaque SMA+ cell content and pericyte fraction. Increased PCSK6 expression was found in several independent human cohorts comparing atherosclerotic lesions versus healthy arteries, using transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. By immunohistochemistry, PCSK6 was localized to fibrous cap SMA+ cells and neovessels in plaques. In human, rat, and mouse intimal hyperplasia, PCSK6 was expressed by proliferating SMA+ cells and upregulated after 5 days in rat carotid balloon injury model, with positive correlation to PDGFB (platelet-derived growth factor subunit B) and MMP (matrix metalloprotease) 2/MMP14. Here, PCSK6 was shown to colocalize and cointeract with MMP2/MMP14 by in situ proximity ligation assay. Microarrays of carotid arteries from Pcsk6-/- versus control mice revealed suppression of contractile SMC markers, extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes, and cytokines/receptors. Pcsk6-/- mice showed reduced intimal hyperplasia response upon carotid ligation in vivo, accompanied by decreased MMP14 activation and impaired SMC outgrowth from aortic rings ex vivo. PCSK6 silencing in human SMCs in vitro leads to downregulation of contractile markers and increase in MMP2 expression. Conversely, PCSK6 overexpression increased PDGFBB (platelet-derived growth factor BB)-induced cell proliferation and particularly migration. CONCLUSIONS: PCSK6 is a novel protease that induces SMC migration in response to PDGFB, mechanistically via modulation of contractile markers and MMP14 activation. This study establishes PCSK6 as a key regulator of SMC function in vascular remodeling. Visual Overview: An online visual overview is available for this article.


Assuntos
Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pró-Proteína Convertases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-sis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
9.
Blood ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512453

RESUMO

Genetic risk score (GRS) analysis is an increasingly popular approach to derive individual risk prediction models for complex diseases. In the context of venous thrombosis (VT), any GRS shall integrate information at the ABO blood group locus, the latter being one of the major susceptibility locus for this disease. However, there is yet no consensus about which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) must be investigated when one is interested in properly assessing the association of ABO locus with VT risk. Using comprehensive haplotype analyses of ABO blood group tagging SNPs in up to 5,425 cases and 8,445 controls from 6 studies, we demonstrated that using only rs8176719 (tagging O1) to correctly assess the impact of ABO locus on VT risk is suboptimal as 5% of rs8176719-delG carriers are not exposed at higher VT risk. Instead, we recommend to use 4 SNPs, rs2519093 (tagging A1), rs1053878 (A2), rs8176743 (B) and rs41302905 (O2) in any analysis aimed at assessing the impact of ABO locus on VT risk to avoid any risk misestimation. Compared to O1 haplotype that can be inferred from these 4 SNPs, the A2 haplotype is associated with a modest increase in VT risk (odds ratio ~1.2), A1 and B haplotypes are associated with a ~1.8 fold increased risk while O2 tend to be slightly protective (odds ratio ~0.80). In addition, our analyses clearly showed that while the A1 an B blood group are associated with increased vWF and FVIII plasma levels only the A1 blood group is associated wih ICAM plasma levels but in an opposite direction, leaving additional avenues to be explored in order to fully understand the whole spectrum of biological effect of ABO locus on cardiovascular traits.

10.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262040

RESUMO

(1) Background: In a previous study, we found that two phenotypes related to platelet reactivity, measured with the PFA-100 system, were highly heritable. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic determinants that influence the variability of these phenotypes: closure time of collagen-ADP (Col-ADP) and of collagen-epinephrine (Col-Epi). (2) Methods: As part of the GAIT-2 (Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia (2) Project, 935 individuals from 35 large Spanish families were studied. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with ≈ 10 M single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was carried out with Col-ADP and Col-Epi phenotypes. (3) Results: The study yielded significant genetic signals that mapped to the ABO locus. After adjusting both phenotypes for the ABO genotype, these signals disappeared. After adjusting for von Willebrand factor (VWF) or for coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), the significant signals disappeared totally for Col-Epi phenotype but only partially for Col-ADP phenotype. (4) Conclusion: Our results suggest that the ABO locus exerts the main genetic influence on PFA-100 phenotypes. However, while the effect of the ABO locus on Col-Epi phenotype is mediated through VWF and/or FVIII, the effect of the ABO locus on Col-ADP phenotype is partly produced through VWF and/or FVIII, and partly through other mechanisms.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Trombofilia/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fator VIII/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Testes de Função Plaquetária
12.
Blood ; 133(9): 967-977, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642921

RESUMO

Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Fator VII/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Proteínas Correpressoras , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Fator VII/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
13.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Fator VIII/análise , Loci Gênicos , Trombose Venosa/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/sangue , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/etnologia
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Stroke ; 49(11): 2761-2763, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355187

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- FXI (factor XI) is involved in thrombus propagation and stabilization. It is unknown whether lower FXI levels have a protective effect on risk of ischemic stroke (IS) or myocardial infarction. This study investigated the effect of genetically determined FXI levels on risk of IS, myocardial infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods- Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis was performed. Instruments and genetic association estimates for FXI levels were obtained from a genome-wide association study of 16 169 individuals. Genetic association estimates for IS and its etiological subtypes were obtained from a study of 16 851 cases and 32 473 controls. For myocardial infarction, estimates were obtained from a study of 43 676 cases and 123 504 controls and for intracerebral hemorrhage from a study of 1545 cases and 1481 controls. Results- After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the Mendelian randomization analysis supported a causal effect of higher, genetically determined FXI levels on risk of any IS (odds ratio [OR] per 1-unit increase in natural logarithm-transformed FXI levels, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.68-3.84; P=1×10-5) but not myocardial infarction (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34; P=0.94) or intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.44-7.38; P=0.41). Examining IS subtypes, the main results supported an effect of higher, genetically determined FXI levels on risk of cardioembolism (OR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.94-9.19; P=3×10-4) and IS of undetermined cause (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.79-6.60; P=2×10-4) but not large artery atherosclerosis (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.15-6.45; P=0.02) or small artery occlusion (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.50-2.82; P=0.69). However, the statistically significant result for IS of undetermined cause was not replicated in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions- We find Mendelian randomization evidence supporting FXI as a possible target to reduce risk of the cardioembolic subtype of IS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Fator XI/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fator XI/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
PLoS Genet ; 13(4): e1006706, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369058

RESUMO

Recent advances in highly multiplexed immunoassays have allowed systematic large-scale measurement of hundreds of plasma proteins in large cohort studies. In combination with genotyping, such studies offer the prospect to 1) identify mechanisms involved with regulation of protein expression in plasma, and 2) determine whether the plasma proteins are likely to be causally implicated in disease. We report here the results of genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 83 proteins considered relevant to cardiovascular disease (CVD), measured in 3,394 individuals with multiple CVD risk factors. We identified 79 genome-wide significant (p<5e-8) association signals, 55 of which replicated at P<0.0007 in separate validation studies (n = 2,639 individuals). Using automated text mining, manual curation, and network-based methods incorporating information on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), we propose plausible causal mechanisms for 25 trans-acting loci, including a potential post-translational regulation of stem cell factor by matrix metalloproteinase 9 and receptor-ligand pairs such as RANK-RANK ligand. Using public GWA study data, we further evaluate all 79 loci for their causal effect on coronary artery disease, and highlight several potentially causal associations. Overall, a majority of the plasma proteins studied showed evidence of regulation at the genetic level. Our results enable future studies of the causal architecture of human disease, which in turn should aid discovery of new drug targets.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167742, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107422

RESUMO

An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Projeto HapMap , Humanos
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(3): 637-649, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053049

RESUMO

Coagulation factor XI (FXI) has become increasingly interesting for its role in pathogenesis of thrombosis. While elevated plasma levels of FXI have been associated with venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke, its deficiency is associated with mild bleeding. We aimed to determine novel genetic and post-transcriptional plasma FXI regulators.We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for plasma FXI levels, using novel data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Individual GWAS analyses, including a total of 16,169 European individuals from the ARIC, GHS, MARTHA and PROCARDIS studies, were meta-analysed and further replicated in 2,045 individuals from the F5L family, GAIT2 and MEGA studies. Additional association with activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was tested for the top SNPs. In addition, a study on the effect of miRNA on FXI regulation was performed using in silico prediction tools and in vitro luciferase assays.Three loci showed robust, replicating association with circulating FXI levels: KNG1 (rs710446, P-value = 2.07 × 10-302), F11 (rs4253417, P-value = 2.86 × 10-193), and a novel association in GCKR (rs780094, P-value = 3.56 ×10-09), here for the first time implicated in FXI regulation. The two first SNPs (rs710446 and rs4253417) also associated with aPTT. Conditional and haplotype analyses demonstrated a complex association signal, with additional novel SNPs modulating plasma FXI levels in both the F11 and KNG1 loci. Finally, eight miRNAs were predicted to bind F11 mRNA. Over-expression of either miR-145 or miR-181 significantly reduced the luciferase activity in cells transfected with a plasmid containing FXI-3'UTR.These results should open the door to new therapeutic targets for thrombosis prevention.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Cininogênios/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , Trombose/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/fisiopatologia
20.
Nat Genet ; 48(11): 1303-1312, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668658

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequence data sets offer novel opportunities to identify genetic variation underlying human traits. Here we apply genotype imputation based on whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K and 1000 Genomes Project into 35,981 study participants of European ancestry, followed by association analysis with 20 quantitative cardiometabolic and hematological traits. We describe 17 new associations, including 6 rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) < 1%) or low-frequency (1% < MAF < 5%) variants with platelet count (PLT), red blood cell indices (MCH and MCV) and HDL cholesterol. Applying fine-mapping analysis to 233 known and new loci associated with the 20 traits, we resolve the associations of 59 loci to credible sets of 20 or fewer variants and describe trait enrichments within regions of predicted regulatory function. These findings improve understanding of the allelic architecture of risk factors for cardiometabolic and hematological diseases and provide additional functional insights with the identification of potentially novel biological targets.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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